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of the two samples were 77o and 82o. This figure, 82', appears in the Northern States Power Co. summary data sheet as the maximum temperatures recorded in the random samples by the Minnesota Department of Health 1953–63. The rest of the information about water quality and temperature from this sampling program is also of dubious value, not having been made with the present problem in mind. Furthermore, sampling was at the Stillwater bridge above the sewage plant outfall. The powerplant intake is planned to be below the sewage plant outfall. In this connection, it should be noted that Stillwater has no separate storm sewers.

If the company has anticipated a plant at Oak Park Heights for 20 years, it should have been gathering the needed data about water quality.

However, this deficiency of data does not prevent calculation of the temperature rise of the river equivalent to the heat input, which has significance because when added to the upstream temperature, it gives the mixed river temperature.

The first chart shows the temperature rise for each August, 1902 to 1963, based on the average flow for that month. Forty-two percent showed a rise of more than 5°.

The second chart shows the temperature rise for each day of August 1936, which seems typical of those Augusts with a rise of more than 5 percent. Here the temperature rise was more than 10° for the first 15 days.

The third chart shows temperature rises for the day of lowest flow in each August. For those 54 years, there were 12 rises of more than 10°, including 1 of 25°.

Since fish must live through each day, these figures are significant. Smallmouth bass and walleyed pike are valued game fish in the St. Croix. Their need for cool water should be considered. Carp, which are undesirable, thrive in warm water.

Moderate temperature changes can have great effect on the complicated ecology of a river.' Warm water promotes growth of blue-green algae, and the company would use chlorine to combat it because it fouls up flumes and condensers. Other bad effects are oxygen reduction, aggravation of pollution problems, bad odors and fog, especially in the winter when the bay and a channel all the way to Hudson will remain unfrozen.s

There has been mention of heat dissipation. Any heat loss from the river would have to take place via the surface. In August, heat must be passing into the river through the surface as indicated by surface temperatures higher than temperatures a few feet down. There must be a net heating effect resulting from sun, air contact, and evaporation. This flow of heat would not reverse unless the river temperature were higher than the temperature of an unshaded stagnant pond in August. Springs and tributaries would dilute the heated water but would not restore normal temperature.

Consider again the mixing zone. The importance of mixing is indicated in a report on a 265,000-kilowatt plant on the Delaware River.” After this plant had started operation, mixing was such a problem that two jetties were built to improve mixing. Next the effluent was rerouted to discharge above rapids instead of below. Even after this, two more jetties were built to improve mixing.

More data has now been collected by the U.S. Public Health field unit located in Minneapolis, and Northern States Power Co. is having work done on mixing at the University of Minnesota. The results should be available soon. Once again we must ask, “Wouldn't it have been better to enlighten decisions with earlier investigation? Objectivity is poorly served by investigations after decisions have been announced and hopes of tax and real estate windfalls have been raised."

8

THE DECISION

When all the data is in, predictions are made and argued, a good decision must rest on what people want and need.

The magnitude of protest against this proposed plant location shows what people want. They want and need clean rivers and clean air and unspoiled

• For the specified heat input of 2.520 million B.t.u. per hour, and equivalent temperature rise is 11.200° F. Flow of river in cubic feet per second.

? “Research Project on Effects of Condenser Discharge Water on Aquatic Life," Lehigh University, 1960.

8 Statement by Mr. Hibbard Hill, vice president in charge of engineering, Northern States Power Co., at water pollution control commission meeting on Aug. 21, 1964.

natural areas. The people of this country have built the greatest farming and industrial system in the history of man. They spoiled many rivers and destroyed many natural resources when rivers seemed many and resources seemed endless, and when the need for industry and power was great.

But now, when food and industrial products are plentiful for most-and could be plentiful for all as far as productive capacity is concerned; now, when we make millions of boats, fishing rods and swimming suits, we need the few good rivers that are left.

The men whose talents have brought this boon of time and plenty have licked the problem of production. They have become so expert that they can continue their good work without spoiling natural resources. Now let their decisions rest not only on the cost of kilowatt-hours in pennies. Rule out the spoilage of good rivers as part of the price of electric power.

TEMPERATURE RISE OF THE ST. CROIX RIVER
EQUIVALENT TO HEAT INPUT OF ONE UNIT OF PROPOSED PLANT

2,520,000,000 B.T,U. PER HOUR

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'Calculated from average flow for each August of year indicated
Rise = 11,200 degrees F. / Flow in cubic feet per second
Flow = Flow at Taylor's Falls + Flow of Apple River
Flow data from "Surface Water Supply of the United States"

by United States Geological Survey

For Study of proposed power plant at Oak Park Heights, Minn.
Prepared by Carl Pemble, River Falls, Wisconsin

Chart 1

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TEMPERATURE RISE

Equivalent to Heat Rejection to
the ST. CROIX RIVER of
2,520,000,000 BTU per Hour

+
RISE is 11200 °F

Flow in cfs

7
Flow is Flow at Taylor's Falls plus flow of Apple River
Flow data from: "Surface Water Supply of the U.S."

by US Geological Survey
For study of Proposed Power Plant at Oak Park

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Prepared by Carl Pemble, River Falls, Wis.

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TEMPERATURE RISE DEGREES F

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TEMPERATURE RISE OF THE ST.CROIX RIVER
EQUIVALENT TO HEAT INPUT OF ONE UNIT OF PROPOSED PLANT

2,520,000,000 B.T.U. PER HOUR

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Rise = 11200 degrees F. / Flow in Cubic Feet per second
Flow data from "Surface Water Supply of the United States

by United Statos Geological Survey Flow = Flow at Taylor's Falls + Flow of Apple River Prepared by Carl Pemble, River Falls, Wisconsin

Chart 3

Mr. THUET. Senator, I believe our next witness is Dr. Martin Laakso, the associate professor of biology, Wisconsin State University, River Falls, Wis.

Is the doctor here now?

Mr. PEMBLE. The doctor told me he would have to have a class up until some time after 11.

Senator METCALF. Would you like to wait and call Dr. Laakso later!

Mr. THUET. We would, and we would like to submit his statement to you at this time.

Senator METCALF. The statement will be received and held for his appearance. If he finds he cannot appear then we will insert his statement in the record.

Mr. THUET. Thank you, Senator.

Our next witness is Mr. Humphries, a member of the "Save the St. Croix," chemical engineer, who lives at Lakeland, Minn., which, of course,

is on the St. Croix. He will discuss the effects of the Northern States powerplant on air pollution.

Senator METCALF. Mr. Humphries, we are glad to have you before the committee.

STATEMENT OF C. R. HUMPHRIES, LAKELAND, MINN., CHEMICAL

ENGINEER

Mr. HUMPHRIES. Thank you, Senator Metcalf. I would like to take this opportunity to thank you members of the committee for holding hearings of this sort around the country because as we have gotten into this study, we have been astonished to find what a tremendous problem and what very large results and consequences can come from inadequate consideration of it.

Senator METCALF. I read the staff study, which you probably have examined, but when these hearings first opened I was astounded and appalled at the amount of material that is being discharged into the atmosphere, not just by plants such as this, but all over the country.

Mr. HUMPHRIES. Yes, sir. We are going to make a comparison, actually, of this plant with those figures.

As I was introduced, I am a chemical engineer and an individual who has worked with Mr. Mertes on his technical committee in trying to develop an understanding of the matter as far as we could.

I would like to depart from my prepared notes, which you have, very briefly to give you a quick résumé of why we began this investigation.

Actually, I began it as an individual with friends who are neighbors on the river, John Blickenderfer, who is a chemical engineer and a longtime friend ; Robert Wallin, who is a mechanical engineer; Ruele Philips, who is an electrical engineer; and more recently Paul Leland, who is an aeronautical engineer and a registered professional engineer in the State of Minnesota.

All of us are residents of Washington County and of the school district No. 834. We want it emphatically understood that we are not opposed to industry. We are not opposed to the development of a broader industrial base for tax purposes. Furthermore, we are all strongly favorable to a tax reform program in the State which is specifically designed to relieve the load on real estate taxes. I feel so strongly about this that I requested permission to appear and did so before the Interim Tax Study Commission of the State of Minnesota, testifying that I felt it was absolutely necessary that new sources of taxes be derived in the State for school and county purposes.

Senator METCALF. I wonder if the record would show that I am told

you are a member of the school board here? Mr. HUMPHRIES. That is correct, sir, but I wish to have it understood that I speak as an individual citizen since the board, the school boards, speaks as a single voice by virtue of majority decision, and I do not care

to speak as a school board member, sir. Senator METCALF. I would understand that, but I think it would be helpful to the Senators who are going to examine this record to know that yon have had some experience with the school board. Mr. HUMPHRIES. Yes, sir; I have been on the school board in this

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area for 4 years.

In examining the fact sheet that was presented by the company, NSP, it seemed obvious to us, as neighbors and engineers, that this

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