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Unsatisfactory progress in abiding by the schedule necessitated the calling of a public hearing by the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on the city of St. Joseph and its 18 associated industries, which was held on July 27–30, 1959; subsequently, in view of continued lack of compliance, suit was filed by the United States against the city of St. Joseph in the Federal district court at St. Joseph, Mo., September 29, 1960. The court issued an order on October 31, 1961, substantially embodying the hearing board's recommendations.
Construction of the main sewer treatment plant at St. Joseph is expected to start before September 19, 1963. Three million dollars in revenue bonds have been sold to pay for this construction. The court has retained jurisdiction over compliance in this case.
4. Missouri River, Omaha, Nebr., area (Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa).The reach of the Missouri River concerned extends from Blair, Nebr., south to St. Joseph, Mo., and forms a boundary between Nebraska and Iowa, Nebraska and Missouri, and Kansas and Missouri.
The conference was held on June 14, 1957, at Omaha, Nebr. The conferees found that the major source of the pollution was Omaha, Nebr. The discharges of sewage and industrial wastes by Omaha and its stockyard district deterio rated water quality for public water supply, stock watering, commercial fishery, aquatic and wildlife habitat, and industrial uses, and constituted a health hazard to commercial and recreational uses. Fourteen municipalities, four sewer districts, two institutions, and five industries were involved. A remedial schedule was recommended by the conferees and Omaha's $21 million pollution abatement program is now nearing completion.
5. Potomac River, Washington metropolitan area (District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia).—The Potomac River from the Monocacy River to Hallowing Point is covered by this conference.
A conference was held on August 22, 1957, at Charlottesville, Va. A second session of the conference was convened on February 13, 1958 at Washington. D.C. Discharges of untreated and inadequately treated sewage and industrial wastes from Washington, D.C., Montgomery County, and Prince Georges County, Md; Alexandria, Arlington County, and Fairfax County, Va., contributed to the pollution. The resulting pollution constituted a health hazard to recreational and commercial users ; created severe sight and odor nuisances which seriously impaired the river as a residential, sightseeing and recreational area, and made the river unsuitable for game fish habitation. Action toward pollution abatement is proceeding in accordance with the time schedule established by the conferees. Substantial improvements have been effected.
6. Missouri River, Kansas Cities metropolitan area (Kansas, Missouri).This action concerned pollution of the interstate waters of the Missouri River and connecting or tributary waters in or adjacent to the Kansas Cities metropolitan area reaching from Parkville to Independence, Mo.
A conference was held December 3, 1957, at Kansas City, Mo. Discharges of untreated and inadequately treated sewage and industrial wastes caused deterioration of water quality so as to interfere with use as public water snpply: created a health hazard to commercial and recreational users; prerented full utilization as a commercial fishery; prevented use of the river for sport fishing; interfered with navigation and with potential and actual use for many industrial uses; degraded the river area below Kansas City as a wildfowl habitat; and created severe sight and odor nuisances which seriously impaired use as a recreational area.
When the conference timetable for reasonable and effective progress toward remedial action set by the conferees was not followed, a public hearing was held June 13-17, 1960, at Kansas City, Mo. Involved were Kansas City, Mo., Vorth Kansas City, Kansas City, Kans., Fairfax Drainage District and 11 industries
Substantial progress by municipalities and industries has been made. Finane ing has been provided by Kansas City, Kans., in the amount of $15 million: North Kansas City, Mo., $7,413.000 ; and Kansas City, Mo., $75 million.
7. Louer Columbia River (Washington-Oregon).-The interstate reach of the Lower Columbia from Bonneville Dam to Cathlomet, Wash., forming a boundary between Washington and Oregon was the subject of the enforcement action.
The conference was held on September 10–11, 1958, followed by a second session September 34, 1959. At the first session the conferees found that the problems of pollution of the interstate waters of the Columbia River caused by
uatreated or inadequately treated sewage and industrial waste discharge needed further evaluation. At the second session, it was found that pollution from municipal and industrial sources, principally pulp and paper industry wastes, contributed such pollutants as bacterial and other pathogenic organisms, industrial wastes contributed to the growth of slime, solid materials, and toxic substances and that the pollution interfered with legitimate uses of the Lower Columbia for public water supply; commercial uses, including commercial fishing; and recreational uses, including sport fishing. Discharges from Portland, Oreg., Vancouver, Wash., 47 other communities, and 21 industries were involved.
The conferees established a remedial time schedule for pollution abatement. In Portland, Oreg., the voters approved financing for treatment facilities on November 8, 1960. All Washington municipalities and industries are reported in compliance by the State with the exception of Vancouver and Cathlomet where construction is expected shortly. Oregon municipalities and industries now provide year-round chlorination of sewage effluents discharged directly to the Lower Columbia River.
8. Raritan Bay (New York-New Jersey).—The Raritan Bay and adjacent waters which are the subject of the conference include a portion of the Narrows, the Lower Bay, and Sandy Hook Bay, the Raritan Bay, the tidal portions of the Raritan River, the Arthur Kill, and the other smaller tributaries to the named bays.
The Lower Bay and Raritan Bay, along with Sandy Hook Bay, combine to form a triangular body of tidal water that extends inland for about 10 miles between Staten Island, N.Y., to the northwest, and the New Jersey shoreline to the south. The boundary between the two States passes approximately from east to west through the middle of the Lower Bay and Raritan Bay where it swings to a northerly direction and continues up the middle of the Arthur Kill. This water area comprises approximately 30 square miles which is about equally divided between the States of New Jersey and New York. These waters form a substantial part of the New York Harbor complex.
A conference was held August 22, 1961, in New York City, followed by a second session held May 9, 1963, in New York. Discharges of untreated and inadequately treated sewage by municipalities and discharges of industrial wastes in New Jersey and New York pollute the interstate waters of the Raritan Bay so as to endanger the health and welfare of persons in these two States.
An investigation and study of the waters of Raritan Bay was established after the first conference session to examine technological problems, including health, conservation, water policy uses, and industrial processes. The conferees at the second session recommended that this investigation and study be continued and completed.
9. Mississippi River—Clinton, Ionca, area (Illinnis-Joua).--The Mississippi River forms a part of the State boundary between Iowa and Illinois in the
A conference was held at Clinton, Iowa, on March 8. 1962. Discharges causing and contributing to pollution from industrial and municipal sources in Iowa caused interferences with uses of the river for public and industrial water supplies, commercial and sport fishing. recreational purposes and the esthetic enjoyment of the river. A time schedule for remedial action in Clinton was agreed on by the conferees. Action is being taken to meet this time schedule.
10. Androscoggin River (New Hampshire-Maine).--The Androscoggin River begins at Errol Dam on the outlet of Umbagog Lake, N.H. From this point the river flows south turning sharply to the east near Gorham. N.H. "The river continues in an easterly direction and crosses the New Hampshire-Maine boundary about 10 miles downstream from Gorham, N.H. A short distance upstream from Livermore Falls. Maine, the river turns sharply again to flow south to its outlet, Merrymeeting Bay, Maine. The tidal effect extends upstream 8 miles to Brunswick, Maine.
The first session of the conference was held September 24, 1962, at Portland, Maine, and recessed to the session held February 5, 1963. Reports, surveys, and studies indicated that pollution from industrial and municipal sources is op curring in the interstate waters of the Androscoggin River. This pollution makes the river unsuitable and unsafe for most legitimate water uses. U'ses prevented, or interfered with, by the existing water quality include develop ment as a public water supply, general recreation, development as industrial
supplies requiring higher quality than that available, propagation of fish, passage of anadromous fish, harvesting of shellfish, and livestock watering.
Representatives from the States of New Hampshire, Maine, and the New England Interstate Pollution Control Commission refused to serve as conferees at both sessions of the conference, but in the second session participated in the conference discussion from seats in the audience. Actions brought at State request 1. Mississippi River-St. Louis metropolitan area, 1958 (Missouri-Illinois). 2. Missouri River-Sioux City area, 1958 (South Dakota-Iowa-Nebraska-Mis
souri-Kansas). 3. Animas River, 1958 (Colorado-New Mexico). 4. Bear River, 1960 (Idaho-Wyoming-Utah). 5. Colorado River and all its tributaries, 1960 (Colorado-Utah-Arizona-Xerada
California-New Mexico-Wyoming). 6. Holston River, North Fork, 1960 (Tennessee-Virginia). 7. North Platte River, 1962 (Nebraska-Wyoming). 8. Puget Sound-Upper Columbia River, 1962 (Washington). 9. Detroit River, 1962 (Michigan). 10. Escambia River, 1962 (Alabama-Florida).
1. Mississippi River-St. Louis Metropolitan Area (Missouri-Illinois).—This action concerned that portion of the Mississippi River at and below the St. Louis metropolitan area which forms a boundary between Illinois and Missouri.
A conference was held March 4, 1958, at St. Louis, Mo., involving St. Louis, St. Louis County covered by the St. Louis Metropolitan Sewer District, and communities, industries, and an institution in Illinois. Sewage and industrial wastes from industries and municipalities in Missouri and Illinois interfere with legitimate water uses by causing deterioration of water quality for public water supply in Missouri and Illinois ; increased concentrations of coliforms and other organisms associated with human diseases which constitute a health hazard to commercial and recreational users of the river; deterioration of water quality to the extent that severe sight and odor nuisances have been created resulting in serious impairment of the river as a residential, sightseeing, and recreational area ; impairment of water quality so as to render the river unsuitable as a habitat for game fish and destroying its use as a commercial fishery; and deterioration of water quality so as to create conditions inimical to wildlife in the area. A time schedule for remedial action was established by the conferees.
St. Louis voted a $95 million bond issue for construction of treatment facilities in November 1962. Municipalities and industries in Illinois have taken or are taking action to abate pollution. To coordinate pollution abatement activities the conferees have held seven progress meetings to date.
2. Missouri River-Siour City area (South Dakota-Ioua-Nebraska-NissouriKansas).-The Missouri River from Gavins Point, S.Dak., to Omaha, Nebr., comprised the scope of this action. This reach of the river forms an interstate boundary between the States of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Sonth Dakota.
A conference was held July 24, 1958, at Sioux City, Iowa. Sewage and industrial wastes from sources in South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa caused pollution of the Missouri River so as to endanger the health and welfare of persons in States other than that in which the discharges originated. Major source of the pollution was Sioux City and its associated industries, primarily meat pack: ing and processing plants. The pollution caused deterioration of water quality for public water supply of Omaha, Nebr., with the increased possibility of disease transmission; increased concentrations of coliform and other organisms asso ciated with human disease which constitute a health hazard to commercial and recreational users of the river, deterioration of water quality so as to interfere with navigation, river dredging, and other river improvement activities ; crea. tion of sight and odor nuisances; and deterioration of water quality so as to create conditions inimical to fish and aquatic life. A schedule of necessary reme dial ineasures was established by the conferees. Lack of reasonable and effective progress toward remedial action necessitated the calling of a public hearing by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare on Sioux City and 10 industries, March 23-27, 1959. Sioux City, the major source of pollution, has nos
completed its sewage treatment plant. Most of the major interceptor sewers have been completed. Industries named in the hearing proceedings are planning connection to the municipal system.
3. Animas River (Colorado-New Mexico).-This river rises in southwestern Colorado above Silverton. It flows southerly for approximately 100 miles to its junction with San Juan River at Farmington, N. Mex., after crossing the Colo rado-New Mexico State line near Riverside, N. Mex., approximately 30 miles from its mouth.
A conference was held at Santa Fe, N. Mex., on April 29, 1958. On June 24, 1959, a second session was held at Santa Fe. Discharges from a mill of the Vanadium Corp. of America, with a high radioactive content, abandoned mines, and the municipalities of Durango and Silverton, Colo., were involved. After investigation and studies called for by the first conference the conferees at the second session found that pollution of the Animas River caused by discharges of uranium milling wastes from the Vanadium Corp. of America at Durango, Colo., dele teriously affected the public water supply at Farmington, N. Mex., individual supplies of ranchers and others who take raw water from the river, water used for irrigation, fishing, swimming, and stock watering in New Mexico. Discharges by the Vanadium Corp. of America of nonradioactive chemicals to the Animas River were toxic to fish and aquatic life in the river, and these discharges created conditions inimical to fish and aquatic life. A time schedule for remedial measures was established by the conferees for the Vanadium Corp. of America.
By January 1960, the Vanadium Corp. complied with the conference schedule. The Public Health Service made additional recommendations, and surveillance is continuing. The river, one of the 60 tributaries in the Colorado River Basin, has now been incorporated in that enforcement project.
4. Bear River (Idaho, Wyoming, Utah).—This river, the largest stream in the Western Hemisphere which does not reach an ocean, rises in the Vinta Mountains in Utah, flows north into Wyoming, back into Utah about 20 streammiles below Evanston, Wyo., and then into Wyoming. It flows west into Idaho, porth for about 50 miles, south into Utah and then empties into the Great Salt Lake.
A conference was held on October 8, 1958, followed by a second session July 19, 1960. The conferees at the first session found that municipal and industrial wastes in Idaho and Utah were finding their way into the waters of the Bear River and contributing to the pollution of the river. Wastes from sugar, meat, and milk processing industries in Idaho, were of primary concern. The effects of this pollution were: deterioration of water quality used for irrigation and stock watering so as to cause a potential health hazard; deterioration of water quality so as to interfere with the Cache River Basin area as a recreational area ; and deterioration of the river so as to make it unsuitable as a potential source of public water supply. The conferees decided that additional data were necessary and that a year would be allowed for the data gathering process.
A time schedule for remedial action was recommended after the second session of the conference. Several municipalities in Idaho have completed treatment facilities in compliance with conference recommendations. Further studies have been performed and indicate that substantial progress has been made. 5. Colorado River and all its tributaries (Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Neroda, California, New Mexico, Wyoming).-The Colorado River rises in north central Colorado near the Continental Divide, flows southwesterly for about 1,400 miles and empties into the Gulf of California in Mexico. It flows across Colorado into Utah and thereon to form parts of boundaries between Arizona and Nevada, Arizona and California. The mainstream and its some 60 tributaries drain parts of 7 States.
Four sessions of the conference on the Colorado River have been held to date: the first on January 13, 1960; and subsequent ones on May 11, 1961, May 2-10, 1962, and May 27, 1963. The conferees concluded at the first session that further investigation and study on domestic and municipal wastes, timber processing wastes, wastes from coal and oil shale deposit developments, industrial Wastes, effect of agricultural uses and toxic and chemical wastes was necessary to define type of interstate pollution that may exist. An agenda for priority studies and activities was agreed upon by the conferees at the second session, the main emphasis being on radioactive pollution, public water supply