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the Epistle of blessed Paul, the Apostle. What did he at first write to you in the beginning of the Gospel? Verily he did, by the Spirit, admonish you, concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos: because that even then you did form parties." There are in this Epistle of Clement, many other passages, in which the words of Paul are cited, but this is the only one in which his name is mentioned.
HERMAS, and IGNATIUS also, often quote the words of Paul's Epistles, but the books from which they are taken are not designated.
POLYCARP, the disciple of the Apostle John, and Bishop of Smyrna, who suffered martyrdom in extreme old age, about the middle of the second century, after sentence of death was pronounced upon him, wrote an Epistle to the Philippians, in which he makes express mention of Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians-" Do ye not know, that the saints shall judge the world, as Paul teaches."
He also quotes a passage from the Epistle to the Ephesians, under the name of Holy Scripture. For I trust," says he, "that ye are well exercised in the Holy Scriptures—as in these Scriptures it is said, Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath.'" POLYCARP also cites passages from the second Epistle to the Corinthians; from the Epistle to the Galatians; from the First and Second to the Thessalonians; from the Epistle to the Hebrews; and from both the Epistles to Timothy; but, as is usual with the apostolical Fathers, he does not refer to the books or authors from which he makes his citations.
JUSTIN MARTYR quotes many passages in the very words of Paul, without mentioning his name. But IRENEUS distinctly and frequently quotes thirteen of Paul's Epistles. He takes nothing, indeed, from the short Epistle to Philemon, which can easily be accounted for, by the brevity of this letter, and the special object which the Apostle had in view in penning it.
It would fill a large space, to put down all the passages cited by Irenæus from the Epistles of Paul. Let it suffice to give one from each:-" This same thing Paul has explained, writing to the Romans, Paul an Apostle of Jesus Christ, separated unto the Gospel of God.' And again, writing to the Romans of Israel, he says, Whose are the Fathers, and of whom, concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is God over all, blessed for ever." "S "This also Paul manifestly shows, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, saying, Moreover, brethren,
* 1 Cor. vi, 2. † Eph. iv, 26.
Rom. i, 1. § Rom. ix, 5.
I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud."* Paul, in his Second to the Corinthians, says, In whom the God of this world hath blinded the eyes of them that believe not.'" "The Apostle Paul says, in his Epistle to the Galatians, Wherefore then serveth the law of works? It was added until the seed should come, to whom the promise was made.'"+"As also the blessed Paul says, in the Epistle to the Ephesians, For we are members of his body, of his flesh and of his bones."'"§ "As also Paul says to the Philippians, I am full, having received of Epaphroditus, the things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice, acceptable, well-pleasing to God.'" "Again, Paul says in his Epistle to the Colossians, Luke the beloved physician saluteth you."¶ "The Apostle in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians, says, And the God of peace sanctify you wholly.'"** "And again, in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, speaking of Antichrist, he says, And then shall that wicked one be revealed." In the beginning of his work against Heresies, he says, "Whereas some having rejected the truth, bringing in lying words, and vain genealogies, rather than godly edifying, which is in faith,'t‡ as sayeth the apostle." This Epistle is often quoted by Irenæus, in the work above mentioned. Speaking of Linus, Bishop of Rome, he says, "Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in his Epistle to Timothy (evidently referring to 2 Eph. iv, 21), Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus."" "As Paul says, "A man that is an heretic after the first and second admonition, reject." "§§ Thus, we have seen, that Irenæus, who lived in the age immediately succeeding that in which Paul lived and wrote, has borne explicit testimony to all the Epistles of that Apostle, which have his name prefixed, except the short Epistle to Philemon, from which, it is probable, he had no occasion to take any authorities, as it is very concise, and addressed to a friend on a particular subject, in which Paul felt deeply interested.
As to the Epistle to the Hebrews, which is anonymous, there is ample evidence that IRENEUS was acquainted with it; but it is doubtful, whether he esteemed it to be the production of Paul or some other person. As he resided in France, it is very possible, that he participated in the prejudice of the Western church on this point. EUSEBIUS informs us, that he had seen a work of IRENEUS, which has not reached our times,
in which he cites passages from the Epistle to the Hebrews; but he does not say that he quoted them as Paul's. And in his works, which are still extant, there are several passages cited from this Epistle, but without direct reference to the source whence they were derived.
ATHENGORAS quotes from several of Paul's Epistles; but, as has been seen to be the custom of the early Fathers, he commonly uses the words, without informing the reader from what author they were borrowed. There is, however, one passage, in which he refers to both the First and Second Epistles to the Corinthians, as being the production of the Apostle Paul." It is manifest, therefore," says he, "that according to the Apostle, 'This corruptible and dissipated must put on corruption, that the dead being raised up, and the separated and even consumed parts being again united, every one may receive justly, the things he hath done in the body, whether they be good or bad.'"*
CLEMENT of Alexandria abounds in quotations from Paul's Epistles; a few of which will be sufficient for our purpose. "The Apostle, in the Epistle to the Romans, says, 'Behold, therefore, the goodness and severity of God."""The blessed Paul, in the first Epistle to the Corinthians, says, 'Brethren, be not children in understanding; howbeit, in malice, be ye children, but in understanding be ye men."" He has also many quotations from the Second to the Corinthians-" The Apostle," says he, "calls the common doctrine of the Faith, 'a savour of knowledge,' in the second to the Corinthians." "Hence, also, Paul says, 'Having these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse our hearts from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness, in the fear of God."""Whereupon, Paul, also writing to the Galatians, says, 'My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you." "§
"Whereupon the blessed Apostle says, "I testify in the Lord that ye walk not as other Gentiles walk.'|| Again, "Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.""¶ He quotes part of the first and second chapters of the Epistle to the Philippians expressly; and in another place, he quotes the same Epistle, after this manner: "The Apostle of the Lord also exhorting the Macedonians, says, 'The Lord is at hand, take heed that we be not found empty.'
* 1 Cor. xv, 54; 2 Cor. v, 10.
2 Cor. vii, 1. Eph. v, 21.
t1 Cor. xiv, 20.
§ Gal. iv, 19.
2 Cor. ii, 14. || Eph. iv, 17, 18.
CLEMENT, also, quotes the Epistle to the Colossians, and the Epistles to the Thessalonians. From the first Epistle to Timothy, he cites this passage, "O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science, falsely so called, which some professing, have erred concerning the faith."* On which he observes, "Heretics, confuted by this saying, reject both Epistles to Timothy." The Epistle to Titus is also quoted several times; and he remarks, in one place, "That Paul had cited Epimenides, the Cretan, in his Epistle to Titus, after this manner,One of themselves, a poet of their own, said, the Cretans are always liars.""t The Epistle to the Hebrews is also distinctly quoted, and is ascribed to Paul as its author. "Wherefore, writing to the Hebrews, who were declining from the faith to the law, Paul says, 'Have ye need that any teach you again, which be the first principles of the oracles of God, and are become such, as have need of milk, and not of strong meat?'"
TERTULLIAN, frequently and expressly, quotes most of Paul's Epistles. In one place, he says, "I will, therefore, by no means say, God, nor Lord, but I will follow the Apostles; so that if the Father and the Son are mentioned together, I I will say, God the Father, and Jesus Christ the Lord. But when I mention Christ only, I will call him God, as the Apostle does, 'Of whom Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever.""
"Paul, in his first Epistle to the Corinthians, speaks of those who doubted, or denied, the resurrection."
In his Treatise on Monogamy, he computes, that it was about one hundred and sixty years from Paul's writing this Epistle, to the time when he wrote. "In the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, they suppose the Apostle Paul to have forgiven the same fornicator, who, in the first, he declared, ought to be delivered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh."
"But of this, no more need be said, if it be the same Paul, who, writing to the Galatians, reckons heresy among the works of the flesh; and who directs Titus to reject a man that is a heretic, after the first admonition, knowing that he that is such is subverted and sinneth, being condemned of himself.""
"I pass," says he, "to another Epistle, which we have inscribed to the Ephesians; but the heretics, to the Laodiceans." Again, "According to the true testimony of the church, we suppose this Epistle to have been sent to the Ephesians, and not to the Laodiceans; but Marcion has endeavoured to alter Heb. v, 12. Rom. ix, 5.
1 Tim. vi, 20, 21. † Tit. i, 12.
this inscription, upon pretence of having made a more diligent search into this matter. But the inscriptions are of no importance, for the Apostle wrote to all, when he wrote to some."
Speaking of the Christian's hope, he says, "Of which hope and expectation, Paul to the Galatians says, For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.'"* He does not say we have obtained it, but he speaks of the hope of the righteousness of God, in the day of judgment, when our reward shall be decided. Of which being in suspense, when he wrote to the Philippians, he said, "If by any means, I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead; not as though I had already attained, or were already perfect.'† The Apos tle, writing to the Colossians, expressly cautions against philosophy, Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, and not after the instruction of the Spirit."""And in the Epistle to the Thessalonians, the Apostle adds, 'But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you. For yourselves know perfectly, that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night."""And in the Second Epistle to the same persons, he writes with greater solicitude: But I beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye be not soon shaken in mind, nor be troubled.""|| "And this word, Paul has used in writing to Timothy, 'O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust.""
That remarkable passage of TERTULLIAN, in which he is supposed to refer to the existing autographs of the Epistles of Paul, although referred to already, may with propriety be here introduced. "Well," says he, "if you be willing to exercise your curiosity profitably, in the business of your salvation, visit the apostolical churches; in which the very chairs of the Apostles still preside, in which their very authentic letters (authenticæ literæ) are recited, sending forth the voice, and representing the countenance, of each one of them. Is Achaia near you? You have Corinth. If you are not far from Macedonia; you have Philippi;—you have Thessalonica. If you can go to Asia, you have Ephesus. But if you are near to Italy, you have Rome, from whence also we may be easily satisfied."
There are three opinions respecting the meaning of this phrase authenticæ literæ authentic letters; the first is, that it signifies the original manuscripts of the Apostles the auto
* Gal. v, 5.
+ Phil. iii, 11, 12.
+ Col. ii, 8.
¶ 1 Tim. vi, 30.