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municants from each of the three triumphs in the Roman Empire ; rival nationalities.”*

and here is the ground of our assurWe may thus learn the great work ance that it will one day conquer which Christianity sought to accom- the world. Before the close of the plish. To have gained a footing in second century, Christianity was the Roman Empire at all, in such an more widely disseminated than any age, and among such a people, is one religion had ever been, true or proof of its Divine origin ; to have false. « We are but of yesterday,” triumphed among them, is demon- says Tertullian to the Romans, “and stration of its Divine energy. No- have filled all places belonging to thing can be more palpable than the you ; your cities, islands, castles, historical truthfulness of this re- towns, councils ; your very camps, ligion. To suppose, in the absence wards, companies; the palace, senate, of all evidence, that men distin- and forum : we have left you only guished by discernment and deep your temples.”+ Remembering the feeling were deceived in regard to circumstances of the Roman world plain facts, is a mere assumption, at this time, and that the eyes of unworthy a place in grave argument. many Jews and inquiring Heathens Pretensions like those in question were wide open ; and remembering could not have been sustained for an also the tremendous and prolonged hour, had they been ill-founded. persecution of the Christians; we The testimony which gained for regard the marvellous success of the Christianity an entrance into the Gospel as manifesting an extraordiRoman Empire was such as could nary interposition of God in its not be resisted or shaken, and at the favour, amounting to a miraculous present day it abides in invincible attestation. The cause of its rapid strength. The reality of the life of spread is found in the one fact, that Jesus ; the country and age in which it declared the truth of God, and was He lived ; His miraculous and be- forwarded by His omnipotence. neficent works ; His station, and His

(To be concluded.) death,—these are facts handed to us by the unimpeachable testimony of Pagan as well as Christian testators A Cyclopædia of Illustrations of and historians. Renan's “Life of Moral and Religious Truths ; conJesus does not impair this state- taining Definitions, Metaphors, Simiment. His book abounds with bril- les, Emblems, Contrasts, Analogies, liant colourings, with assumptions, Statistics, Synonyms, Anecdotes, &c., and with perversions ; but does not &c. By John Bate. 8vo., pp. 866.in any way weaken the truths on The copious title of this volume dewhich our faith in Christianity is scribes with sufficient exactness its based. By the admission of the general character. It contains some reality of Christ's life and works, a thousands of articles, arranged in witness is given to His peerless and alphabetical order, and selected from supernatural character. Let the fact some seven or eight hundred authors, of Christ's life be disproved let the ancient and modern, with a few hunIncarnation be set aside ; and our dreds supplied by the compiler himbelief in Christianity would then be self. The articles are of various undermined and lost. It was the lengths, some of them occupying certainty and the force of these only a few lines, and others extendtruths that won for the Gospel its ing to several paragraphs. They

* Lecture IV., pp. 66, 67.

+ Apol., ii., cap. 37.

are taken from the writings of belongs to a family containing some statesmen, lawyers, moralists, poets, young persons of intelligence and philosophers, divines, historians, bio- education, with whom the volume is graphers, critics, and reviewers, who evidently a great favourite. He finds are all laid under contribution by it very difficult to keep it on his own Mr. Bate ; and, when these fail to table, such is their eagerness to read farnish the needful instruction, he it ; and they have oftener than once himself generously supplies the de- expressed a desire to transfer it to feiency. The volume proves him their own book-shelves. That the to be an extensive, careful, and work will be well received, and be judicious reader : yet some of our very useful, we doubt not. There great writers appear to have escaped are readers, indeed, who affect to his observation ; among whom we despise works of this kind, cherishmay mention Dean Field, Anthony ing an exclusive preference for origiFarindon, Bishop Bull, Dr. Water- nal compositions. We can only say, land, and Bishop Horsley. He has, from our own certain knowledge, nevertheless, collected a vast amount that many works which profess to be of valuable and interesting informa- original consist mostly of thoughts tion, which cannot fail to be highly borrowed without acknowledgment scceptable to a large class of readers, from other men. Here is, at least, especially to the young, and to per- an honest man. He confesses himsoos whose time is mostly occupied self to be a compiler, and gives to in business, so that their acquaint- the authors from whom he has ance with books is confined within made his selections the honour of narrow limits. The volume relates their own cogitations. Their names to the affairs of this life, and to the he places before his readers at full higher interests and destiny of man- length, while he claims for himself kind. The writer of this “ notice” the humble signature of the letter B.

THE LATE ENCYCLICAL,

Selnou bas“ the leading journal” ism to the policy of the Holy See. uttered its thunder more loudly, or But of all the Allocutions and other more justly, than in the following apostolic messages which he has yet paragraphs :

launched against this evil world none

approaches in fatuous presumption If there be any good Protestants this last invective, issued at a seawho still believe in the superhuman son when peace and good-will towards craft of popes and cardinals, the men ought to draw all Christians Encyclical Letter just addressed to together. It would seem as though all Catholic bishops must surely an almost judicial blindness had led undeceive them. His Holiness may this unhappy Pope, already fallen well boast that he has been instant on evil days, dependent on France in season and out of season, beyond for the relics of his temporal power, the example of his most zealous and consciously losing his hold on predecessors, in scolding against the the faith of Christendom,“ vaunting spirit of his age. His public utter- aloud, but racked with deep despair,” ances have, indeed, been one long to out-thunder the Gregories and the commination against modern society; Innocents, and where they would and he has never lost an opportunity have temporized to give his sentence of proclaiming its incurable antagon- in favour of open war. For this is the effect of this wonderful docu- virtually makes all things lawful in ment, drawn up, as we are assured, propagating orthodoxy, is part of the with the advice of “the most erudite Papal creed. After this we are the prelates of the Catholic Church,” less surprised to find Bible Societies and carefully revised by the Pope expressly denounced, by no means and his councillors. The letter it for the first time. Romanists hardly self is dull and declamatory enough, care to deny that the Bible, without concluding with the grant of a ple- note or comment, is on the side of nary indulgence for a month. The the Protestants; but this does not appendix, however, is more business- explain their reluctance to circulate like, and purports to condemn eighty it, even in a garbled form, among distinct propositions, comprising, for the people. To counteract Protestaught we know, some that are ab- ant Bible Societies it would have surd and mischievous, but including seemed natural to organize Catholic also many that no rational being Bible Societies for the distribution would think of challenging, much of the Douay version, with Catholic less of anathematizing. There is annotations; but we have never heard scarcely a political system in Europe, of this being done; and until it is, except the Papal Government, that the Pope will never be able to rail does not rest on principles which down the suspicion that he regards are here declared to be damnable Scripture as an enemy. As to the errors ; and if the Pope be right, we errors in moral philosophy proscribed must perforce suppose that not only by the Pope, we have little fault to human reason, but Providence, is find; indeed, he seerns here to have wrong.

borrowed a leaf from Protestant Let us examine a few specimens ethics. One of these errors is the of these “false ideas in religion, maxim that “a happy injustice of philosophy, and politics," which fact inflicts no injury upon the sanctrue believers are for the future tity of right,”—a maxim which must prohibited from entertaining. One be extracted from the works of some of the blackest lieresies in the first Jesuit casuist, so faithfully does it class is the doctrine that “there is express the theological conception of hope of the eternal salvation of those morality which has made that Order who do not belong to the true a by word in literature. Another is Church.” Now, to hold the con- this :-“ It is allowable to oppose trary of this thesis is to justify the and revolt against legitimate princes." worst imputations cast by Protestant Why! this is the very position which divines on the Romish Church. The was upheld by the Papacy for cenrevolting belief that there is no hope turies to the scandal of Christendom, for any one—even for those who and the assertion of which, in a have never heard of Christianity- practical shape, at the time of the beyond the pale of that Church, and Reformation, rallied all England that by consequence the Almighty round Queen Elizabeth. Again, has destined millions upon millions

“ Violations of oaths and every act of His creatures to inevitable perdi- contrary to the eternal laws are tion, has been as earnestly disclaimed permissible in the cause of patriotby the apologists of Romanism as it ism.” This reminds us of “ Papa has been confidently attributed to non potest dispensare....... nisi justa them by their opponents. We now causâ.Who, we should like to know upon authority which, if not know,invented the infamous sophism infallible, is conclusive against the that perjury and other breaches of Pope, that the latter were correct moral duty might be justified by the after all, and that this dogma, which higher law of ecclesiastical interest?

Horever, as the Pope now seems error in question, we now recant it ready to meet us half way, we have without reserve. no besitation whatever in repudiat- If this be the highest wisdom of ing any such claim on behalf of that Church which has clothed herpatriotism, always provided that he self for so many ages with the manskall equally repudiate it on behalf tle of Imperial Rome, then, like of religion. Not that we are san- that empire, and those on whose grine of obtaining his consent to any ruins it was erected, she is already such compromise ; for in this Index weighed in the balance and found Ezpargatorius, not of books, but of wanting. Spiritual tyranny may be opinions, we observe the following exercised in subtle ways long after sentiment gibheted for peculiar ab- the title upon which it rests has borrence : -" The Pope can and been exploded ; and no one appreought to become reconciled to pro- ciating the prodigious tenacity of gress, liberalism, and modern civil- life exhibited by the Roman Church ization.” We plead guilty to think- would venture to predict the time of ing that he ought, and even to a firm its dissolution. But the conquests conviction that, unless he does, the of civilization are permanent, and days of the Papacy are numbered; the great political features of modern but few would be found to maintain society are absolutely impregnable that he can. If such a hope once against such impotent assaults as pirvailerl, who encouraged it, and these. To suppose that the Pope aka, having to make his election and all the cardinals in conclave can between temporal dominion and the appreciably check that movement tegeneration of Italy, lost the golden of thought which they wildly opopportunity, and estranged for ever pose, is to suppose that they could the hearts of a devoted people? No arrest the force of gravitation by one would now accuse Pius IX. of solemnly condemning it. “The sympathy with liberty or modern proposition that the sun is the centre eivilization ; and yet it was no other of the world and immovable from than he who granted an amnesty to its place is absurd, philosophically political offenders, recalled the ex- false, and formally heretical, because iles, liberated the prisoners, initivated it is expressly contrary to Holy the censorship of the press, relaxed Scripture. The proposition that the the civil disabilities of Jews, iin- earth is not the centre of the world, proved the system of taxation, fa- nor immovable, but that it moves, voured a Customs-union, counte- and also with a diurnal motion, is wanced the formation of a Roman absurd, philosophically false, and, Volunteer corps, and allowed his theologically considered, at least bame to become the watch word of erroneous in faith.” Such was the liberality and reform. The most sentence of the Holy Office, with the perverse of heretics now sees the Pope's sanction, on the Copernican vavity of these expectations, and theory. The earth, however, as recognises the incapacity of a Pope, poor Galileo whispered, “moved for however benevolent and well-mean- all that ;" and so, we suspect, will ing, to rise to the measure of true the human mind, whether the Pupe statesmanship. If we ever held the will have it so or not.

GLANCE AT PUBLIC OCCURRENCES. There are many spectators of the from the first have seen that the tremendous struggle in America, who dispute between North and South

VOL. XI.--FIFTH SERIES.

M

can be decided only by the sword. interposition are gone by. The The remarkable unanimity on the horse and his rider are not now question of secession on the part of thrown into the sea. Rams' horns the Confederates, and the patriotic are powerless against walled cities. resolve of the Federals that the great The stars in their courses fight not country, in the extent and prosperity against Sisera and his host. No of which they delighted to glory, doubt, there is providential intershould not be permanently rent in position still ; but those who expect twain, justified this conclusion. Such it in their own favour should have, spectators have received with cold- at least, a rightoous cause. Their ness and suspicion the various pro- hands should be clean, while they jects of European intervention which say, “Some trust in chariots, and have been conceived from time to some in horses : but we will remeintime ;-not that they did not value ber the naine of the Lord our God." peace, but that they questioned the If the Southern States had a justimotives of the promoters of these fiable cause for rending the Union, schemes, and were sceptical as to and thus provoking the war; if their success. It was a terrible con- they had no voice in the government clusion to arrive at, (and yet it was of the common country, and were one which forced itself on the minds taxed without their own consent; of many thoughtful Christian men,) if they were the victims of cruel and that from the arbitrament of the oppressive laws, and sufferers in sword there was no escape. Thus regard to their religious and civil far these melancholy prognostics rights, their property, their persons ; have been verified by facts. That then, surely, they may reasonably the quarrel will be fought out reso- look to Heaven for help against the lutely, and to the end, looks now foe. If, on the contrary, for a long more likely than ever. The North- series of years, they held possession erners, flushed with recent and im- of the executive power of the United portant victories, are not likely to States, sending President after Prerein up the chariot-horses in mid- sident to the White House ; if they conquest; and the Southerners are had not only a full share in the 80 tixed in their determination never representation of Congress, but the to surrender, that in the dark hour strange “right,” conceded to them, of their reverses they are actually of polling additional votes in propormeditating the astounding project of tion to the number of slaves they arming their slaves to fight for them, had in possession ; if, instead of bewith a promise of granting them ing an oppressed and down-trodden their liberty! Prolonged sieges, people, they held in bondage under fiercely-contested battles, destructive them four millions of men ;-then raids, carnage, and conflagration, it may be asked, On what ground may therefore be still looked for. can they appeal to God for help, or As to the issue, there are some who to man for sympathy? Well, with from the first, in the face of predic- all this, it will be still predicted, tions to the contrary repeated with that their subjugation is impossible

, a wonderful pertinacity, have looked and that the achievement of their upon the defeat of the South as in- independence is a question only of evitable. The profane saying of a time. To those who are determined celebrated general, that Providence to have it so, it may be answered, favours the side of the most numer- that this at least is certain, come ous battalions, might be used with what will, slavery shall perish! some qualification, and without the profanity. The days of miraculous

The Pope's Encyclical Letter has

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