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ordinary character ; but her value was only known and appreciated by a select circle. Those who enjoyed her intimacy can testify, that never was greater firmness blended with a deeper and more unobtrusive piety; and yet, withal, she was cheerful and communicative. For some time before her de. cease she suffered much, but her mind remained strong and unclouded. Her greatest solicitude, as she drew nigh her end, was for Divine support to her sorrowing husband, who for many years had been daily, and almost hourly, her inseparable companion. She lingered in much agony through the remaining weeks of the old year, into the first hours of the new one ; and on its opening morn, the earthly Sabbath, raising her weak and attenuated arms, and waving her hands in token of victory, exclaimed, "Farewell ! farewell, all !” and fell asleep in Jesus ; thus entering, on the Lord's day, upon the rest which remaineth to the people of God.

W. R. W.

well-known minister shortly afterwards called at her father's house, and urged her to cast in her lot with God's people. She did so at once. Her subsequent life presented a lovely example of Christian excellence. The beauty of holiness was displayed in her character. Meekly, and without obtrusiveness, she served her Saviour until He came and called for her. Her end was perfect peace. To the ministers of Christ she was strongly at. tached ; and in the preaching of the word, and all the ordinances of the sanctuary, she found great delight. Some time before her last sickness, she recommenced the consecutive reading of the Scriptures. Accoruingly, to her beloved sister she said, just before death, “ I have read my Bible to the eleventh chapter of the Revelation ; I shall finish it in heaven." The last verse of that chapter is as follows: “And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there wax seen in His temple the ark of His testament." Her happy spirit now dwells in the holy place, where Jesus is the Minister of the true tabernacle. One of the last things she requested was, that, from a reserved fund of money, five pounds should be paid to the Old Preachers' Fund, and ten shillings to each of the poor members in her class.

J. H.

January 2d. --At Bownesa, Carlisle Circuit, Mary Topping, aged sixty-four. She was born at a farm near Banff. On her marriage, her house was open to the ministers at all times when they came from Aberdeen to Peterhead. Her kindness and attention to them, while they remained under that hospitable roof, will be gratefully remembered by several yet living. Through feeble health, she was for many years doprived of the enjoyment of the means of grace, excepting those in her own house, -whero her hushand, a Local preacher, conducted service every Sunday afternoon, and the class also met. She was a woman of quiet disposition, and a modest Christian. She bore her last sufferings with composure, and spoke freely of her departure ; often saying, “ Come, Lord Jesus, and receive mo."

"I the chief of sinners an,

But Jesus died for me.' One day her husband was speaking of Jesus Christ as the Conqueror of death, who has opened the kingdom of heaven to all believers. “ Then,” she exclaimed, “I will · Clap the glad wing, and tower away,

And mingle with the blaze of day.'” Converted in early life, she clave to the Lord with purpose of heart. She died in the full assurance of eternal life, through the blood of the Redeemer.

W. B.

January 15th. --- In the thirtieth year of her age, Susannah, the sixth daughter of Samuel Cooke, Esq., of Heald's Hall, Liversege. When about fourteen, she became a member of the Methodist Society ; and from that time, to her lamented decease, she manifested a warm and growing interest in the Redeemer's cause. Her natural disposition was lively, cheerful, and kind ; her mind strong, and her judgment clear and discriminating. As a Sunday-school teacher, a Missionary collector, and in various other labours of love, she exerted herself both energetically and wisely. During her last illness, which was long and severe, she evinced the utmost patience. Although powerfully assaulted, her faith was victorious. Firmly did she cling to the cross : and, in the absence of great joy, was blessed with sweet peace and strong confidence ; which increased more and more as she came nearer life's closing scene. Yet was she among the lowliest. "0," she once exclaimed, “it seems so wonderful, as well as delightful, that I should go to heaven,-1, who have done nothing. But I place my hope on the merit of Jesus my Saviour !” The day before her departure she called to her bedside the members of the family then at home, including the servants, and, bidding them an affectionate farewell, charged them to pre pare to meet her in the heaven to wbich she was going. She also expressed a wish, if it were the will of God, that she might not spend another Sunday here. That wish was granted : for, as the holy day was dawning, her spirit calmly passed from earth to spend its endless sabbath in heaven! S. R.

January 2d.-Miss Martha Morley, Gar. forth, in the Leeds St. Peter's Circuit. From early life she had been the subject of powerful religious influence, but not until mature years did she join the church. According to her own emphatic acknowledgment, she would have gone to class much sooner, had she been asked to do so. On one occasion she had actually prayed that some person would speak to her about church-communion. A

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ATHANASIUS.

1. ARIUS, AND ARIANISM. ABOUT the year 306, just when the churches ought to have had rest throughout all the Roman Empire, on the cessation of the cruel persecutions of Diocletian and Maximian, new troubles arose. At that time Peter was Bishop of Alexandria ; or, considering that his influence and jurisdiction extended over Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis, we may say that he was Archbishop, and that Meletius, Bishop of Thebais, a province of Upper Egypt, was his coadjutor. Both of these men were reputed to be sound in the faith. Under the recent persecution, they were both confessors, and, had not the persecution ceased, by this time they might have been martyrs.

By order of the Prefect of Alexandria, Peter was led away in chains to prison, as also was Meletius, by command of the Prefect of Thebais. A crowd of Christians, bishops, presbyters, and laymen, were led captive together; their numbers being slowly diminished by the execution of one and of another, beginning with the meanest in rank, then taking those of higher degree, but reserving the chief persons to the last; the persecutors always hoping that these, intimidated and worn out by the sight of so great suffering, would give up their constancy. Many, of all ranks, did so yield; and, while others joyfully preferred crowns of martyrdom, the weaker ones abjured Christ, and offered sacrifice to idols. But ere the terrors of persecution had well passed over, and as soon as ever an imperial edict gave license to the Christians to rebuild " the houses wherein they had been accustomed to assemble,"* many of these persons returned, and implored their brethren, who still remained in prisons, to receive them back into their communion. Presbyters, soldiers, private persons of all classes, overwhelmed with shame and sorrow, came deploring their sin, and praying to be restored to the church.

The greater number of the steadfast confessors refused to hold fellowship with persons who had fainted in the hour of trial, and denied their Saviour. They feared lest the easy restoration of such should seem to justify a like timidity in others. Meletius, Peleus, and several tretbren of great zeal and influence, were of this mind; but they did not

* Eusebius, Hist. Eccles., viii., 17. VOL. XI.— FIFTH SERIES.

object_if we may believe Epiphanius—to allow the penitents a second hearing, if, after some tiine allowed for trial, they should have given evidence of sincerity, and proof of new power to withstand temptation.

Peter, on the contrary, a man of deep piety, gentle and compassionate, wished to admit them at once, and not discourage them by the appearance of mistrust, or expose them to fresh danger by delay. “ Lest," said he," that which is lame be turned out of the way; but let it rather be healed.But neither argument nor entreaty could soften the severity of Meletius and his party, who deemed themselves bound so to uphold the cause of truth. Their self-sufficiency may have worn an air of arrogance. Peter may have been over-jealous of his dignity as Bishop, or Archbishop, of Alexandria. Moved, perhaps, by other emotions than those of pity for the penitents, he threw off his cloak, spread it on the ground in the court of the prison, and bade a deacon cry,—“As many as are on my side, let them come to me; and they who hold with Meletius, Meletius let them follow.”

Bishops, monks, presbyters, and common people, in great numbers, took the side of Meletius. A few bishops and others remained with Peter. There stood the two parties in open schism, face to face. The same prison-walls enclosed them all, but even withiu the prison that fatal signal severed them; and the Meletian schism, as it is called, was in that one moment irrevocably established. They never more united. Even in public prayer, and in eucharistic feast, the cloak of Peter, so to speak, lay between them. Both parties laboured to adore the loving Saviour, and yet they only agreed in the fearful sacrilege of rending that Saviour's garment.

Such, at least, is the sentence which an observer is ready to pronounce. He who alone is Judge soon called Peter into His nearer presence. The gentle bishop was quickly martyred, proving himself sternly faithful to his Master, as well as tender and patient with fainting, fallen, repentant members of His flock.

Meletius, himself sincere, was sent away with a gang of Christian convicts to work in the Phanesian mines. They were of two parties, although rudely huddled into one chained mass. Nothing softened their mutual antipathy; and thus, as they went on their long and wearisome journey, the loosing of their fetters at the resting-places was taken as the opportunity for “ Catholics” and “Meletians” to turn to the right and left, and pray apart. On that journey, when they stopped at any city, each party elected a bishop of its own to occupy the place, hastily taking him from the crowds of Christians who came to meet them. Nay, the whole clergy of the province, with its varieties of bishop, presbyter, and deacon, the Catholic and the Meletian, most pitilessly rent asunder, strangely honoured Christ by devoting their bodies to bonds or death in His cause, and dishonoured Him by enmity among themselves. For many generations Catholic churches and martyr-churches were built asunder, and stood in the depths of

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