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hospital, went again into these vaults, and made it considerably larger, and occasionbrought out a great number of the bats, ed that hill, which is in number the fourth, many of which I saw. Bats, it is well and is called “ Bezetha,” to be inhabited known, delight to take up their abode in also. It lies over against the tower caverns and dark places. Many travellers Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep have noticed the immense numbers of valley. This new-built part of the city, . them found in caverns in the East; and he adds, was called “Bezetha " in our Layard tells, that, on occasion of a visit language; which, if interpreted in the to a cavern, these noisome beasts com- Grecian language, may be called “ the pelled him to retreat. In Isaiah ii. 20 New City." _From a correspondent. it is written thus : "In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols THE SCOTCH PEARL-FISHERY.-A of gold, which they made each one for paragraph recently quoted in “The himself to worship, to the moles and to Times ” from “ The Scotsman ” refers to the bats.” To this day these animals a successful attempt which has just been find a congenial lurking abode “amidst made to revive the Scotch pearl-fisheries. the remains of idols, and the sculptured It has long been known to naturalists representations of idolatrous practices ;” and antiquaries that pearls of great beauthus attesting the meaning of the prophetty and size were at one time found in the Isaiah's words.-We returned to the city Scotch streams. Tytler, in his “ History through the Damascus gate ; and near of Scotland,” states that so early as the the gate, inside, we stayed to examine the twelfth century there was a demand for remains of an old tower, and marked Scotch pearls abroad. Those in the posparticularly the well-hewn massive stones session of Alexander I., he says, were cel. regularly laid in their courses, and evident- ebrated for their size and beauty. In 1355 ly forming part of some ancient structure. Scotch pearls are referred to in a statute of These remains of ancient Jerusalem are the Parisian goldsmiths, by which it was well worthy of inspection. There is a enacted that no worker in gold or silver tower near the Jaffa gate, in which the should set them with oriental pearls, eslower courses of the stones are of large cept in large ornaments or jewels for dimensions, and the masonry is evidently churches. They are noticed again in the very old; the ancient and the modern reign of Charles I., when the Scotch parts of the structure being well defined. pearl trade was considered of sufficient The lower portion is generally considered importance to be worthy of the attention to be the remains of the Tower of Hippi- of Parliament. The following extract cus, which was built in the reign of Herod. from “ An Accompt Current betwixt The present Damascus gate is supposed to Scotland and England," by John Spruel, occupy the site of the gate of Ephraim” Edinburgh, 1705, shows that they were of Scripture : it is the most ornamental then well known. “If a Scotch pearl be of all the city gates, and is a handsome of a fine transparent colour and perfectly specimen of Saracenic architecture. From round, and of any great bigness, it may it runs the great road northward to Damas- be worth 15, 20, 30, 40, to 50 rixdollars : cus. The workmanship of its lower yea, I have given 100 rixdollars (£16 portions, like that of a part of the westem 9s. 2d.) for one, but that is rarely to get wall, is ancient; and here are seen some such...... I have dealt in pearl these forty massive stones similar to those at the years and more; and yet, to this day, i corners of the temple area.--I next could never sell a necklace of fine Scots visited that quarter of the city which lies pearl in Scotland, nor yet fine pendents, eastward of the Damascus gate, and is the generality seeking for oriental pearls, called Bezetha, from the name of the hill because further fetcht. At this very day on which it is built. This, the north- I can show some of our own Scots pearl eastern quarter of the city, is but thinly as fine, more hard and transparent, than peopled. Most of the space within the any oriental, It's true that the oriental wall is covered with ruins and rubbish, can be easier matcht, because they are all or occupied by gardens and patches of of a yellow water; yet foreigners covet wheat. The whole of the north-east Scots pearl," Oliver Goldsmith, in bis corner of the city, as one traveller describes “ Natural History,” refers to a pearl-fishit, is one continuous cornfield ; and when ery rented on the Tay; and Hugh Milhe saw it, on the 30th of April, the wheat ler, in our own days, has spoken of rivers was in ear. Josephus informs us that, as in the north famous for their pearls. As the city grew more populous, it gradually a branch of industry, however, the Scotch trept beyond its old limits; and those pearl-fishery seems to have been wellparts of it that stood northward of the nigh forgotten, when, in 1860, M. Moritz temple, and joined that hill to the city, Unger, a foreigner, settled in Edinburgh,
conceived the idea of making a tour Majesty for forty guineas. The Duchess through the districts where the pearl-fish of Hamilton and the Empress of the was known to abound. He discovered French have also purchased fine specithat pearl-fishing was not altogether for- mens at high prices; and M. Unger has gotten, and found pearls in various parts in his possession a necklace of Scotch of the country in the hands of people who pearls, which he values at £350. The could not estimate their value. He pur- process of fishing is very simple. The chased all he could procure. The conse- fi-her, having discovered a bed of the quence was that in the following year fresh-water shell-fish or oyster known to many persons colliers, masons, labour- naturalists as the Mytilus Margaritifera, ers, and others--began to devote their wades to it with a stick split at the end, leisure to pearl-fishing, and many of between the two parts of which the oyster them were so successful as during the is seized. When he has collected a suffisummer months to make as much as £8 cient number, he opens them with a knife, to £10 weekly. In the summer of 1862, and ascertains if there is any pearl inside. which was dry and favourable to fishing Of course, great numbers may be opened operations, more pearls were procured without success; and in this respect pearlthan during any previous year in Scots fishing resembles gold-digging. The land at this time, and the average price Tay, the Don, the Leith, the Garry, and of a Scotch pearl was from £2 6s. to the Tummel are said to abound most in 10. £5 was considered a high price. pearl-oysters; but it seems they are to be Since the fisheries were revived, their found in a large number of the Scotch price has rapidly risen, and they now streams, and more especially in those of fetch prices ranging from £5 to £20. the north and west. One Scotch pearl was bought by Her
ADAPTED FOR CONGREGATIONS AND SUNDAY-SCHOOLS.
Jerusalem the Holy !
In thee is all my glory,
In me is all my woe; No mortal tongue can tell me
Yea, shall be, till I'm summond, What hallow'd joys are there,
In fulness of His grace, What bright, unfading glory,
The King in all His beauty What peace beyond compare.
To worship face to face. Ever those mansions holy
Ever on thee, dear country, Echo with sweetest song ;
My longing eyes I keep ; With strains of angel-barpers,
Even now, by faith beholding And all the ransom'd throng :
Thy shores, for joy I weep: For sin may never visit
The mention of thy glory That Paradise of joy,
With gladness fills my breast; And tears are ever banish'd,
"T is medicine in my sickness, And smiles have no alloy.
And peace, and joy, and rest.
O blest and happy country!
When shall I see thy face,
And in thy sacred borders
Find a sure resting-place ?
Jesu! in mercy bring me
Safe to the hon c of rest,
To be with Thee, the father,
And Spirit, ever blest !
A MOUNTAIN SONG OF PRAISE.
The mountain Nestorians, (says Dr. Perkins,) like the people of most wild countries, cherish & profound attachment to their native eliffs. Indeed, their local associations, their brave character, and religious patriotism, are about as well described by the beautiful Waldensian hymn, as are tbose of the dwellers of Piedmont,
For the strength of the hills we bless
By the touch of the mountain sod;
Where the spoiler's feet ne'er trod ;--
Whose light must never die ;
'Midst the silence of the sky; The rocks yield founts of courage,
Struck forth as by Thy rod ; -
Where Thy still small voice is heard ;
Which by Thy strength are stirr'd ;
Thy Spirit walks abroad ;
The royal eagle darteth,
On his quarry, from the heights ;
Seeks there his wild delights ;
Have sought the mountain sod ;-
Far, far below us waves ;
Cannot reach our lofty caves ;
Of Freedom's last abode ;-
Our God, our fathers' God.
Round our camp of rock outspread ;
Bearing record of our dead;
For the free hearts' burial-sod ;-
AN EVENING HYMN.
And from sin for ever keep us ;
May He ne'er be grieved, and leave us
In endless night!
Guard us waking, guard us sleeping; Holy dreams and hopes attend us,
And, when we die,
May we, in Thy mighty keeping,
All peaceful lie ! Jesus, without Thy salvation,
When the last dread call shall wake us, We have no light!
Do not then, our God, forsake us,
But to reign in glory take us,
With Thee on high !
WESLEYAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
BRIEF SURVEY OF SOME PARTS OF THE FIELD OCCUPIED BY THE
OUR ANTIPODES. A Line carried over sea and land direct from London to the South Pole will leave England not far from Brighton, and, passing through Normandy and the
heart of France, over the Pyrenees, through Spain, across the Mediterranean Sea to Oran in French Algeria, through the Great Desert of Africa, and dividing between the kingdoms of Ashanti and Dahomi, will again reach the ocean near Akrah, and touch no other land until it reaches the Antarctic Circle. Continue the line on the other side of the globe from the South Pole northwards, and, in passing over the Great Pacific Ocean to Russian territory, it will leave Tasmania, Australia, and New Zealand on the left, and strike the Fiji Islands at Somo Somo, in 16° 50° south latitude, and 180° longitude. At this point let us commence our survey of the
ISLANDS OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC. Fiji Islands. - The Fiji Islands, although by measurement nearly as distant from Great Britain as any point can be, on a straight line, are more easily approached than many nearer countries, because the way to them is by sea. If those regions had been part of a vast continent, they might have been as difficult of access as some parts of Asia and Africa now are, which remain unexplored to this day, and their inhabitants in heathen darkness; while many of the Fijians are no longer pagans and cannibals, but happy and consistent Christians. Fiji remained unknown to Europe until the Pacific was explored by the adventurous navigator Tasman, in the seventeenth century. How long this large group of islands has been peopled, is not knowa. The Missionaries first became acquainted with the Fijians about forty years ago, by meeting some of this remarkable race of barbarians assisting at the royal pageants, celebrated by the chiefs of the Friendly Islands. After due inquiry, and such scanty preparation as they were able to make, some of these good men ventured with their families to visit the savages and settle among them. Their perilous Mission proved successful. God was pleased to favour their undertaking. They learned the language of the Fijians; and communicated to them the tidings of salvation in the name of the Lord Jesus. One half the inhabitants of Fiji have embraced the profession of Christianity; many of them are happy in the enjoyment of personal religion, and others are earnestly seeking that blessing. The more remote regions have heard of the Gospel; and it is hoped that these abodes of spiritual darkness will soon be enlightened by the knowledge of the one true God, and of His mercy to mankind in the Lord Jesus Christ.*
Friendly Islands.—The Mission to the Friendly Islands preceded the Mission to Fiji: it was first undertaken by the Rev. Walter Lawry, then resident in New South Wales, more than forty years ago. Mr. Lawry made only a brief stay in the islands. But he found in Tonga the impression left by the labours of the Missionaries of the London Missionary Society, who some years before, after a brief residence, and much affliction, had quitted the islands to return no more. The Mission families who settled in Tonga, met with many severe trials. They were badly sheltered from the sun and rain and hurricanes, by the frail tenements prepared for them. For weeks and months together they were destitute of suitable
• See Memoirs of the Rev. William Cross, by the Rev. Johu Huot. Life of the Rey, John Hant, by the Rev. G. S. Rowe. Life of Mrs. Cargill, by Rev. David Cargill. Rev. John Waterhouse's Journals in the Missionary Notices. Journals of the Rev. Walter Lawry, edited by the Rev. Elijah Hoole. Vah-ta-ha, by the Rev. Joseph Waterhouse. Events in Fiji, by the Rev. David Cargill. Fiji and the Fijians, by the Rev. Thomas Williams and the Rev. James Calvert. Life in Fiji; or, Five Years among the Cannibals, by a Lady. Ten Mouths in Fiji, by Mrs. Colonel Smythe. Viti; Mission to the Fiji Islands, by Dr. Seemann. Parliamentary Blue Book on Fiji.
food; and they encountered many risks to health, and even to life itself, from the ignorant cruelty of the natives.
The result of the labours, sufferings, and prayers of these self-denying men and women, is seen in the entire overthrow of heathenism, and the acknowledgment of the kingdom of God. The idols of Tonga are now dispersed as curiosities among the museums of Europe and Australia ; the idol-temples have been abandoned or destroyed; while the frequency of chapels and schools throughout the islands testi. fies the universal profession of Christianity, and an observable advance in the arts and comforts of civilized life.*
New Zealand.—The Missionary who fifty years ago was appointed to minister to the natives and settlers in New South Wales, had his attention called to the New Zealanders by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, senior chaplain in the colony, who established the first Mission for the benefit of New Zealand in the Bay of Islands in the year 1814. At Mr. Marsden's request, Mr. Leigh visited that station in the year 1818, and was impressed with a call of duty to establish a Mission for the conversion of the Maories, then in a state of unchecked barbarism. The commotions among that vengeful and warlike people delayed the commencement of the NewZealand Mission until the year 1822; and the same broke up the Mission at Wangaroa, in 1827. In the course of the same year the Missionaries returned from Sydney to Hokianga, on the river Thames, without any certainty that they should not soon again be disturbed. In New Zealand the Missionaries laboured in friendly co-operation with the agents and clergy of the Church Missionary Society, each Society having its own range of territory defined with tolerable accuracy. Their success in subduing the natives to Christianity is matter of history. It is no small triumph of modern Missions, that a people acknowledging neither angel nor spirit for God, who were not even idolaters but atheists, should have been brought to the knowledge of God, to a reverence for the Bible, and to the practice and love of Christian worship, public, social, and private. The story of the conversion of the New Zealanders, as related in the “ Notices” and “ Reports," and as epitomized with graphic effect in Strachan's “Life of Leigh," is one of the most interesting episodes in Mission History. In process of time New Zealand has been colonized, and has become a dependency of the British Empire, having a Governor appointed from England, and a church establishment with a Bishop at its head; but the natives continue to be powerful and wealthy, and assert a kind of rude equality with their colonial neighbours. They have never been so liberal to their teachers as the other islanders; and the Missions to the settlers are still in comparative infancy: so that the cost of New Zealand to the Society, for the present, is considerable. And yet to New Zealand, as well as to Fiji and Tonga, attention may be directed, as a most remarkable instance of a whole people being subdued and humanized by the preaching of the word of God, and this within the memory of men now living. Are not such instances of success better than a thousand arguments for the further prosecution of Mission-work in other lands ? +
The London Society was the first to undertake Missions to the South Sea Islands. In Tahiti, their earliest Mission, in the New Hebrides, in the Loyalty Islands, and in Samoa, they have been favoured with remarkable success.
* Tonga and the Friendly Islands, by Miss Farmer.
† Life of the Rev. Samuel Leigh, by the Rev. Alexander Strachan. Life of the Rev. J. H. Bumby, by the Rev. Alfred Barrett. The Southern World, by the Rev. Robert Young. Australia, with Notes by the way, by the Rev. Dr. Jobson.