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nim water a dry stick for a whole year, as Butler, by “the lustre of his miracles,' if it were a live plant.” He walled him- and the “fame of his predictions." self up at the top of a rock," from the for
CHRONOLOGY. tieth or forty-second to the ninetieth 1801. The peace of Amiens between year of his age," and “ drew the admira- France and England was signed in tion of the whole world on him," says France.
Palm Sunday. This is the first Sunday before Easter, palms were consecrated by the priest, and is sometimes called Passion Sunday. and after they were used they were preIt is denominated Palm Sunday, because served to be burned for holy ashes, to lay on this day the Roman catholic church on the heads of the people on Ash Wedordains boughs or branches of palm trees nesday in the following year, as beforeto be carried in procession, in imitation mentioned (see p. 261,) on that day. ol those strewed before Christ when he On Palm Sunday, the palm flowers and rude into Jerusalem. In this monkish leaves to be consecrated by the officiating procession the host was carried upon an prelate or priest were laid upon the high ass, branches and flowers were strewed altar, and those for the poor laity being on the road, the richest cloths were laid placed upon the south step of the altar down, and others were hung up. The the priest arrayed in a red cope proceeded to consecrate them by a prayer, and the people strewing palms before it. commencing “I conjure thee, thou crea- Googe's Naogeorgus says :ture of flowers and branches, in the name of God the Father," &c. This was to
A woodden Asse they have, and displace the devil or his influences, if he
Image great that on him rides,
But underneath the Asse's feete or they lurked or were hidden in or about
a table broad there slides, the “ creature of flowers and branches."
Being borne on wheeles, which ready drest, Then followed a prayer wherein he said,
and al things meete therfore, with crosses, “ We humbly beseech thee The Asse is brought abroad and set that thy truth may + sanctify this crea
before the churche's doore : ture of flowers and branches, and slips The people all do come, and bowes of palms,or boughs of trees, which we offer,
of trees and Palmes they bere, &c. Then the “ creature of flowers and Which things against the tempest great branches " was fumed with smoke of
the Parson conjures there, frankincense from the censers, and there
And straytwayes downe before the Asse, were other prayers with crossings, and
upon his face he lies,
Whome there an other Priest doth strike they were sprinkled with holy water with
with rodde of largest sise : this supplication : “ Bless + and sanc
He rising up, two lubbours great tify + these branches of palms, and other
upon their faces fall, trees and flowers,” &c. Then the sacrists
In strauuge attire, and lothsomely, distributed the palms to the abbots, priors, with filthie tune, they ball : and nobler persons, and the flowers and Who, when againe they risen are, leaves to the others. When this will
with stretching out their hande, done the procession moved, and after- They poynt unto the wooden knight, wards made a stand while two priests
and, singing as they stande, brought a Pascal in which the crucifix
Declare that that is he that came
into the worlde to save, was laid ; afterwards the banner and
And to redeeme such as in him cross-bearers filed off to the right and to the left, and the boys and monks of the
their hope assured have:
And even the same that long agone, convent arranged themselves, and, after
while in the streate he roade, a short service, the priests with the tomb, The people mette, and Olive-bowes headed by the banner and cross, passed
so thicke before him stroade between the monks, who knelt as they This being soung, the people cast passed. When they came to the city
the braunches as they passe, gates they divided again on two sides, Some part upon the Image, and and the shrine being put on a table, was
some part upon the Asse : covered with cloth. Above the entrance
Before whose feete a wondrous heape of the gates, in a place handsomely pre
of bowes and braunches ly :
This done, into the Church he strayght pared with hangings, were boys with
is drawne full solemly: other singers whom the chanter had ap
The shaven Priestes before them marche, pointed, and these sang, “Gloria, Laus,"
the people follow fast, « Glory, praise,” &c. After having made
Still striving who shall gather first a procession through the city, they re
the bowes that downe are cast : turned to the convent-gate, where the For falsely they beleeve that these shrine was laid on the table and covered
have force and vertue great, with cloth, and a religious service was Against the rage of winter stormes performed. The rronks then returned to
and thunders flashing heate. the church, and stood before the crucifix In some place wealthie citizens, uncovered, while mass was performed ;
and men of sober chere,
For no small summe doe hire this Asse and after they had communicated, the
with them about to bere, deacon first and the rest afterwards, they
And manerly they use the same, offered their palms and flowers, at the
not suffering any by altar.*
To touch this Asse, nor to presume It was also an old Roman catholic cus
unto his presence ny: tom on Palm Sunday, to draw about the For they suppose that in this thing, town a wooden ass with a figure on it,
they Christ do lightly serve, representing Christ riding into Jerusalem, And well of him accepted are,
and great rewardes deserve. . Fosbroke's British Monach
Brand's Pop Lutiq. &c.
When the wooden ass had performed
in the church procession, the boys hired man for playing the prophet on Palm hini :
Sunday. Though Roman catholic ceremoThe Sexten pleasde with price, and looking VIII., yet he declared that the bearing of
nies were generally disused under Henry well no harme be done : They take the Asse, and through the streets palms on Palm Sunday was to be conand crooked lanes they rone,
tinued and not cast away; and it appears, Whereas they common verses sing, that they were borne in England until according to the guise,
the second year of Edward VI. The people giving money, breade, “Stowe's Chronicle," by Howes, the pracand egges of largest sise.
tice is said to have been discontinued in Of this their gaines they are compelde, 1548.* the maister halfe to give,
It was likewise a Roman catholic cusLeast he alone without his portion
tom to resort to “our lady of Nantsof the Asse should live.
well,” at Little Conan, in Cornwall, with On the Romish processioning on Palm a cross of palm ; and the people, after Sunday, it is observed by an old writer making the priest a present, were allowed that, “Among
thousand, scarce one to throw the cross into the well; if it knew what this meant. They have their swam, the thrower was to outlive the laudable dumme ceremonies, with Lentin year; if it sunk, he was not. crosse and Uptide crosse, and these two
Recently, it is related, that on the Samust justle til lent break his necke. Then turday before Palm Sunday, the boys of cakes must be caste out of the steple, that the grammar-school at Lanark, according al the boyes in the parish must lie scam
to ancient usage, parade the streets with bling together by the eares, tyl al the a palm, or, its substitute, a large tree of parish falleth a laughyng. But, lorde, the willow kind, salix cafrea, in blossom, what asses-play made they of it in great ornamented with daffodils, mezereon, and cathedral churches and abbies. One box-tree. This day there is called Palm comes forth in his albe and his long stole Saturday, and the custom is supposed to (for so they call their girde that they put be “ a popish relic of very ancient standabout theyr neckes,) thys must be leashe ing." I 'Mr. Douce, in a manuscript note, wise, as hunters weares their hornes.- cited by Mr. Ellis, says “ I have someThis solempne Syre played Christe's part, where met with a proverbial saying, that he a God's name. Then another companye that hath not a palm in his hand on Palm of singers, chyldren and al, song, in prick- Sunday, must have his hand cut off.” song, the Jewe's part—and the Deacon
According to Stowe, in the week before read the middel text. The Prest at the Easter, there were great shows in London Alter al this while, because it was tediouse for going to the woods, and fetching into to be unoccupyed, made Crosses of Palme the king's house a twisted tree, or wiihe ; to set upon your doors, and to beare in and the like into the house of every man your purses, to chace away the Divel."
of note or consequence. Dr. Fulke, opposing the Catholics, ob- Palm Sunday remains in the English serves on their carrying of the host on calendars. It is still customary with Palm Sunday,—“It is pretty sport, that men and boys to go a palming in London you make the priests carry this idol to early on Palm Sunday morning ; that supply the room of the ass on which Christ is, by gathering branches of the willow or did ride. Thus you turn the holy mys- sallow with their grey shining velvettery of Christ's riding to Jerusalem to a looking buds, from those trees in the viciMay-game and pagent-play.". In the nity of the metropolis : they come home accounts of St. Andrew Hubbard's pa- with slips in their hats, and sticking in the rish, there are Palm Sunday charges for the breast button holes of their coats, and a following items : In 1520, eightpence for sprig in the mouth, bearing the “ palm" the hire of an angel. In 1535-7, an- branches in their hands. other eightpence for a priest and a child remains aniong the ignorant from poor that played as a messenger: in that year neighbourhoods, but there is still to be the angel was hired for fourpence. By found a basket woman or two at Coventthe churchwardens of St. Mary-at-hill
, in garden, and in the chief markets with 1451, fourpence was paid to one Lore- this “palm," as they call it, on the Satur
This usage FLORAL DIRECTORY.
* From a “Dialogue, concerning the chyrfest céremonyes by the Impus of oh!..Chrisi, 1564," 12o. Quorod by Brauit.
+ Carew : Sinclair's Statist. Acc.
day before Palm Sunday, which they sell
tagineum. and hence the quantity on sale is very
Dedicated to St. Priscus. small. Nine out of ten among
purchasers buy it in imitation of others, they
March 29. care not why; and such purchasers, be- Sts. Jonas, Barachisius, &c. A. D. 327. ing Londoners, do not even know the
Sts. Armog astes, Archinimus, and Satree which produces it, but imagine it to
turus, A. D. 457. St. Eustasius, or be a "real" palm tree, and “wonder” they
Eustachius, Abbot, A. D. 625. never saw any “palm" trees, and where
Gundleus, a Welsh King, 5th Cent. they grow.
St. Mark, Bishop, 4th Cent.
brated chemist and alchymist of his time,
was stoned to death by the natives of March 28.
Mauritania, whither he had gone on a Priscus, Malchus, and Alexander, Mar- His attention was directed to chemistry
religious mission, at the age of eighty. tyrs, A.D. 260. St. Sixtus III. Pope, by the power of love. A lady, very A.D. 440. St. Gontran, King and Con- hardsome, with whom he was passionfessor, A.D. 593.
ately enamoured, refused to marry him. CHRONOLOGY.
One day, when he renewed his solicitaOn this day in 1380, gunpowder was
tion, she showed her bosom inflamed first used in Europe by the Venetians by a cancer. Young Lulle instantly took against the Genoese. Its power is said by the Germans to have been discovered leave, with the resolution to cure, and if
possible, conquer the heart of his mistress. accidentally by Berthold Schwartz; but our
He searched with all the ardour, which Roger Bacon who died in 1278, certainly affection and compassion could inspire, was acquainted with it. Gunpowder was
into the secrets of medicine and chemistry, known in India very early, and from thence and had the good fortune to cure, and io the knowledge of it was obtained by the
her. After her death he attached Arabians, who employed it in a battle hitoself to the church. The inhabitants near Mecca so long ago as the year 690. of the island of Majorca, where he was
1677. Wenceslaus Hollar, the engraver, born, in 1236, revere him as a martyr. died at Westminster. His view of Lon
1461. The battle which decided the don in Howell's “ Londinopolis," and the claims of the houses of York and Lancasnumerous plates he executed for Dug; ter was fought between Towton and Saxdale's “ Monasticon," Warwickshire, “ St. Paul's," Origines Juridiciales,"
ton, two villages near York. and other works have made him well menced in a snow storm at day break. known to the topographer and portrait three in the afternoon, and terminated in
was contested with fearful obstinacy till collector; but his“ muffs” and “ insects”
a deluge of blood. Eight and thirty are particularly beautiful. His style almost thousand human beings were left dead peculiar to himself,is known at a glance by on the field; of whom the heralds apthe experienced eye;. Gaywood, in por- pointed to number the slain, returned traits, and King, in views, were inferior that twenty-eight thousand were Lancasartists of the same school. Merian, in trians. Edward, duke of York, who won ome insects, rivals him formidably. Hol- the day, rode from the scene of carnage ar's labour was immense as may be seen
to York, where he ordered the death of from Vertue's catalogue of his prints; yet several prisoners; while Henry VI. of ne often worked at fourpence an hour, and Lancaster, who lost the crown, escaped perished in poverty:
with great difficulty to the borders.
Oxelip. Primula elatior. 1802. Pallas, a new planet, was dis- Dedicated to St. Eustasius. covered by Dr. Olbers, of Bremen in Fumitory. Fumaria officinalis. Germany.
Dedicated to St. Jonas.
March 31. St. John Climacus. St. Zozimus, Bishop of Syracuse, A.D. 660. St. Regulus,
St. Benjamin, Deacon, Martyr, a. D. 424.
St. Acacius, or Achates, Bishop of or Rieul, Bishop of Senlis.
Antioch, A. D. 250, or 251. St. Guy St. John Climacus, A. D. 605,
A. D. 1046. Was caverned as a hermit in a rock
CHRONOLOGY. near Mount Sinai, in Syria, and became at seventy-five, abbot and superior-general
1814. On this day the sovereigns who of all the monks and hermits of the have since formed the holy alliance, encountry. He admired one of the princi- tered Paris at the head of the Russian pal citizens of Alexandria in Egypt, who, troops. The capitulation of this capital petitioning to become a monk, was or- was succeeded by the return of the Bourdered to remain without the gate, and bons to France. manifested his obedience by staying there for seven years, and begging prayers for his leprous soul of every passenger. St. Maundy Thursday, John also admired a monkish cook, because he generally cried while he cooked, and assigned as a reason, that “ the fire he always had before his eyes,
SHERE THURSDAY. reminded him of that fire which will burn souls for all eternity."* It is related that
Maundy Thursday is always the a woman who had committed so enormous
Thursday before Easter; its name has a sin that she dare not confess it, came to
occasioned some trouble to antiquaries. St. John, who bade her write it, and seal One writer conceives maundy to be corit, and give it to him, and he would pray disciples to break bread in remembrance
rupted from the mandate of Christ to his for her; this she did, and shortly after of him : or from his other mandate, after St. John died. The woman sorely afraid he had washed their feet, to love one that her written secret would be read, another. With better reason it is conwept and prayed at St. John's tomb, and ceived to be derived from the Saxon word begged he would appear and tell her what he had done with the paper; on a
mand, which afterwards became maund, sudden, St. John came forth habited like a
a name for a basket, and subsequently for bishop, with a bishop on each side of any gift or offering contained in the him, and he said to the woman, “Why sand favours from her maund she drew:”
basket. Thus Shakspeare says, “ a thoutroublest thou me so much, and these saints with me? thou sufferest us to have and Hall in his satires, speaks of “ no rest : look here, our clothes are all maund charged with household merchana wet with thy tears." Then he delivered to dize:” so also Drayton tells of “a little her the paper, sealed as she had given it maund being made of osiers small;" and
Herrick to him, and said, “ See here, look at the
says, seal, the writing, and read it.” So “ Behold, for us, the naked graces stay she did ; and she found all her sin “de- With maunds of roses, for to strew theway." faced clean out;" and instead thereof was written, “ All thy sins are forgiven, and The same poet speaks of maundie as
alms: put away by the prayer of St. John, my servant. Then she returned thanks, and “ All's gone, and death hath taken St. John and his two bishops returned to
Away from us their sepulchres.
Our maundie, thus
Thus then, “ Maundy Thursday, the day Rough Carameni. Cardemeni hirsuta. preceding Good Friday, on which the Dedicated to St. John of Climacus. king distributes alms to a certain number Lesser Daffodil. Narcissus minor. of poor persons at Whitehall, is so named Dedicated to St. Zozimus. from the maunds in which the gifts were
Dunton's British Apollo. + Archdeacon Nares's “G!ossary," wherein the authorities briefly cited above are set forth at large.