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in the church procession, the boys hired him:
The Sexten pleasde with price, and looking well no harm be done:
They take the Asse, and through the streets
Whereas they common verses sing,
The people giving money, breade,
Of this their gaines they are compelde.
Least he alone without his portion
of tbe Asse should live. On the Romish processioning on Palm Sunday, it is observed by an old writer that, "Among x thousand, scarce one knew what this meant. They have their laudable dumme ceremonies, with Lentin croue and Uptide croste, and these two must justle til lent break his necke. Then cakes must be caste out of the steple, that al the boyes in the parish must lie scambling together by the eares, tyl al the parish falleth a laughyng. But, lords, what asses-play made they of it in great cathedral churches and abbies. One comes forth in his albe and his long stole (for so they call their girde that they put about theyr neckes,) thys must be leashe wise, as hunters weares their homes.— This solempne Syre played Christe's part, a God's name. Then another companye of singers, chyldren and al, song, in pricksong, the Jewe's part—and the Deacon read the niiddel text. The Prest at the Alter al this while, because it was tediouse to be unoccupied, made Crosses of Palme to set upon your doors, and to beare in your purses, to chace away the Diver."
Dr. Fulke, opposing the Catholics, observes on their carrying of the host on Palm Sunday,—" It is pretty sport, that you make the priests carry this idol to supply the room of the ass on which Christ did ride. Thus you turn the holy mystery of Christ's riding to Jerusalem to a May-game and pagent-play." In the accounts of St. Andrew Hubbard's parish, there are Palm Sunday charges for the following items: In 1520, eightpence for the hire of an angel. In 1535-7, another eightpence for a priest and a child that played as a messenger: in that year the angel was hired for fourpence. By the churchwardens of St. Mary-at-hill, in 1451, fourpence was paid to one Lore
man for playing the prophet on Palm Sunday. Though Roman catholic ceremonies were generally disused under Henry VIII., yet he declared that the bearing of palms on Palm Sunday was to be continued and not cast away; and it appears, that they were borne in England until the second year of Edward VI. In "Stowe's Chronicle," by Howes, the practice is said to have been discontinued in 1548.*
m was likewise a Roman catholic custom to resort to "our lady of Nantswell," at Little Conan, in Cornwall, with a cross of palm; and the people, after making the priest a present, were allowed to throw the cross into the well; if it swam, the thrower was to outlive the year; if it sunk, he was not.f
Recently, it is related, that on the Saturday before Palm Sunday, the boys of the grammar-school at Lanark, according to ancient usage, parade the streets with a palm, or, its substitute, a large tree of the willow kind, talix ca/rea, in blossom, ornamented with daffodils, mezereon, and box-tree. This day there is called Palm Saturday, and the custom is supposed to be " a popish relic of very ancient standing."J Mr. Douce, in a manuscript note, cited by Mr. Ellis, says " I have somewhere met with a proverbial saying, that he that hath not a palm in his hand on Palm Sunday, must have his hand cut off."
According to Stowe, in the week before Easter, there were great shows in London for going to the woods, and fetching into the king's house a twisted tree, or withe; and the like into the house of every man of note or consequence.
Palm Sunday remains in the English calendars. It is still customary with men and boys to go a palming in London early on Palm Sunday morning; that is, by gathering branches of the willow or sallow with their grey shining velvetlooking buds, from those trees in the vicinity of the metropolis: they come home with slips in their hats, and sticking in the breast button holes of their coats, and a sprig in the mouth, bearing the "palm" branches in their hands. This usage remains among the ignorant from poor neighbourhoods, but there is still to be found a basket woman or two at Coventgarden, and in the chief markets with this " palm," as they call it, on the Satur
* From a "Dialna-up, concerning the cliyr-fcst ccremonvct hv tlic lmncsof AMi.CUm*, 1564," 12wo. Freed by BrauhL
day before Palm Sunday, which they sell to those who are willing to buy; but the demand of late years has been very little, and hence the quantity on sale is very small. Nine out of ten among the purchasers buy it in imitation of others, they care not why; and such purchasers, being Londoners, do not even know the tree which produces it, but imagine it to be a " real" palm tree, and " wonder" they never saw any "palm" trees, and where they grow.;
Sweet scented Jonquil. Narcissus Odonu. Dedicated to St. John of Egypt.
Prisms, Matches, and Alexander, Martyrs, A.d. 260. St. Sixtus III, Pope, A.d. 440. St. (Ion!ran, King and Confessor, A.d. 593.
Chronology. On this day in 1380, gunpowder was first used in Europe by the Venetians against the Genoese. Its power is said by the Germans to have been discovered accidentally byBertholdSchwarti; but our Roger Bacon who died in 1278, certainly was acquainted with it. Gunpowder was known in India very early, and from thence the knowledge of it was obtained by the Arabians, who employed it in a battle near Mecca so long ago as the year 690. 1677. Wenceslaus Hollar, the engraver, died at Westminster. His view of London in Howell's " Londinopolis," and the numerous plates he executed for Dugdale's "Monaslicon," "Warwickshire," "St. Paul's," "Origines Juridiciales," and other works have made him well known to the topographer and portrait collector; but his " muffs" and " insects" are particularly beautiful. His style almost peculiar to himself,is known at a glance by the experienced eye; Gaywood, in portraits, and King, in views, were inferior artists of the same school. Merian, in nine insects, rivals him formidably. Holar's labour was immense as may be seen from Vertue's catalogue of his prints; yet ne often worked at fourpence an hour, and perished in poverty.
1801.. Sir Ralph Abercrombie died in Egypt. He received his death-wound on the 21st„ during his memorable victory over the French at Alexandria.
1802. Pallas, a new planet, was discovered by Dr. Olbers, of Bremen in Germany.
Lesser Leopardsbane. Doronicum Plan
Dedicated to St. Priscus.
Sts. Jonas, liarachisius, &c. A. D. Mr.
Sts. Armogastes, Arckinimus, and Sa
turns, A. D. 457. St. Eustatius, or
Eustachlus, Abbot, A. D. 625. St.
Gundleus, a Welsh King, 5th Cent.
St. Mark, Bishop, 4th Cent.
1315. Raymond Lulle, the most celebrated chemist and alchymist of his time, was stoned to death by the natives of Mauritania, whither he had gone on a religious mission, at the age of eighty. His attention was directed to chemistry by the power of love. A lady, very handsome, with whom he was passionately enamoured, refused to marry him. One day, when he renewed his solicitation, she showed her bosom inflamed by a cancer. Young Lulle instantly took leave, with the resolution to cure, and if possible, conquer the heart of his mistress. He searched with all the ardour, which affection and compassion could inspire, into the secrets of medicine and chemistry, and had the good fortune to cure, and to marry her. After her death he attached himself to the church. The inhabitants of the island of Majorca, where he was born, in 1236, revere him as a martyr.
1461. The battle which decided the claims of the houses of York and Lancaster was fought between Towton and Saxton, two villages near York. It commenced in a snow storm at day break, was contested with fearful obstinacy till three in the afternoon, and terminated in a deluge of blood. Eight and thirty thousand human beings were left dead on the field; of whom the heralds appointed to number the slain, returned that twenty-eight thousand were Lancastrians. Edward, duke of York, who won the day, rode from the scene of carnage to York, where he ordered the death of several prisoners; while Henry VI, of Lancaster, who lost the crown, escapea with great difficulty to the borders.
Oxelip. Primula elatior.
Dedicated to St. Eustasius.
Fumitory. Fumaria officinalis.
Dedicated to St. Jonas.
St. John Cllmaciu. St. Zozmui, Bishop of Syracuse, A. D. 660. St. Regulus, or Rienl, Bishop of Senlis.
St. John Climacut, A. D. 605, Was caverned as a hermit in a rock near Mount Sinai, in Syria, and became at seventy-five, abbot and superior-general of all the monks and hermits of the country. He admired one of the principal citizens of Alexandria in Egypt, who, petitioning to become a monk, was ordered to remain without the gate, and manifested his obedience by staying there for seven years, and begging prayers for his leprous soul of every passenger. St. John also admired a monkish cook, because he generally cried while he cooked, and assigned as a reason, that "the fire he always had before his eyes, reminded him of that fire which will burn souls for all eternity." It is related that a woman who had committed so enormous a sin that she dare not confess it, came to St. John, who bade her write it, and seal it, and give it to him, and he would pray for her; this she did, and shortly after St. John died. The woman sorely afraid that her written secret would be read, wept and prayed at St. John's tomb, and begged he would appear and tell her what he had done with the paper; on a sudden, St. John came forth habited like a bishop, with a bishop on each side of him, and he said to the woman, "Why troublest thou me so much, and these saints with me T thou sufferest us to have no rest: look here, our clothes are all wet with thy tears." Then he delivered to Tier the paper, sealed as she had given it to him, and said," See here, look at the seal, open the writing, and read it." So she did; and she found all her sin "defaced clean out;" and instead thereof was written, " All thy sins are forgiven, and put away by the prayer of St. John, my servant." Then she returned thanks, and St. John and his two bishops returned to their sepulchres.
Rough Carameni. Cardemeni hirmta.
Dedicated to St. John of Climacut.
Lesser Daffodil. Narcissus minor.
Dedicated to St. Zozimtu.
I Buller'i Saints.
Maundy Thursday is always the Thursday before Easter; its name has occasioned some trouble to antiquaries. One writer conceives maundy to be corrupted from the mandate of Christ to his disciples to break bread in remembrance of him: or from his other mandate, after he had washed their feet, to love one another." With better reason it is conceived to be derived from the Saxon word maud, which afterwards became maund, a name for a basket, and subsequently for any gift or offering contained in the basket. Thus Shakspeare says, "a thousand favours from her maund she drew:" and Hall in his satires, speaks of "a maund charged with household merchandize:" so also Drayton tells of "a little maund being made of osiers small;" and Herrick says,
"Behold, for us, the naked graces stay With maundi of roses, for to strew theway."
The same poet speaks of maundie as alms:
"All's gone, and death hath taken
Thus then, " Maundy Thursday, the day preceding Good Friday, on which the king distributes alms to a certain number of poor persons at Whitehall, is so named from the maund* in which the gifts were contained."
• Punton's British Apollo. » Archdeacon Nares'i " Glotury," wherein lh« authoriiiei briefly cited above »r« let forth « l«rqc.
According to annual custom, on Maundy Thursday, 1814, the royal donations were distributed at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall. In the morning, Dr. Carey, the sub-almoner, and Mr. Hanby, the secretary to the lord high almoner, Mr. Nost, and others belonging to the lord chamberlain's office, attended by a party of the yeomen of the guard, distributed to seventy-five poor women, and seventyfive poor men, being as many as the king was years old, a quantity of salt fish, consisting of salmon, cod, and herrings, pieces of very fine beef, five loaves of bread, and some ale to drink the king's health. Mr. Hanby gave notice that in future their cases must be certified by the minister of the parish, by order of the lord almoner. At three o'clock they assembled again, the men on one side the chapel, and the women on the other. A procession entered, of those engaged in the ceremony, consisting of a party of yeoman of the guard, one of them carrying a large gold dish on his head, containing 150 bags, with seventy-five silver pennies in each, for the poor people, which was placed in the royal closet. They were followed by the sub-almoner in his robes, with a sash of fine linen over his shoulder and crossing his waist. He was followed by two boys, two girls, the secretary, and another gentleman, with similar sashes, &C. &c, all carrying large nosegays. The church evening service was then performed, at the conclusion of which the silver pennies were distributed, and woollen cloth, linen, shoes and stockings, to the men and women, and a cup of wine to drink the king's health.
Anciently, on Maundy Thursday, the kings and queens of England washed and kissed the feet of as many poor men and women as they were years old, besides bestowing their maundy on each. This was in imitation of Christ washing his disciples' feet. Queen Elizabeth performed this at Greenwich, when she was thirtynine years old, on which occasion the feet of the same number of poor persons were first washed by the yeomen of the laundry with warm water and sweet herbs, afterwards by the sub-almoner, and lastly, by the queen herself; the person who washed, making each time it cross on the pauper's foot above the toes, and kissing it. This ceremony was performed by the queen, kneeling, being attended by thirtynine ladies and gentlewomen. Clothes, victuals, and money were then distributed
among the poor." James II, is said to have been the last of our monarchs who performed this ceremony in person. It was afterwards performed by the almoner On the 5th of April, 1731, it being Maundy Thursday, the king being then in his forty-eighth year, there was distributed at the Banquetting-house, Whitehall, to forty-eight poor men and fortyeight poor women, boiled beef and shoulders of mutton, and small bowls of ale, which is called dinner; after that, large wooden platters of fish and loaves, viz. undressed, one large old ling, and one large dried cod; twelve red herrings, and twelve white herrings, and four half quartern loaves. Each person had one platter of this provision; after which was distributed to them shoes, stockings, linen and woollen cloth, and leathern bags, with one-penny, two-penny, three-penny, and four-penny pieces of silver, and shillings; to each about four pounds in value. His grace, the lord archbishop of York, lord high almoner, performed the annual ceremony of washing the feet of the poor in the Royal Chapel, Whitehall, as was formerly done by the kings themselves.f
This day was also called Shere Thuriday, and by corruption Chare Thursday. Shere Thursday signified that it was the day whereon the clergy were wont to shere or shear their heads, or get them shorn or shaven, and to clip their beards against Easter-day.J In the miraculous legend of St. Brandon it is related that he sailed with his monks to the island of sheep,"and on sherethurtdaye,s.het souper, he wesshe theyr feet and kyssed them lyke as our lorde dyd to his dyscyples."§ Maundy Thursday is nowhere observed in London except, as before stated, at the Chapel Royal.
A Holiday it all the Public Offices.
This and Christmas-day are the only two close holidays now observed throughout London, by the general shutting ap of shops, and the opening of all the churches. The dawn is awakened by a cry in the streets of " Hot-cross-buns ; one-a-penny buns, two-a-penny buns; one-a-penny, two-a-penny, hot-cross-buns!" This proceeds from some little "peep-o'-day boys," willing to take the " top of the morning" before the rest of his compeers. He carries his covered buns in a basket hanging on one arm, while his other hand is straightened like an open door, at the side of his mouth, to let forth his childish voice, and he " pipes and trebles out the sound" to the extremity of his lungs. Scarcely has he departed before others come; "another and another still succeeds," and at last the whole street is in one "common cry of buna." Old men and young men, young women and old women, big children and little children, are engaged in this occupation, and "some cry now who never cried before." The bun-venders who eclipse the rest in voice and activity, are young women who drive fruit-barrows—barrows, by the bye, are no more, but of them by and bye. A couple of these ex-barrow-women trip along, carrying a wicker clothes-basket between them, in which the " hot-crossbuns" are covered, first by a clean flannel or green baize, and outwardly by a clean white cloth, which coverings are slowly and partially removed, for fear of letting the buns cool, when a customer stops to buy, of calls them to the door. They continue their lengthened cry, with a volume of concerted sound, unequalled by other rivals in the ephemeral Good Friday trade. These scenes and sounds continue till church-time, and resume in the afternoon. It partially commences on the evening before Good Friday, but with little success.
* Gentleman's Magazine. t Lambarde.
t Brand's Pop. Antio. Nam's GlotM.iv, cure and tktre. i Golden Ufind.
Some thirty or forty years ago pastrycooks and bakers vied with each other for excellence in making hot-cross-buns; the demand has decreased, and so has the quality of the buns. But the great place of attraction for bun-eaters at that time was Chelsea; for there were the two "royal bun-houses." Before and along the whole length of the long front of each, stood a flat-roofed, neat.wooden portico or piazza of the width of the foot-path, beneath which shelter "from summer's heat and winter's cold," crowds of persons assembled to scramble for a chance of purchasing "royal hot cross Chelsea buns," within a reasonable time; and several hundreds of square black tins, with dozens of hot buns on each tin, were disposed of in every hour from a little after six in the morning, till after the
same period in the evening of Good Friday. Those who knew what was good, better than new comers, gave the preference to the "old original royal bun-house," which had been a OMH-house "ever since it was a house," and at which "the king himself once stopped," and who could say as much for the other? This was the conclusive tale at the door, and from within the doors, of the " old original bun-house." Alas! and alack! there is that house note ,• and there is the house that was opened as its rival; but where are ye who contributed to their renown and custom, among the appren tices and journeymen, and the little comfortable tradesmen of the metropolis, and their wives and children—where are ye? With ye hath the fame of" Chelsea buns" departed, and the "royal bun-nouses" are little more distinguished than the humble graves wherein ye rest.
Formerly "hot-cross-buns " were commonly eaten in London by families at breakfast, and some families still retain the usage. They are of the usual form of buns; though they are distinguished from them inwardly by a sweeter taste, and the flavourof all-spice, and outwardly by the mark or sign of the cross. The "hot-cro*»-bun" is the most popular symbol of the Roman catholic religion in England that the reformation has left. Of the use of the cross, as a mark or sign in, papal worship and devotion, most readers are aware; for it has been insisted on by Roman catholic writers from the days of Constantine to Alban Butler himself, who giving example of its great virtue on Good Friday, says, " to add one more instance, out of many, St. Teresa assures us, in her own life, that one day the devil, by a phantom, appeared to sit on the letters of her book, to disturb her at her devotions; but she drove him away thrice by the sign of the cross, and at last sprinkled the book with holy water; after which he returned no mode.'" In the houses of some ignorant people, a Good Friday bun is still kept" for luck," and sometimes there hangs from the ceiling a hard biscuit-like cake of open crow-work, baked on a Good Friday, to remain there till displaced on the next Good Friday by one of similar make; and of this the editor of the Every-Day Book
* Duller'j Moicable Fi.nts, 1T74, Bvo p. 379.