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Or else some lady is humbly bowed to, rup oil;" the cobbler receives the money, and gravely addressed with “ Ma'am, I and the novice receives a hearty cut or beg your pardon, but you've something two from the cobbler's strap: if he does on your face !" “ Indeed, my man! not, at the same time, obtain the informawhat is it?" “ Your nose, ma'am-Ah! tion that he is “an April fool,” he is sure you April fool!”

to be acquainted with it on returning to The tricks that youngsters play off on his companions. The like knowledge is the first of April are various as their also gained by an errand to some shop fancies. One, who has yet to know the for half a pint of “ pigeon's milk," or an Humours of the day, they send to a cob- inquiry at a bookseller's for the “ Life bler's for a pennyworth of the best “stir- and Adventures of Eve's Mother."

Then, in-door young ones club their wicked wits,
And almost frighten servants into fits-
“ Oh, John! James ! John !-oh, quick! oh! Molly, oh!
Oh, the trap-door ! oh, Molly ! down below!"
“ What, what's the matter !” scream, with wild surprise,
John, James, and Molly, while the young ones' cries
Redouble till they come; then all the boys
Shont“ Ah! you April fools !" with clamorous noise ;
And little girls enticed down stairs to see,
Stand peeping, clap their hands, and cry“ te-hee !"
Each gibing boy escapes a different way,
And meet again some trick, “ as good as that,” to play.

Much is written concerning the custom Geck is likewise derivable « from the of fool-making on the first of April, but Teutonic geck, jocus." with this result only, that it is very an- The “ April fool" is among the Swedes. cient and very general.* As a better Toreen, one of their travellers, says, opportunity will occur hereafter, nothing “ We set sail on the first of April, and the will be said here respecting “ fools” by wind made April fools of us, for we profession.

were forced to return before Shagen." The practice of making fools on this On the Sunday and Monday preceding day in North Britain, is usually exercised Lent, people are privileged at Lisbon to by sending a person from place to place play the fool : it is thought very jocose by means of a letter, in which is written to pour water on any person who passes,

or throw powder in his face; but to do “ On the first day of April

both is the perfection of wit.f The Hunt the gowk another mile."

Hindoos also at their Huli festival keep This is called “hunting the gowk ;"

a general holiday on the 31st of March, and the bearer of the “ fools' errand” and one subject of diversion is to send is called an April gowk.” Brand people on errands and expeditions that says, that gowk is properly a cuckoo, and are to end in disappointment, and raise a is used here metaphorically for a fool; laugh at the expense of the persons sent. this appears correct; for from the Saxon Colonel Pearce says, that “ high and low geac, a cuckoo,” is derived geck,which join in it; and," he adds, “the late Suraja

one easily imposed on.” Mal- Doulah, I am told, was very fond of volio, who had been “ made a fool” by a making Huli fools, though he was a musletter, purporting to have been written by sulman of the highest rank. They carry Olivia, inquires of her

the joke here (in India) so far, as to send

letters making appointments, in the name • Why have you suffered me to be

of persons, who, it is known, must be --Made the most notorious geck and gull absent from their house at the time fixed That e'er invention play'd on?"

upon; and the laugh is always in pro Olivia affirms, that the letter was not portion to the trouble given." written by her, and exclaims to Malvolio

The April fool among the French is

called “un poisson 6 Avril.Their trans"Alas, poor fooi ! how have they baffled thee !"

• Jamieson, in Nare's Glossary.
+ Southey, quoted in Brand, as also Torean.

Asiat. Res. in Brand, from Maurice.


• Brand.

+ Ash.


formation of the term is not well accounted

FLORAL DIRECTORY. for, but their customs on the day are

Aunual Mercury. Mercurialis annua. similar to ours. In one instance a “joke"

Dedicated to St. Hugh. was carried too far. At Paris, on the 1st of April, 1817, a young lady pocketed a watch in the house of a friend. She was arrested the same day, and taken

April 2. before the correctional police, when St. Francis of Paula. St. Apien, A. v. being charged with the fact, she said it 306. St. Theodosia, A. D. 308. St. was an April trick (un poisson d'Avril.) Nicetius, Abp. of Lyons, A. D. 577. She was asked whether the watch was in St. Ebba, Abbess, and her companions, her custody? She denied it; but a mes- A. D. 870, or 874. B. Constantine senger was sent to her apartment, and it II. king of Scotland, A. D. 874. St was found on the chimney-place. Upon Bronacha, or Bronanna, Abbess. which the young lady said, she had

St. Francis of Paula made the messenger un poisson d'Avril, “ an April fool.” The pleasantry, how- old shut himself up in a cave, in a rock

Was a Calabrian, and at fifteen years ever, did not end so happily, for the

on the coast. Before twenty he was young lady was jocularly recommended to remain in the house of correction till built them three cells; the number in

joined by two others, and the people the 1st of April, 1818, and then to be dis- creased, and so arose the order of friar charged as un poisson d'Avril.*

Minims, which means the least of the

friars. Constant abstinence from flesh, It must not be forgotten, that the and all food made of milk or eggs, was one practice of " making April fool” in Eng- of their rules. In 1479, being invited to land, is often indulged by persons of Sicily," he was received there as an maturer years, and in a more agreeable angel from heaven, wrought miracles, way: There are some verses that plea- and built several monasteries.” He pro santly exemplify this :7

phesied, held burning coals in his hand To a Lady, who threatened to make them to life, cured people of the plague, received

without being burnt, restored his nephew AUTHOR an APRIL FOOL.

the host with a cord about his neck on Why strive, dear girl, to make a fool

Maundy Thursday, died on the 2d of Of one not wise before, Yet, having 'scaped from folly's school,

April, 1508, aged ninety-one, and was

buried till 1562 when the hugonots burnt Would fain go there no more!

his bones with the wood of a crucifix.* Ah! if I must to school again,

Besides this, it is related, that the eleWilt thou my teacher be?

ments lost their force against him; thai I'm sure no lesson will be vain

he walked upon fire ; entered into a Which thou canst give to me.

burning oven without harm; and made a One of thy kind and gentle looks,

sea voyage on his own cloak instead of a Thy smiles devoid of art,

ship, and had a companion on board with Avail, beyond all crabbed books,

him.t To regulate my heart.

According to another account he was Thou need'st not call some fairy elf, much worried by the devil. Once while On any April-day,

he was at prayers the devil called him To make thy bard forget himself,

three times by his own name. Another Or wander from his way.

time he was so possessed by the tiend, that One thing he never can forget,

he had no other way to get rid of him, Whatever change may be,

than by stripping and beating himself The sacred hour when first he met

with a hard cord, crying while he did it, And fondly gazed on thee.

“thus brother ass thou must be beaten;" A seed then fell into his breast;

after which he ran into the snow and Thy spirit placed it there :

made seven snowballs, intending to Need I, my Julia, tell the rest ?

swallow them if the devil had not taken Thou seest the blossoms here.

his leave. Then a whole parcel of devils

came one night, and gave him a grievous * Morn. Chron. June 17, 1817. + Cited by Brand from Julia, or Last Follies,

+ Ribadeneira,

• Batlor. 1798, 4to.

It was

beating; this was because he lodged in a Good Friday is the Friday in Passioncardinal's palace, and it occasioned him week, and consequently the Friday next to shift his lodging. Afterwards, when at before Easter-day. prayers, he saw upon the roof of the house EASTER-DAY is always the first Sunwhole companies of these infernals. He day after the first full moon, which hapwas a bird-fancier. A bird sat singing on a pens on or next after the 21st of March; fig-tree by the side of his cell, he called but if the full moon happens upon a Sunit to him; the bird ca ne upon his hand, day, Easter-day is the Sunday following. and he said to it—“Sing, my sister, and Octave or Utas of a Feast. praise the Lord,” and the bird sat singing The Octave or Utas of each feast is always till he gave it liberty to go away. Going the eighth day after it occurs; for exam to Venice with his companions, and hear- ple, the feast of St. Hillary is the 13th ing birds singing in a wood, he proposed of January, hence the octave of St. Hilto sing the canonical hours, but the lary is the 22d of January. monks could not hear themselves for the tft These CORRECTIONs would have been chanters of the grove, wherefore, he made in the sheet itself, but a great number entreated the feathered choir to be silent, of copies having been printed, before the and they remained so till he gave them

error was discovered, it became necessary liberty to proceed. At another place

to postpone the rectification. See Note

below.* when he was preaching, he could not be heard for the swallows, which were mak

Caster. ing their nests; he said to them—Sister swallows, it is time for me to speak; as

EASTER-DAY is distinguished by its you've said enough, be quiet," and so peculiar name, through our Saxon ancesthey were.

customary with tors, who at this season of the year held him when one of his friars had committed

a great festival, in honour of the goddess a fault to take off the friar's hood, and Eastor, probably the Astarte of the eastern

The French call this festival throw it into the fire, from whence after nations. staying, there a proper time, he com- Paques, derived from the Greek pascha, manded it to be restored to the friar, and which is also derived from the Hebrew the hood was then taken out of the fire pesech, meaning passover; and whence without having sustained injury. More to

we have the English word paschal, applied the like effect, and of equal credibility, is

to the lamb, which formed part of the related of this saint in the Golden Legend. evening meal, the last of which our saCHRONOLOGY.

viour partook, before his death, with his 1801. Lord Nelson's victory at Co- twelve missionaries. In Cambridgeshire penhagen, when eighteen sail of the line the word pasch is still in use, and applied were either captured or destroyed.

to a flower which appears at this time on the Gogmagog hills and its environs The

day is of importance in a civil, as well as White Violet. Viola alba.

in a religious, light; for on this day deDedicated to St. Francis of Paula. pend the openings of our courts of law,

which take place after it, and the festivals Moveable Feasts. of the church are arranged in conformity AN ERROR under the above title having subject, and the rule given in conformity

to it. By the act of parliament on this crept into the Every-Day Book, at p. 190, and also extended io the list of Moveable * Mr. NICOLAS obligingly informs me, that feasts,the reader will please to correct since his “ Notitia Historica ” was printed, he that list, &c. by the following statement. has ascertained that the rule laid down for

Shrove Tuesday, in that work, was not correct, Shrove Sunday is the Sunday next and that having made some alterations in the before Shrove Tuesday. It is also called event of a second edition being demanded, and

finding I had cited the part containing the Quinquagesima Sunday.

error, he thought it right to send me a copy of Shrove Tuesday is always the seventh his corrections, from whence the preceding list Tuesclay before Easter-day.

is formed. There can scarcely be a doubt that a

second edition of Mr. Nicolas's “ Notitia His. Care, or Carle Sunday is the fifth Sun- torica" will be required speedily, because the day in Lent, and the second Sunday before series of Tables, Calendars, and miscellaneous

information which it contains must be eminently Easter-day.

useful, not only to the legal profession, antí Maundy Thursday, also called Chare quaries, and every historical and topographi or Shere Thursday, is the day before

cal inquirer, but to general readers, many of

whom daily suffer inconvenience without gucb Good Friday

2 source of reference.




to it in the “Common Prayer-Book," quence was, the issuing of a new writ. which of course every body has an oppor- Thus the difference of a few minutes was tunity of seeing, “EASTER-DAY is always considered fatal to the opening of a the first Sunday after the Full Moon, country court, though the courts of law which happens upon, or next after, the at Westminster had been opened a few twenty-first day of March; and if the months before, when a much greater Full Moon happen upon a Sunday, Easter- error had taken place with respect to day is the Sunday after.

Easter-duy, on which, as before observed, One would think, that when such pre- the opening of those courts depends. cise directions had been given, and the To understand this subject we must state of the moon on any day is so clearly refer back to the origin of this festival, and easily ascertained, that there would instituted in honour of the resurrection of be no difficulty in following them ; but our saviour, which took place on the experience has proved that contrary de- third day after his execution as a maleviations from the act of parliament factor. Friday had been fixed upon as have been numerous. These have been the day of commemorating his death, and pointed out at various times, but without as that took place on the day of full any effect on the public. In the year moon, the first full moon after the twenty1735, Henry Wilson, of Tower-hill, styling first of March was fixed upon as the rehimself mathematician, denounced the gulator of the festival. The great point errors on this subject in a very ingenious had in view was to prevent the festival of work, entitled “ The regulation of Easter, Easter-day from being observed on the or the cause of the errours and differences day of a full moon, but as near to it as contracted in the calculation of it, dis- circumstances would admit, and in concovered and duly considered, showing“ sequence there is a great difference in the The frequency and consequence of that times of observing this festival; it being errour, with the cause from whence it specially provided, however, that it proceeds, and a method proposed for should happen after a full moon. The rectifying it, and reconciling the differen- Jews observe their passover by juster ces about it, and for restoring the time oi rules; the day for the celebration of it celebrating that great solemnity in its taking place on different days of the primitive certainty and exactness, and week: but the Christians having fixed on that without the difficulty and confusion Friday for the celebration of the fast on which some have objected would attend the death of our saviour, the Easter-day, such a regulation." 8vo.

on the following Sunday, was accommoWithin these few years an error in the dated to it, and both were so fixed, that observance of Easter took place, and there could not be a full moon on the on all the almanacs fixing an improper Easter-day, nor for some weeks after it. . day for its observance, a memorial was In this year, 1825, the fuil moon presented to the lords in council and to occurs at twenty-three minutes past six the prince regent, humbly soliciting their in the morning of the third of April; interference on this subject. It was consequently, according to the act of parnoticed also by Mr. Frend, in his “ Even- liament, and the rubric of the church, ing Amusements ;" and a clergyman of Easter-day ought to be celebrated on the Oxford published a pamphlet on the oc tenth, and the courts of law ought to casion. There was also, we believe, one open, or Easter term begin, on the twentyclergyman, who, disregarding the alma- seventh ;

almanac-makers nac, obeyed the rubric, and read the thought good to fix Easter-day on the services for Easter-day, and the Sundays third, and consequently Easter term is depending on it, on very different days placed by them on the twentieth, on from those adopted in other churches. which day it is presumed that judicial It was remarkable also, that in that very proceedings will commence, year, judge Garrow arrived at Glou- Easter-day is observed all over Chriscester a short time after twelve o'clock attendom with peculiar rites. In the night, of the day on which the assizes were catholic church high mass is celebrated, to commence, and the high-sheriff very the host is adored with the greatest reveproperly representing his scruples, on the rence, and both Catholics and Protestants legality of then commencing the assizes, might be led from it, to a more particular they were delayed till the opinion of the attention to the circumstarces attending judges could be taken, and the conse- its form and substance. The host, de



rived from the Latin word hostia, mean- Henry III who seized his temporalities. ing a victim, is a consecrated wafer, of a These he regained by replevin, and plead. circular form, composed of flour and ing his cause against the king's deputies water. Both substance and form are re before Innocent IV. at Rome, a papal gulated by custom of very ancient date. decree confirmed his election. Among On the night before his execution, our his clergy he was a strict disciplinarian, saviour took bread, and blessing it, di- and a friend and comforter to the poor. vided it among his missionaries; but the Preaching a crusade, according to the bread he took was not ordinary bread, fashion of those times, against the Sarabut unleavened bread, such as is used by cens, he fell sick, and died in the hospital the Jews during the passover week in at Dover, called God's-house, in 1253, in the present days. This bread is com- the fifty-sixth year of his age, and in the posed of merely flour and water, no ninth of his episcopal functions. This is leaven during the festival of their passover a brief character of an exemplary prelate, being permitted to enter the house of a but the credulous Butler chooses to affirm, Jew. It is a kind of biscuit of a circular that three dead persons were restored to form, and the host thus, by its form and life, and other miraculous cures were substance, brings us back to the recollec- worked at his tomb. Father Porter gostion of the Catholics, and the rite cele- sips a story of a miraculous flow of unction brated by our saviour. It is the represent- at his consecration; of a dead-born child ation of the Jewish cake, or unleavened having been brought to life by his dead bread, which is to this day eaten by that merits; and of the touch of his old nation during the passover week. clothes having cured the diseased, with

The Protestants have deviated from this other performances," which moved pope custom, and in their churches use lea- Boniface IV. to enrol hiin into the numvened bread, without any regard to form, ber of the canonized saincts.” Such wonand they cut it with a knife into small ders have never been performed in our pieces, forgetting that our saviour broke days, and hence late popes have not been the bread; but some use leavened bread, able to make saints. "If bibles could be and, as they cannot break it, they at- suppressed, and the printing-press detempt to imitate our saviour's action by stroyed, miracles and canonizations would tearing it in pieces.

come in" again. For those who wish to have a more comprehensive view of this subject, the For particulars respecting Easter-day following works are recommended : Car- and Easter Monday, see Easter Tuesday, dinal Bona on the mass ; Dean Comber 5th of APRIL. on the liturgy; and above all, the Hebrew ritual, which is translated into English, and to which both Catholics and Pro Evergreen Alkanet. Anchusa sempervitestants are indebted for greater part of their services.*

Dedicated to St. Agape.
April 3.

April 4. 1825. Easter Sunday. The Resurrec- St. Isidore, Bishop of Seville, A. D. 636. tion.

St. Plato, Abbot, A. D. 813. Sts. Agape, Chionia, and Irene, Sisters,

EASTER MONDAY and their Companions, A. D. 304; Si. Holiday at the Public Offices; except Excise, Richard. $t. Ulpian. St. Nicetas,

Custom, and Stamp.
Abbot, A. D. 824.

St. Richard de Wiche

1774. Oliver Goldsmith died : he was Was born at Wiche, near Worcester; born in Ireland, November 29th, 1728. studied at Oxford, Paris, and Bologna ; 1802. Lloyd, lord Kenyon, lord chiefbecame chancellor to the diocese of Can- justice of England, died, aged 69. terbury; and was consecrated bishop of Chichester in 1245, against the desire of

Red Crown Imperial. Fritillaria ImpeThis article on “ Easter" is communicated by

rialis. the gentleman who favoured the editor with the wouunt of the" Vernal Equinox," at p. 375.

Dedicated to St Isidore




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