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intuita,' see and comprehend all the labor and wit of our ancestors, and be thereby able to supply the defects of one trade with the perfections of another.
11. We see that all countries where manufactures and trades flourish, as Holland, &c., become potent and rich. For how can it be otherwise? When the revenues of the state shall be encreased by new and more customes, all beggers feeding upon the labours of other men, and even thieves and robbers (made for want of better employment) shall be set on work, barren grounds made fruitful, wet dry, and dry wet, when even hogs and more indocile beasts shall be taught to labour. When all vile materials shall be turned to noble uses, when one man or horse shall do as much as three, and every thing improved to strange advantages.
12. There would not then be so many fustian and unworthy preachers in divinity; so many Petti-foggers in the law; so many quack-salvers in physick; so many grammaticasters in country schooles, and so many lazy serving-men in gentlemen's houses, when every man might learn to live otherwise in plenty and honour. For all men desirous to take paines, might by this book survey all the wayes of subsistance, and choose out of them all, one that best suits with his genius and abilities.
13. Schollers now disesteemed for their poverty, (what ever other thing commands them) and unable even for want of lively-hood, to perfect anything even in their own way, would quickly help themselves by opening treasures, with the key of lucriferous inventions.
14. Boyes instead of reading hard Hebrew words in the Bible (where they either trample on, or play with mysteries) or parrat-like repeating heteroclitous nounes and verbs, might read, and hear the History of Faculties expounded, so that before they be bound apprentices to any trade, they may foreknow the good and bad of it, what will and strength they have to it, and not spend seven years in repenting, and in swimming against the stream of their inclinations.
All apprentices by this book might learn the theory of their trades before they are bound to a master, and consequently may be exempted from the Tædium' of a seven years bondage, and having spent but about three years with a master, may spend the other foure in travelling to learn breeding, and the perfection of their trades. As it would be more profitable to boyes, to spend ten or twelve years in the study of things, and of this book of faculties, then in a rabble of words, so it would be more easie and pleasant to them as more suitable to the natural propensions we observe in them. For we seo children do delight in drums, pipes, fiddels, guns made of elder sticks, and bellowes' poses, piped keys, &c., for painting flags and ensignes with elder berries and corn poppy, making ships with paper, and setting even nut-shells a swimming, handling the tooles of workemen as soone as they tune their backs, and trying to work them. selves, fishing, fowling, hunting, setting sprenges, and traps for birds, and other animals, making pictures in their writing bookes, making tops, gigs, and whirli. gigs, guilting balls, practicing divers jugling tricks upon the cards, &c., with a million more besides. And for the females, they will be making pies with clay, making their babies clothes, and dressing them therewith, they will spit leaves on sticks, as if they were roasting meate, they will imitate all the talke and actions which they observe in their mother, and her gossips, and punctually act the comedy or tragedy (I'know not whether to call it) of a woman's lying-in. By all which it is most evident, that children do most naturally delight in things, and are most capable of learning them, having quick sences to receive them, and unpreoccupied memories to retaine them. As for other things whereunto they are nowadayes fit, they are altogether unfit for want of judgement, which is but weake in them, and also for want of will, which is sufficiently seene both by what we have said before, by the dificultie of keeping them at schools, and the punishment they will endure rather than be altogether debarred from this pleasure which they take in things.
This work will be a help to eloquence, when men by their great acquaintance with things, might find out similitudes, metaphors, allusions, and other graces of discourse in abundance.
To arithmeticians and geometricians, supplying them with matter whereupon to exercise those most excellent sciences, which some having with much paines once learned, do for want hereof forget againe, or unprofitably apply about resolving needlesse questions and making of new difficulties. The number of mix mathematical arts would hereby be increased.
For we see that opticks are made up of pure mathematicks, the anatomy of the eye, and some physicall principles concerning the nature of light and vision, with some experiments of convexe and concave glasses. Astronomy is constituted againe of them, and some celestiall phenomena. Enquire againe of them, and some propositions, 'de Cochleâ et Vecte.' And so certainly as the number of axioms concerning severall subjects doth increase by this work. So the number of (their applications to pure mathematicks, id est,) new mathematicall arts, will increase also. Divines having so large a booke of God's works added to that of his word, may the more clearly from them both, deduce the wisedome, power, and goodnesse of the Almighty. Physicians observing the use of all drugs and operations in the production of artificials, may with successe transferte them to better uses in their art. And lawyers when they plead con. cerning trades and manufactures, would better know what to say on such occasions.
A young beginner may know by this book how much stock is needfull to set him up in trade. Gentlemen falling sometimes accidentally into tradesmen and handi-crafts company, would know how to make use of such occurrences to advantage.
Lastly,—This History with the comments thereupon, and the Indices, Preface and Supplemements thereunto belonging, would make us able (if it be at all possible) to demonstrate Axioms in Philosophy, the value and dignity whereof can not be valued or computed.
The next book which we recommend is the History of Nature free, for indeed the History of Trades is also a History of Nature, but of nature vexed and disturbed. What we meane by this history may be known by the Lord Verulam's most excellent specimen thereof, and as for the particulars that it should treat on, we referre to his exact and judicious catalogue of them, at the end of his "Advancement of Learning.”
PLAN OF A PHILOSOPHICAL COLLEGE.
A PROPOSITION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY-1661.
BY ABRAHAM COWLLY.
That the Philosophical College be situated within one, two, or (at farthest) three miles of London, and if it be possible to find that convenience, upon the side of the river, or very near it.
That the revenue of this College amount to four thousand a year.
1. Twenty philosophers or professors. 2. Sixteen young scholars, servants to the professors. 3. A chaplain. 4. A bailee for the revenue. 5. A manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master cook. 8. An under cook. 9. A butler. 10. An under butler. 11. A gurgeon. 12. Two lungs, or chemical servants. 13. A library-keeper, who is likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer to feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c., kept by the College. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. A messenger to send up and down for all uses of the College. 17. ·Four old women to tend the chambers, keep the house clean, and such like sery.ces.
That the annual allowance for this company be as follows:
1. To every professor, and to the chaplain, one hundred and twenty pounds. 2. To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds a piece, ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their entertainment. 3. To the bailee, thirty pounds, besides allowance for liis journey's. 4. To the purveyor or manciple, thirty pounds. 5. To each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the under cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten pounds. 9. To the under butler, four pounds. 10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. 11. To the library-keeper, thirty pounds. 12. To each of the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper of the beasts, six pounds. 14. To the groom, five pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all the servants of the house are to eat, except the scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For three horses for the service of the College, thirty pounds.
All which amounts to three thousand two hundred and eighty-five pounds. So that there remains for keeping of the house and gardens, and operatories, and instruments and animals, and experiments of all sorts, and all other ex: penses, seven hundred and fifteen pounds. Which were a very inconsiderable sum for the great uses to which it is designed, but that I conceive the industry of the College will in a short time so enrich itself as to get a far better stock for the advance and enlargement of the work when it is once begun; neither is the continuance of particular men's liberality to be despaired of, when it shall be encouraged by the sight of that public henefit which will accrue to all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this foundation. Something likewise will arise from leases and other casualties; that nothing of which may be diverted to the private gain of the professors, or any other use besides that of the search of nature, and by it the general good of the world, and that care may be taken for the certain performance of all things ordained by the institution, as likewise for the protection and encouragement of the company, it is proposed,
That some person of eminent quality, a lover of solid learning, and po stran. ger in it, be chosen Chancellor or President of the College, and that eight governers more, men qualified in the like manner, be joined with him, two of which shall yearly be appointed Visitors of the College, and receive an exact account of all expenses even to the smallest, and of the true estate of their public treasure, under the hands and oaths of the professors resident.
That the choice of the professors in any vacancy belong to the Chancellor and the Governors, but that the professors (who are likeliest to know what men of the nation are most proper for the duties of their society) direct their choice by recommending two or three persons to them at every election. And that if any learned person within his majesty's dominions discover or eminently improve any useful kind of knowledge, he may upon that ground for his reward and the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he pretend to the place, before any. body else.
That the Governors have power to turn out any professor who shall be proved to be either scandalous or unprofitable to the Society.
That the College be built after this, or some such manner : That it consist of three fair quadrangular courts, and three large grounds, inclosed with good walls behind them. That the first court be built with a fair cloister, and the professors' lodgings or rather little houses, four on each side, at some distance from one another, and with little gardens behind them, just after the manner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That the inside of the cloister be lined with a gravel walk, and that walk with a row of trees, and that in the middle there be a parterre of flowers, and a fountain.
That the second quadrangle, just behind the first, be so contrived as to contain these parts : 1. A chapel. 2. A hall with two long tables on each side for the scholars and officers of the house to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleasant dining-room within the hall for the professors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and conferences. 4. A public school-house. 5. A library. 6. A gallery to walk in, adorned with the pictures or statues of all the inventors of any thing useful to human life, as printing, guns, America, &c., and of late in anatomy the circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and such like discoveries in any art, with short eulogies under the portraitures; as likewise the figures of all sorts of creatures, and the stuffed skins of as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. An anatomy chamber adorned with skeletons and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all conveniences for dissection. 8. A chamber for all manner of drugs and apothecaries' materials. 9. A mathematical chamber furnished with all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper and purveyor, near the chapel, anatomy chamber, library, and hall.
That the third court be on one side of these, very large, but meanly built, being designed only for use and not for beauty too, as the others. That it costain the kitchen, butteries, brewhouse, bakehouse, dairy, lardry, stables, &c., and especially great laboratories for chemical operations, and lodgings for tlie under servants.
That behind the second court be placed the garden, containing all sorts of plants that our soil will bear, and at the end a little house of pleasure, a lodge for the gardener, and a grove of trees cut into walks.
That the second inclosed ground be a garden, destined only to the trial of all manner of experiments concerning plants, as their melioration, acceleration, retardation, conservation, composition, transmutation, coloration, or whatsoever else can be produced by art, either for use or curiosity, with a lodge in it for the gardener.
That the third ground be employed in convenient receptacles for all sorts of creatures which the professors shall judge necessary for their more exact search into the nature of animals, and the improvement of their uses to us.
That there be likewise built in some place of the College wliere it may serve most for ornament of the whole, a very high tower for observation of celestial bodies, adorned with all sorts of dials, and such like curiosities; and that there be very deep vaults, made under ground, for experiments most proper to such places, which will be undoubtedly very many.
Much might be added, but truly I am afraid this is too much already for tlie charity or generosity of this age to extend to; and we do not design this after the model of Solomon's liouse in my Lord Bacon, (which is a project for experiments that can never be experimented,) but propose it within such bounds of expense as have often been exceeded by the buildings of private citizens.
PROFESSORS, SCHOLARS, CHAPLAIN, AND OTHER OFFICERS. That of the twenty professors, four be always travelling beyond seas, and sixteen always resident, unless by permission upon extraordinary occasions, and every one so absent, leaving a deputy behind him to supply his duties.
That the four professors itinerate be assigned to the four parts of the world --Europe, Asia, Africa, and Americathere to reside three years at least, and to give a constant account of all things that belong to the learning, and especially, natural experimental philosophy of those parts.
That the expense of all dispatches, and all books, simples, animals, stones, metals, minerals, &c., and all curiosities whatsoever, natural or artificial, sent by them to the college, shall be defrayed out of the treasury, and an additional allowance (above the 1201.) made to them as soon as the college revenue shall be improved.
That at their going abroad they shall take a solemn oath never to write any. thing to the College, but what, after very diligent examination, they shall fully believe to be true, and to confess and recant it as soon as they find themselves in an error.
That the sixteen professors resident shall be bound to study and teach all sorts of natural, experimental philosophy, to consist of the mathematics, mechanics, medicine, anatomy, chemistry, the history of animals, plants, minerals, elements, &c, agriculture, architecture, art military, navigation, gardening ; the mysteries of all trades, and improvement of them; the facture of all merchan