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It was the same method of double translation pursued with such distinguished results in the tuition of the young sovereign, by Sir John Cheke, from whom Ascham adopted it: and, indeed, like many of the best discoveries, it seems so simple that we wonder how it ever could be missed, and so excellent, that we know not why it is so little practiced. It had, indeed, been suggested by the younger Pliny, in an epistle to Fuscus, and by Cicero, in bis Dialogue de Oratore. “Pliny,” saith Roger, “expresses many good ways for order in study, but beginneth with translation, and preferreth it to all the rest. But a better and nearer example herein may be our noble Queen Elizabeth, who never yet took Greek nor Latin grammar in her hand after the first declining of a noun and a verb; but only by this double translating of Demosthenes and Isocrates daily without missing, every forenoon, and likewise some part of Tully every afternoon, for the space
of year or two, hath attained to such perfect understanding in both the tongues, and to such a ready utterance in the Latin, and that with such a judgment, as they he few in number in both Universities, or elsewhere in England, that be in both tongues comparable to her Majesty.” And so in an epistle to Sturmius :—“It is almost incredible to how excellent an understanding both of Greek and Latin I myself conducted our sacred Lady Elizabeth by this same double translation, constantly and in brief time delivered in writing.” In the same letter he insists upon the pupil making the translations with his .or her own hand, proprio, non alieno stylo, whence it
be concluded that Elizabeth was her own amanuensis on these occasions.
well allow a teacher to be a little rapturous about the proficiency of a lady, a queen, and his own pupil; but after all due abatements, the testimony remains unshaken both to the talent of the learner, and the efficiency of the system of instruction.
For two years the most perfect harmony subsisted between Elizabeth and her preceptor. The intervals of study were occasionally relieved with chess, at which Ascham is said to have been an adept. It is to be hoped that he had too much prudence and gallantry to beat the Lady oftener than was necessary to convince her that he always played his best. True, the royal virgin was not then Queen, or even presumptive heir; but no wise man would take the conceit out of a chess-player, that stood within the hundredth degree of relationship to the throne. Elizabeth was not the only distinguished female whose classical studies were assisted by our author; he taught Latin to Anne, Countess of Pembroke, to whom he addressed two letters in that language, still extant.
The court of the young Edward was filled with lovers of learning,
in whose society and patronage Ascham enjoyed himself fully, as Sir John Cheke his old friend, Lord Paget, Sir William Cecil, and the Chancellor Wriothesly. He had a share in the education of the two Brandons, and he partook the favor of the youthful King, who honoring knowledge, and all its professors, must have especially esteemed it in the instructor of his Lady Temper, as the amiable boy used to call his favorite sister. It was at this period that he became acquainted with the lovely Jane Grey, a creature whose memory should singly put to rout the vulgar prejudice against female erudition.
At the end of two years, however, upon a disgust he felt at the conduct of some of the princes's attendants, he suddenly threw up his appointment, and retired to his college. He afterward had reason to regret the precipitancy of his conduct, which was, perhaps, never entirely forgotten, though he succeeded in a great measure in regaining the favor of Elizabeth.
Returning to his duties, as public orator at Cambridge, he still retained his pension, and the confidence of the worthiest persons about court. His interest must have been very considerable, if, as Lloyd quaintly expresses it, “ he hindered those who had dined on the church from supping on the universities;" He was certainly esteemed by Elizabeth, and of her he spoke with enthusiasm to his latest day, not without a pleasing consciousness of his own services in making her what she was. Thus, in the “Schoolmaster," his latest work, he makes her perfections a reproach to all her male subjects. “It is your shame, (I speak to you all, you young gentlemen of England,) that one maid should go beyond ye all in excellency of learning, and knowledge of divers tongues. Point out six of the best given gentlemen of this court, and all they together show not so much good will, bestow not so many hours daily, orderly, and constantly, for the increase of learning and knowledge, as doth the queen's Majesty herself. Yes, I believe that besides her perfect readiness in Latin, Italian, French, and Spanish, she readeth now at Windsor more Greek every day than some prebendary of this church doth Latin in a whole week. Amongst all the benefits which God hath blessed me withal, next the knowledge of Christ's true religion, I count this the greatest, that it pleased God to call me to be one poor minister in setting forward there excellent gifts of learning."
In excuse, however, of "the six best given gentlemen," it should be stated, that the learning of languages is emphatically a female talent, bearing a much larger ratio to general ability in woman than in
Yet who can but admire the indefatigable intellect of the renowned queen, harassed in youth with peril and persecution, and
burdened in early maturity with public cares, which could vet attain a proficiency in polite learning, such as few professional scholars have excelled. The bare titles of the works which she translated evince the variety of her philological attainments, and justify the praises of her eulogists.* When no more than eleven age
she translated out of French verse into English prose, “ The Mirror, or Glass, of the Sinful Soul,” dedicated to Queen Catherine Parr, 1544. At twelve, she rendered out of English into Latin, French, and Italian, " Prayers or Meditations, by which the soul may be encouraged to bear with patience all the Miseries of Life, to despise the vain happiness of this world, and assiduously provide for eternal fecility, collected out of prime writers by the most poble and religious Queen Catherine Par, dedicated by the Princess Elizabeth to King Henry VIII.,” dated at Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, December 30. Much about the same time she translated a treatise originally written by Marguerite of Navarre, in the French language, and entitled the "Godly Meditation of the Inward Love of the Soul toward Christ the Lord," printed in the “Monument of Matrons, containing seven several Lamps of Virginity.” These were the works of the “tender and maidenly years” of her childhood. At a riper age she turned from Greek into Latin, portions of Xenophon, Isocrates, and Euripides; from Greek to English, Boethius, Sallust's Jugurthine war, and part of Horace's Art of Poetry. From Italian she translated certain sermons of Bernardine Ochine, an Italian protestant divine. It is hard to say what assistance she may have had in these labors, nor can we speak of their merits from personal inspection; but if she produced any considerable part of them, they must evince extreme activity, and a laudable love of literary employment. What teacher would not be proud of such a scholar? But we must return to her preceptor.
In 1550, while on a visit to his friends in Yorkshire, he was recalled to court by a letter, informing him that he had been appointed to accompany Sir Richard Morysinet on his embassy to the court of the
* The praises of Elizabeth were not confined to her own subjects. Scaliger declared that she knew more than all the great men of her time. Serranus honored her with the dedication of his Plato, in terms flattering enough, but only a learned Queen could be so flattered. Dedicators and panegyrists dabble much in prophecy; but it is not often that they prophecy truly. Serranus, however, was right for one, when he foretold the future fame of "good Queen Bess," und " Eliza's Goldendays.” “ Quemadmodum Salomonis vel Augusti felix imperium, notabile fuit ad designandum civilem felicitatem ; ita et tuum, regina, illustre, sit futurum, tuaque insula non amplius Albion sed Olbia et vere fortunata sit porro nuncupanda. Qüidenim ? lo regno tuo vera illa regnant philosophia cujus vix ac ne vix quidern umbram vidit Plato."
Sir RICHARD MORYSINE, (or Morison, 1-son of Thomas Morysine, of Essex, was educated at Eaton and Cambridge,-traveled in Italy, and studied in Padua,-made prebendary in Salis.
Emperor Charles V. It was on his way to London on this occasion, that he had his well-known interview with Lady Jane Grey, at her father's seat at Brodegate, in Leicestershire, where he found her, a young lady of fifteen, reading the “Phædon” of Plato in the original Greek, while the members of her family were hunting in the park. Ascham's beautiful relation of the scene is given in his “Schoolmaster."
" Before I went in Germany I came to Brodegate, in Leicestershire, to take my leave of that noble lady, Jane Grey, to whom I was exceedingly much beholding. Her parents, the Duke and Duchess, with all the house, old gentlemen and gentlewomen, were hunting in the park. I found her in the chamber alone, reading Phædo Platonis in Greek, and that with as much delight as some gentlemen would read a merry tale of Boecace. After salutation, and duty done, with some other talk, I asked her why she should lose such pastime in the park? Smiling, she answered me, “I wist all their sport in the park is but a shadow of that pleasure I find in Plato. Alas, good folk, they never felt what true pleasure meant.” “And how caine you, madam," quoth I, “ to this knowledge of pleasure ? And what did chiefly allure you unto it, seeing not many women, and but very few men, have attained thereunto ?” “I will tell you,” quoth she, " and tell you a truth which perchance ye may marvel at. One of the greater benefits God ever gave me, is, that he sent me so sharp and severe parents, and so gentle a schoolmaster. * For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight, number, and measure, even so perfectly, as God made the world, or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea, presently, sometimes with pinches, nips, and bobs, and other ways, (which I will not name for the honor I bear them,) so without measure misordered that I think myself in hell, till time come that I must go to Mr. Elmer, who teacheth me so gently, so pleasantly, with such fair allurements to learning, that I think all the time nothing while I am with him. And when I am called from him I fall on weeping, because whatsoever I do else beside learning, is full of grief, trouble, fear, and whole misliking unto me. And thus my book hath been so much my pleasure, and bringeth daily more pleasure and more; that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deed, be but trifles and troubles unto
bury Cathedral, and sent Ambassador to Emperor Charles V., by Henry VIII.,-was knighted by Edward VI.,-and died in 1556.
* Mr. Elmer, or Ælmer, or Aylmer, as the name is variously written, was born as 1321, studied both at Oxford and Cambridge at the cost of Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset. by whom he was made tutor to his own daughters, of whom the Lady Jane Grey was the eldest,-iras made Arch deacon of Stowe, in 1533,--and Bishop of London, in 1576, and died in 1594.
me." I remember this talk gladly, both because it is worthy of memory and because also it was the last talk I had, and the kast time that I ever saw that noble and worthy lady."
The interview, simple in incident as it was, has assumed the dignity of a piece of history, and its illustration has been a favorito subject both for the author* and the artist.
Before leave-taking, Ascham obtained a promise of the Lady Jane to write to him in Greek, on condition that she should first write to her, as soon as he arrived in the Emperor's court. His epistle is extant in choice Latin. Alluding to the circumstances of their last interview, he declares her happier in her love of good books, than in her descent from kings and queens. No doubt he spoke sincerely; but he knew not then how truly. Her studious quietude of spirit was her indefeasible blessing, while her royal pedigreef was like an hereditary curse, afflicting her humility with unwilling greatness, and her innocence with unmerited distress.
Ascham embarked for Germany in the following September. Ho accompanied Morysine as a kind of secretary, though some of his duties resembled those of a tutor, comprising, as they did, the reading of “all Herodotus, five tragedies of Sophocles, most of Euripides, the orations of Isocrates, and twenty-one orations of Demosthenes," during the ambassador's stay at Augsburg, as we are informed by Ascham himself, in a letter to a college friend at home. But besides these literary labors, he took a share in the diplomatic correspondence, and is said to have been consulted on all affairs of importance by his principal. He also occupied himself in preparing a “Report on the affairs of Germany," which was printed.
His urbanity, readiness, and general information, recommended him *We append to this article, an “ Imaginary Conversation" between Roger Ascham and Lady Jane Grey, by Waiter Savage Landor.
* These particulars we learn from a letter of Roger's to Sturminus, dated 14th December, 1550, in which lie promises to show Jane's epistle to the German scholar, when it should ar. rive. It appears, loo, that the Lady was requested to correspond with Sturmius in Greek.
1 Lady Jane Grey was the daughter of Frances Branion, the daughter of Mary Queen Do. wager of France, and sister of Henry VIII., by Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Her father was Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset, descended from Elizabeth, Queen to Edward IV., by her former marriage, through her son, Thomas Grey, who married the King's niece. The father of Lady Jane was created Duke of Suffolk, on the failure of the male line of the Braudons.
Lady Jane Grey, or to speak more correctly, Lady Guilford Dudley, (sor she perished in her honeymoon,) wrote her last letter to her sister Catharine in the blank pages of her Greek Testament; and when she saw her bridegroom led to execution under her prison window, she wrote three several sentences in her tablets in as many languages. The first in Greek, to this effect :-If his slain body shall give testimony against me before men, his blessed soul shall render an eternal proof of my innocence before God. The second in Latin :-The justice of men took away his body, but the divine mercy has preserved his spirit. The third in English:If my fault deserved punishment, my youth and my imprudence were worthy of excuse : God and posterity will show me favor.