The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell:, Том 3;Объемы 1874-1879

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Cambridge University Press, 17 окт. 2002 г. - Всего страниц: 960
This is a comprehensive edition of Maxwell's manuscript papers published virtually complete and largely for the first time.
 

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VI
xxv
VII
27
VIII
377
XI
379
XIII
380
XVI
383
XVIII
387
XXI
388
LXI
456
LXIV
457
LXVI
458
LXIX
459
LXXII
576
LXXIII
578
LXXIV
584
LXXV
585

XXIII
390
XXIV
391
XXVI
394
XXVII
396
XXIX
397
XXX
404
XXXI
408
XXXIV
410
XXXV
413
XXXVI
415
XXXVII
417
XXXVIII
421
XL
427
XLIII
429
XLIV
431
XLV
432
XLVI
435
XLVII
437
XLVIII
440
L
442
LI
444
LII
445
LIV
446
LVII
448
LVIII
450
LXXVII
592
LXXIX
602
LXXX
605
LXXXI
607
LXXXII
609
LXXXIII
610
LXXXV
638
LXXXVII
640
LXXXIX
641
XC
642
XCIII
643
XCIV
644
XCV
645
XCVI
659
XCIX
661
C
666
CI
667
CII
670
CV
673
CVI
677
CVIII
854
CIX
898
CX
907
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James Maxwell was a British physicist who developed a standard theoretical model for the modern understanding of electricity and magnetism. He showed that these two phenomena are two aspects of the same field and as a result he unified and systematized a vast field of research. Maxwell took many diverse observations and qualitative concepts developed by Michael Faraday and others, formulating them into a unified theory between 1864 and 1873. On the basis of this theory, Maxwell predicted that electromagnetic waves should exist and travel with the speed of light, and he identified light as a form of electromagnetic radiation. Both of these predictions were experimentally confirmed. Maxwell's other great contribution to physics was formulating a mathematical basis for the kinetic theory of gases. Using a statistical approach, he related the velocity of the molecules in a gas to its temperature, showing that heat results from the motion of molecules. Maxwell's result had been conjectured for some time, but it had never been supported experimentally. Maxwell then expanded his research to study viscosity, diffusion, and other properties of gases. Maxwell also provided the first satisfactory explanation of Saturn's rings. He established on theoretical grounds that the rings are not solid but rather composed of many small, fragmented objects that orbit Saturn.

P. M. HARMAN is Professor of the History of Science at Lancaster University.

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