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VOL. 2.]

Manners and Customs of the Kandians.


sufficient for 4 men, and he placed it four people supported me to the place before me, to eat as much as I pleased. where he was (the square outside the I eat up the whole of it, as soon as he palace ;) the King was sitting on his went away, and drank a large quantity Palankeen when I was brought to him; of water, and then tumbled down and all the other people who had been with slept well for the first time.* The next the English (*natives) were also brought

morning I was awoke by a Caffree, before him. who said to me in Portuguese, “Ah! Benson was then present, dressed in we have been looking for you a long his British uniform, with a gold chain time, and now we have found you." round his neck, and a silver hilted sword, “Well,” said I, “and now you may do both given him by the King, with whom what you please with me, for I can't go he seemed to be in great favour. The away." He went off, and returned some King spoke a good deal; he gave cloth time after with another + Caffree, who to all of us enough to make a shirt and had a sword under his arm. Now I trowsers, and a kind of silver money thought all was over: but they told me called Laraund shaped like a fish-hook, that they had orders to take care of me, one of which is worth about 16 pice, and confine me until the arrival of the and the King also directed some beef King, who was expected next day. Ac- in casks, and a little arrack (left behind cordingly I was confined in a prison by the Eglish) to be delivered to Benwith 13 Malabar people who had been son for him and me, which we afterattendants on Budhu Swammy. Of these wards shared; and the King said, that 13 people I saw some hung; and others, after all I had suffered, no one but God with their noses and ears cut off, they could kill me, and that no one should allowed to walk away. The King did ever do me any harm. not arrive, but in a few days after, I saw I was advised by the natives to wash at a distance a man named Benson, be- very often for my disorder; and I did longing to the Madras artillery, who so three times a day. I recovered in had deserted about the beginning of about 15 or 16 days; and I am sure it June to the King at Nangaren-Kitty, as was the constant Chatty Bathing that he himself told me; when I saw him cured me, though I could not walk with a bag on his shoulder (of rice I be- about much for a great while. Benson lieve), I began to cry at seeing the face was a good deal with the great people, of an European, and he came near to and I used to follow him about just like where I was. I was wrapped up in an a servant. He used sometimes to drill old mat, my only covering, and I told the natives a little, and on those occahim that I was in great misery, and beg- sions I remained in the rear; but Benged him to assist me, and he said he son did not know much about the matter. would see me again in two or three days; A few months after this, Benson went and I alterwards saw him at a distance, with the King and his army to Ampateland called to him: he said he would see ta, near Hangwell. This King's army, me on his return, which he did; but he I think, were not less than 12,000 men. never gave me any victuals, nor any Some of our Lascars and Malays, Coothing, and when I asked him for a little tobacco, he said he had none.

A day or two after, the King arrived and sent for me; as I could not walk,

In narrating this circumstance, Thoen gave a curious proof of forgetfulness in the idiom of the English language. Having occasion for the direct opposite of a word, be used the most obvious one, but in a wrong sense; speaking of this man who brought him the food, he said, "I never saw him before ner behind."---“ I believe," said I," you mean since. "Yes, I do." W. L. C.


+ These were Cathee slaves whe hai deserted in the Dutch tree.

lies, &c. went with him also; though scarcely any but the Coolies, and those were worth nothing, ever returned. Benson was brought back about a month afterwards in a cloth by four men ; he had received a shot under his left breast. The ball was cut out of his back by the

* Lascars, Malays, &c.

+ This hint respecting Chatty bathing is worthy the attention of every man who is desirous of preserving his health in the Kandian territories; the salubrity of the custom is vouched for (and it is practised) by all the ba W. H. C.



Manners and Customs of the Kandians.

natives; he lingered about six weeks afterwards in great pain (his body being much swelled,) and then died. I dug a grave and buried him.

[VOL. 2

times; but he never cohabited with them, spoke to them, nor even allowed them to enter his house. Although I never saw Major Davie but once, I was alA few days before Benson's death he ways in communication with him; and by told me that there was no subsistence means of the woman who lived with me, for Europeans in this country, and he we used to correspond by letter. My told me that he should inform the Na- woman made ink with burnt rice, and tives that I could make powder (which bought paper in the Bazaar; and she I cannot, for I know nothing at all about used to employ Malabar and Kandian the matter,) and he gave me some leaden people in carrying these notes. Three weights, with which he said I might of these people, who were discovered, manage to make it. He had found this were, I understand, put to death; and in a book, he said, and had mentioned I understood that the reason why Ma. it to the Head Men; so after his death jor Davie was brought to Kandy was they gave me a great deal of trouble on the discovery of this correspondence. this subject, and said that Benson had One of the men who informed against told them I knew how to make powder; us was put upon the spit (impaled)about and they threatened me with death and a fortnight since. I used to buy things imprisonment if I did not do it, so I was for Major Davie in the Bazaar and send obliged to consent to assist them; but them to him. I think about rather more the powder made was useless, just like than a year after I was taken, I was inso much flour. They gave me arrack, formed that there were 100 Europeans sulphur, charcoal, and salt; but I gave and 200 Sepoys, &c. advancing towards the arrack to the different people who Kandy trom the Batticoloa district, and still remained of our army (Bengal Las- I with all the other followers (who had cars, Coolies, Traders, &c.) and who been under Major Davie's command) were sent to assist in this work; and I was marched off to Domberah, and we put Chunamb water with the powder in- were there guarded and surrounded stead of arrack. And afterwards, when night and day, so that we could not esthey found this powder inferior to their cape. I heard that this party was com own, they said, We can make better manded by Capt. Johnson, that he staid than this ourselves." And they were one night in Kandy, and then marched very angry, and told me to go away off to Trincomalie, pursued by the Kanabout my business. After this they dians. took very little notice of me.


The King was in the same place as ourselves, about three English miles only from Kandy: we understood that all the King's valuables were packed up and put into a place of security at night-amongst other things, the liltle golden Gods in the five Temples or Churches. In the Temple belonging to the Palace people say that Adam's tooth was deposited, being placed in a golden box, enclosed in six other larger boxes of gold: this I only heard; no one is

Major Davie I saw only once, and that was about three years since, when he was brought into Kandy very sick, where he was taken good care of for 15 or 16 days. At the end of this period we understood that he was very sick indeed, and that he either died in the house that had been built for him, or when dying was carried into the Jungle to die there; for it is not the custom of these people to allow any one to die in their own house, if it can allowed to touch or see it except the be prevented. About eight years ago I understood from every one that Major Davie had some valuable presents from the King, who, it was said, also gave him three servants (natives of Domberah, where Major Davie always resided, and allotted to him two women, at different

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head priest and the King. The head priest is nearly as great a man as the King in this country; and the King* rises a little to him when he sees him, and makes a compliment to him. Once a year the Gods of the different temples are placed on the backs of elephants (in

* No one but the King could sit in his pres



VOL. 2.]

Narrative of John Albertus Thoen.


wooden cases,) and carried round the they threw them into the water: they town. After remaining about a week (the bodies) have never been removed in Domberah the King and all of us re- from thence that I know of. The King turned to Kandy; and the King made was looking out of a window at a disgreat rejoicings on account of the depar- tance all the time, and from whence he ture of Capt Johnson and his detatch- gave his orders: that window was not within view of the Tank: the name of


About eight years ago I was very the Tank in Cingalese in Bogamber. poor, and had not enough to eat; and The usual mode of punishing was first at the same time I had a great fondness flogging through the streets with whips for a Moor girl, Isah by name, and she and sticks, and afterwards putting the liked me, but would have nothing to say people to death in different ways. to me unless I changed my religion: About two or three miles from the town, these things, put together, induced me to generally near the place where those 14 change my religion-and I did so-I persons were impaled the other day*, went through the forms, that is I was they were sometimes put upon a stake circumcized; but I never learnt any of alive, at others they were speared in the their prayers, nor saw their church yet; back first. it was only for the name of it, and to get some one to take care of me. I always persons punished (natives,) who came pray to God night and day in the Chris- from Colombo. One arm, an ear, and tian Religion. I have one child, a boy the nose, was cut off from each; some of about three years old. died on the spot; and I was informed Ever since the old Adigar was be- that only one ever reached Colombo. headed (about three years ago,) named They were said to be only traders, but Paligumpaha (at which time there was I think the King pretended to take them a rebellion,) there have been plenty of for spies-they had, I believe, been here executions ordered by the King. This before as traders.§

About five months since I saw 10

Adigar I understand had served three About six weeks since I was ordered Kings, and was the tutor or master of to march into the Seven Korles, under the present King; he it was who put the command of the King's near relation him upon the throne. At that time Sinne Summy, and also Vinga Samthere were about 100 put to death; and since that period I have seen several hundreds put to death by the King's orders, particularly people of the Saffragam Corle, and some priests lately.

my (another relation, I believe.) I was very weak, having been ill, and could not well walk; but I was told that I must go, so I went only with a stick in my hand. I suppose alAbout six or seven months since, together there might be about 200 armthree or four children of the Saffragani ed people. I always kept in the rear. We Adigar were put to death in the city; marched for about six days-I think the Adigar's wife was there also; her about 30 miles off. These people were young child was taken from the .breasts, attacked about this distance from Kandy and its head cut off before her face by the English troops, I would have the child's body was thrown on the joined them, but could not, as I was ground; the head was put into a mor- well looked after; and in the retreat I and the pounder put into the moth- was forced on (pushed and pulled,) in er's hands, with which she was obliged order, as they said, that I might not be to pound the head of the child (the taken. When we came to the river near heads of all the four children were in the Kandy+ (after they retreated) they dismortar.) The bodies were dragged about the streets, and then this woman, and three other relations of the Adigar, were led to the Tank side (the lowest of the three Tanks) by some slave women of the King's who tied their hands and feet, then tying a stone round their necks,


rooha, on the bank of the river.
* About three miles from Kandy, at Gana-

This barbarous act has been detailed and

commented on in the Proclamations of Gov-
ernment, and was one of the causes that led to
the renewal of hostilities against the King of

+ Katugastatte.


Dona Miranda; or Love and Madness.

[VOL. 2

persed, and I went into the Jungle at he would put my wife and child to death; Akroon, about 3 miles from the river. but as soon as I knew the English were I did not attempt to join the English in Kandy I came over to them, being whilst the King was in Kandy (although as happy to do so as if I was born I might have done it, I think, a day or two before,) because I was certain that


His own words.



From the European Magazine, Sept. 1817.

T so happened, that in all the engage- answer me, but make a sign to me by ments which took place previous to an inclination of your head, are my faththe decisive battle of Vittoria, Colonel er and mother yet alive ?"-The ColonV and his Spanish friend were em- el moved in affirmation." Thank Heaployed in the same brigade. On this ven!" said she," you have relieved my memorable day, the Colonel received a heart of its heaviest burden-Let me musket-ball, which passed through both now endeavour to return, by my anx his cheeks. Don Alonzo seeing his Col- ious assistance, the generous action by onel fall, immediately gave orders to a which you delivered me from the vile Lieutenant and a file of men to carry machinations of a licentious tyranthim to the rear, where the surgeons, as- My dear Charles, you will I am sure, sisted by some of the wives of the Span- rejoice to see me so occupied in adminiards, were stationed to receive the istering solace to one who preserved wounded. The Colonel had fainted by me from horrors worse than death, when the way; and when he recovered, he the union of our hearts was first ratified found himself supported by the Lieuten- by the hallowed hand of religion."ant and a female of uncommon beauty Mannard bowed to the Colonel; and, kneeling at his feet in readiness to sup- turning to his wife, assured her that, alply the surgeon with lint and dressings. though his heart unfeignedly regretted the As soon as he had fully regained his opportunity which had presented itself of sense, be immediately recognized Dona evincing the gratitude which he felt in Miranda, but the nature and stiffness of equal degree with herself, yet it was highhis wound prevented him from speaking. ly satisfactory that one so dear to him as She had not observed to whom she was his beloved Miranda could thus display administering succour-so disfigured was the noble-mindedness by which she was the Colonel by the course which the ball always actuated. Again bowing to the had taken. The surgeon, perceiving Colonel, and taking an affectionate leave his patient much agitated, forbade him of his wife, telling her that he should soon to speak-but the Colonel made signs rejoin them, he returned to the field, and for a pencil and paper, which the Lieu- resumed his station in his regiment, just tenant supplied him with-he then as the shouts of victory and the trumpets wrote the name of Dona Miranda Fo- were proclaiming the defeat of the enemy. deya, and attached his own-the Lieu- As the part of the brigade to which he tenant who supported him saw the name, belonged formed a detachment of the and gave it to the female-she rose in- reserve, orders were brought to Don stantly from her knees, and, uttering a Alonzo to push forward in pursuit; the piercing shriek fell into the arms of her word of command was obeyed with husband, for this Lieutenant was Charles alacrity by the men, who were anxious Mannard. When she came to herself, to secure to themselves some portion of the she told him who the wounded man glory of the day. A carriage proceeding was--and with a generous spirit of ex- at full speed through the extremity of the traordinary fortitude, resumed her task enemy's lines attracted their notice-a of assistance, "Colonel," said she, party of chasseurs followed it as its guard your situation will not allow you to

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• Concluded from p.111.

the cry spread in every direction, that Joseph Buonaparte was in it. Urged by

VOL. 2.]

Dona Miranda; or Love and Madness.


-then turning towards her astonished relative, she seized him wildly by the arm, and gazing stedfastly in his face"It is Alonzo-Ah, you will not help me !-but if he's dead, neither he nor I shall want help-Stop," she cried to

his personal batred of the Usurper, and men, heard the exclamation of "O my impelled by a desire to avenge the insult husband! my Charles! my beloved I" offered to one of his family, Don Alonzo pressed on his men, and Mannard seconded him with feelings no less ardent than his own-They perceived the carriage stopped by a body of British cavalry; and in hastening onwards, they found themselves suddenly in the midst the bearers of the body, "stop, let me of a retreating squadron of French lan- support him, I shall do it more gently cers; Mannard perceived their perilous than you."-The men stood still-she condition; and seeing Don Alonzo in fixed her eyes upon his ghastly counteimminent peril from the thrust of a lance, nance-then casting them up to Heaven, he seized the weapon with one hand, and clasping her hands suddenly together, and with the other made a blow at the "O GOD," she cried, "he's dead!horseman; at that instant he was him- Where is his wound? - horrible! self pierced deeply in the back by ano- Charles, Charles, 'tis Miranda that calls! ther, and was wounded at Alonzo's side. -O speak-look up!"-He heard her All this took place in the passing speed voice, and opened his eyes--his lips of the squadron's flight; and as escape moved, but no words issued from them was their object, Alonzo found himself "Ah! he lives! he is not dead !——— left unhurt, with poor Mannard stretched Now, Alonzo, help-help them to bear on the earth. Conscious that he owed him to our tent !"-The distracted Mihis life to his Lieutenant's bravery, he randa then ran forward-but suddenly hailed an officer who was at that moment checking herself, she came back-“ He engaged in calling in his men, and en- will die, perhaps, if I leave him-No, I treated his assistance to carry the wound- will not go from thee, my husband, my ed man to the British lines. The battle life!-Gently, gently, good men !—You was over, and the victory complete saw him open his eyes-Are you sure Alonzo guided them to the spot where he did so ?--I saw him too-Will he Colonel V- had been carried. At reach the tent, think ye ?--there it isthe moment they arrived, Dona Miran- O merciful Heaven! aid me in this hour da was standing before the tent, of agony !"-Here, as if her heart could in trembling alarm for her husband's hear no more, she sunk upon the ground, safety, and looking out for his return. and was carried lifeless into the tent. To She saw an officer with a party moving what a wretched condition of helpless slowly towards her-but where was distress were Mannard and his Miranda Mannard ?-Who is he borne in the now reduced !--Alonzo saw, and pitied arms of those men ?-Alonzo saw her them-the courage of the young man by hurried step, and instantly recognized his which he had been rescued, had made long lost cousin. Both stood silent for strong impression upon him-by Mana short interval-Terror, surprise, and nard's interposition the blow was turned fearful forboding, choaked her utterance aside that would have mingled him "Heavens!" exclaimed Alonzo, among the slain-and he had perhaps "what do I see-Dona Miranda here! lost his own life in the encounter-he amidst the horrors of a field of battle! was the husband of Miranda-but the O stay, fly not-Whither do you go?" honour of his family had not been con-Heedless of his interrogatories, she sulted by either, in the union, and in the flew past him-she saw 'twas her Man- step by which it had been accomplished nard, her beloved Charles, thus carried he was, however, now allied to his by the party who were bending their house, and all unfavourable impressions slow steps towards the lines. Alonzo, must give way to the restoration of the ignorant of the tender interest that she happiness of its members. With these felt in the fate of his Lieutenant, hastily ideas, he instantly sent for a surgeon, who, followed her; and coming up to the after examining the wound, pronounced



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