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VOL. 2.]

Ellis's Journal of the late Embassy to China.


Our countrymen were not treated with the masonry may be considered a facing: the utmost attention at this time. Their there is not, however, sufficient strength supplies were scanty; yet such is the re- at the top to allow of guns of large sponsibility of ministers, that several calibre being mounted in the embrasures. high Mandarins are punished, because At all the gates, and at certain intervals, they could not overcome Lord Amherst's there are towers of immense height, with refusal to perform the Ko-tou. This, four ranges of embrasures, intended for however, they pressed insolently enough, cannon: I saw none actually mounted, and at Tong-chou, where the conferences but in their stead there were some imitawere renewed, endeavoured strongly to tions in wood. Besides the tower, a enforce a belief that it was a high honour wooden building of several stories marked to be so debased in the Celestial Empire; the gateways; one of these buildings the Koong-Yay, one of the greatest was higly decorated; the projecting men, vehemently sserting, "that as there roofs diminishing in size according to is but one sun, there is only one Ta- their height, were covered with green and whang-te; he is the universal sovereign, yellow tiles, that had a very brilliant effect and all must pay him homage." Threats under the rays of the sun. A wet ditch of being sent back, a personal attack on skirted the part of the walls round which Sir George Staunton, complaints of the we were carried. Pekin is situated in a manner in which trade had lately been plain; its lofty walls, with its numerous conducted, were next employed seriatim; bastions and stupendous towers, certainly but Lord Amherst remained firm, and give it an imposing appearance, not unwould not consent to have his head nine worthy the capital of a great empire. On times knocked on the floor upon any con- the side near Haiteen we crossed a large sideration. common, wholly uncultivated; a reFrom Tong-chow they were hurried, markable circumstance so near Pekin, travelling all night, to Pekin, stared at There are large tracts of ground covered like wild beasts, and an attempt made with the Nelumbrium, or water lily, near literally to force them at once into the the walls, which, from the luxuriant presence of the Emperor. This was vegetation of this plant, are extremely resisted, and an excuse of indisposition grateful to the eye. The Tartarean

sent instead of the real apology, viz. the mountains, with their blue and immeasufatigue of travelling all night, and the rable summits, are the finest objects in want of their dresses. The consequence the vicinity of Pekin." was, that the enemies of the Embassy had The author, in this part of his narraan opportunity of persuading their sove- tive, mentions that the mules which he reign, that he was disrespectfully treated, saw are very fine animals. He also exand baulked by unfounded apologies; amined "the wooden collar called Kang, and the Embassy was ordered to depart which is fixed on the necks of convicted forthwith. This affords another proof felons as a punishment: it is a square that "a round unvarnished tale" would board, thirty inches wide, with an aperhave been better than diplomatic sinuo- ture for the head; it is worn diagonally, sities, and that, in all relations of life, and enables the bearer to rest the corner honesty is the best policy. upon a stone while sitting."-

We are sorry that these affairs have "When two Chinese quarrel, they demanded so much of our attention, and generally seize each other by the tails, therefore now gladly take our leave of which they twist violently: both often Chinese politics, to confine our remain- fall to the ground, and it is surprising to ing strictures to the appearance, manners, see how long they can endure such acute habits, and characteristics of the country pain: their eyes seem bursting from their and people. sockets, the whole countenance is distort

A stay of a few hours only furnishes ed, and I am convinced that pugilists of a slight picture of Pekin. Its walls are the best bottom must yield in such a built of brick, with a foundation of contest from utter incapacity to bear the dreadful suffering. Though violent to "They are of considerable thickness, madness in gesture and language, they the body of them being of mud, so that seldom proceed to action, and I have seen



Original Letter from David Hume to the Comtesse de Boufflers. [VOL.2. a smart tap with a fan satisfy extreme boxes. It is said that in presents the rage. When, however, they actually outward package not unfrequently exbave recourse to blows, they fight most' ceeds the value of the contents. The front foully, and death has been known to ensue from a kick."

In another place a remarkable piece of ordnance is described. It bad five mouths, and was bound round with iron hoops. The military seem to be equally warlike; but we shall condense the various information scattered through the volume, concerning them, into one point by and by.

On one of the cities it is observed: "The business of the eating-house seemed principally to be carried on in the streets: tea and other liquors, soups and different preparations of meat, were divided into small portions, and ready for immediate consumption: this must be a great accommodation and saving to the labouring classes, although it may be considered as a proof of the absence of domestic habits among them. It is impossible not to remark the neatness of the Chinese in their tubs, baskets, and

yard of all their houses is set off by some flowering shrubs, or dwarf trees; and not seldom a bower of treillage work, with beautiful creeping plants, adds convenience to ornament."

Two Russians and a Frenchman in the Russian service, dressed completely à la Chinoise, wished to enter into an intercourse with the embassy, near Pekin; but were discountenanced, lest the jealousy of the Chinese should be excited. The people were generally civil, and not displeased with the inquisitiveness of the travellers; but they were barred the pleasure of gossiping with the ladies of little feet, by an imperial edict forbidding females to be seen by the strangers. In spite of this, a glimpse was occasionally caught of a peeper: and many of them were pretty enough to cause the restraint to be felt as a very ungallant act of the Emperor.

Concluded in our next.

From the Literary Gazette.


We have been favoured with some most interesting to do justice to all parties and persons, Epistolary remains of our late admired Historian and should also do some to myself, and should Philosopher, addressed to this celebrated Lady; and

it is our intention to avail ourselves of the permission not feed my vanity with chimeras, which, granted us to present our readers with a few extracts I am sensible in my cooler moments, can

in succession.


have no foundation in reason. When I had the pleasure of passing some time IT is not easy for your Ladyship to in France, I had the agreeable experience imagine the pleasure I received from of the polite hospitality by which your your letter, with which you have so un- nation is distinguished; and I now find expectedly honoured me, nor the agree that the same favorable indulgence has able visions of vanity, in which upon that appeared in your Ladyship's judgment occasion, I indulged myself. I conclu- of my writings. And perhaps your esded, and, as I fancied, with certainty, that teem for the entire impartiality which I a person, who could write so well herself, aim at, and which, to tell the truth, is so must certainly be a good judge of wri- unusual in English Historians, has made ting in others, and that an author, who your Ladyship overlook many defects, could please a Lady of your distinction, into which the want of art or genius has educated in the Court of France, and fa- betrayed me. miliarized with every thing elegant and In this particular, Madam, I must own polite, might reasonably pretend to some that I am inclined to take your civilities degree of merit, and might presume to in their full latitude, and to hope that I take his rank above the middling histo- have not fallen much short of my inten rians. But, Madam, it is but fair, that I, tions. The spirit of faction, which prewho have pretended, in so long a work, vails in this country, and which is a natu

VOL. 2.]

Character, Manners and Customs of the People of India.


ral attendant on civil liberty, carries every is drawing towards a period, and that the thing to extremes on the one side as well former intercourse between them will as the other; and I have the satisfaction again be renewed. If this happy event to find, that my performance has aiter- take place, I have entertained hopes, that nately given displeasure to both parties. my affairs will permit me to take a jourI could not reasonably hope to please ney to Paris, and the obliging offer which both. Such success is impossible from you are pleased to make me of allowing the nature of things: and next to your me to pay my respects to you, will prove Ladyship's approbation, who, as a fo- a new and very powerful inducement to reigner, must necessarily be a candid make me hasten the execution of my purjudge, I shall always regard the anger of pose. But I give your ladyship warning both as the surest warrant of my impar- that I shall on many accounts stand in tiality. need of your indulgence. I passed a few years in France during my early youth, but I lived in a provincial town where I enjoyed the advantages of leisure for study, and an opportunity of learning the language. What I had imperfectly learned, long disuse, I am afraid, has made me forget.

As I find that you are pleased to employ your leisure hours in the perusal of History, I shall presume to recommend to your Ladyship a late work of this kind wrote by my friend and countryman, Dr. Robertson, which has met with the highest approbation from all good judges. It is the History of Scotland during I have rested amid books and study; the age of the unfortunate Queen Mary: have been little engaged in the active, and it is wrote in an elegant, agreeable, and not much in the pleasurable scenes and interesting manner, and far exceeding, I shall venture to say, any performance of that kind that has appeared in English. The failings of that Princess are not covered over, but her singular catastrophe is rendered truly lamentable and tragical; and the reader cannot forbear shedding tears for her fate, at the same time he blames her conduct. There are few historical productions where both the subject and execution have appeared so happy.

of life; and am more accustomed to a select society than to general companies. But all these disadvantages, and much greater, will be abundantly compensated by the honour of your ladyship's protection, and I hope that my profound sense of your obliging favour will render me not altogether unworthy of it.

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, Madam, Your Ladyship's most obedient and most humble Servant, DAVID HUME.

Some prospect is now given us that this miserable war between the two nations Edinburgh, 15th May, 1761.

From the Literary Gazette.



WE have seldom met with a more give more information on that interesting

valuable or instructive work than the volume now before us. The author, during his residence among the natives, as a Missionary, followed the maxim of St. Paul, of being "all things to all men," and thus, by humouring their customs, adopting their costume, and seemingly respecting their prejudices, became familiar with their various tribes, and acquired that initiation into their several modes of life, which has enabled him to

subject than any former writer.

The work is translated from the French MS. and published under the auspices of the Court of Directors, for the express purpose of enabling such of our countrymen as reside in India, to become bet ter acquainted with the habits and manners of the people, than, from imperfect information, they have hitherto been. It would appear, that though we are not always anxious enough to conciliate


Character, Manners and Customs of the People of India.

them, when we know how, we still more often offend and disgust them, in cases where we should have no objection to humour their peculiarities, were we conscious that these existed.

[VOL. 2.

them beyond their former situations, the greater danger appears to be, that the needy or the ambitious would affect a conversion which they never felt, and apostatise upon speculation.

We have room only for one short extract, on the odious custom of burning wives upon the funeral piles of their husbands. It is taken from the Bharata, a work of great authority among the Hindus.

"Pandee, the King, retired, with his two wives, into the forest, to pursue a course of penitence. He had also entered into a solemn vow, under the curse of instant death, that he should hold no commerce with either of them.

In truth, no means should be omitted, of securing the hold we have of that country; since we are decidedly convinced, that it is now the object of envy and will hereafter be the object of attack, whenever the continental powers, at present paralysed by the late war, shall feel their nerves sufficiently strengthened, and their plans sufficiently ripe, for a new career of conquest and desolation. If there be found little gratitude in individuals, the gratitude of nations is still "The youngest was extremely beautimore rare; nay, the very consciousness ful, and her charms were so powerful as that England has already been able to to overcome the terrors of perdition. For save Europe from universal despotism, a long time she resisted his solicitations, has, we are too well persuaded, excited and reasoned with him on the dauger of a feeling among those powers, that she, yielding to them, for she was unwilling who has protected them because she to incur the imputation of being the cause found it her interest, would also subvert of his death. But all was in vain, her or injure them, should she ever find it her refusal only serving to increase the vioconvenience. They judge of her abili- lence of his passion. He was at length ty by what she has herself done, and driven to the gratification of it, and imthey judge of her inclination, by what mediately the curse fell upon him with they would themselves do, under similar full effect. Being now dead, a question circumstances. Asia, not Europe, will arose, which of the two wives ought to probably be the next great seat of strug- follow him to the funeral pile; and a gle; and Russia, not France, will be the sharp altercation took place between power, whose arms and whose intrigues then for the preference. An assembly we shall have the greatest cause to dread. of Brahmins was held to decide the disThis work sufficiently refutes the silly pute; when the elder of the two wives assertion of the Edinburgh Review, that insisted that her rank, as his original conthe nations of India are an innocent and sort, gave her a precedence above any inoffensive race. A more odious and posterior one, and farther observed, that disgusting detail of private crimes and her competitor had several young chilnational abominations, were never exhi- dren whose education absolutely requirbited in print, than these pages present ed the prolongation of her life. to our perusal. They likewise clearly disprove another gross doctrine to be found in that Review-namely, that it is useless and injurious to send any Mis sionaries amongst them. And yet, we find, that conversions are not uncommon, and that many of their more enlightened natives see, and confess, and ridicule the absurdities of their own religious tenets. To set about converting a people divided into casts, might indeed, prove an hopeless undertaking, were there no place of refuge for the excommunicated; but where there is a government who have it in their power, to receive, protect, and exalt

"The second wife then addressed the assembly, admitting the superior rank of her opponent, but insisting that, as she was the immediate instrument of their husband's death, and the fatal cause which brought down the malediction upon him, that she alone ought to endure its consequences. And as to the bringing up of the children, quoth she, turning tenderly towards her rival, are they not yours as well as mine? Besides, what sort of education could they expect from a young inexperienced girl like me ? Believe me it will better suit with your gravity and years.

VOL. 2.]

The Italian Bee :

-Le Cento Novelle Antiche.


"In the Bharata, the debate is carried court gave the preference to the other, on to much greater length, but it will be and admitted her,' says the author, to sufficient to relate that, notwithstanding the distinguished honour of being consuthe eloquence of the younger lady, the med alive with the body of her husband.''


From the Monthly Magazine, October, 1817.


Dor 'ape susurrando

Nei mattutini albori

Voia suggendo i rugiadosi umori.-Guarini.

Where the bee at early dawn
Murmuring sips the dews of morn.

The increased interest which has of late been taken in
the literature of modern Italy, assures me that some
account of it will not be unacceptable to such of your
readers as have not an opportunity of becoming ac-
quainted with it in the originals; and I therefore
purpose-under the title of THE ITALIAN BEE,
L'Ape Italiana-to present them, from time to time,

with a selection of such extracts as may appear to me

amusing, and calculated to give a general idea of its features. The fortunes of that celebrated country have had, from the earliest ages, so important an

influence on the destiny of the world at large, that it is justly considered as possessing claims on the attention of mankind,superior to those of any other region, The ancient theatre of Roman glory, the fostering nurse of modern arts and learning-it was in Italy that the exquisite productions of Grecian genius

were fondly cherished and successfully imitated; and, after the desolating inundation of Northern harbarism had nearly extinguished the intellectual fire, it was in her bosom that the dying embers were cher

"It is a common and just observation, that from the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. Therefore, ye who are of gentle and noble minds, first of all dispose your hearts to please God-honouring, fearing, and praising him! and, in the next place, if it be lawful, on any subject not offensive to him, to talk for bodily recreation and amusement, let it be done with all courtesy and decorum.

And, whereas the noble

and genteel are in their words and actions a mirror, as it were, to their inferiors-their conversation being the more acceptable, as proceeding from a more delicate instrument-we shall here commemorate some flowers of speech and fair courtesies, seasonable replies and acts of valour, noble donations and honourable loves-by which many have distinguished themselves in time past. And he that hath a noble mind and a subtle understanding will thus be enabled to imitate them in the time that is to come; and to argue, and relate, and speak, as occasion may offer to the profit and pleasure of those that are ignorant and desirous of being informed. And let it DANTE, PETRARCH, and BOCCACCIO, not displease you, if the flowers we shall

ished, till, at a more propitious season, they burst into that cheering flame by which the nations are still illumined. The natural advantages which Italy enjoys form another important circumstance in her favour. The imagination turns from regions desolated by winter, to rest with delight on the "land of the olive and vine"-fanned by soft gales and crowned with almost perennial verdure; and leaves the severer pursuits of philosophy and science,

to revel in the beauties of a poetry glowing with all the warmth and luxuriance of the delicious climate which inspired it.


are justly considered as the fathers of Italian literature; but, before entering on the consideration of these “mighty masters," it may be proper to take some notice of a work which claims an antiquity even more remote; this is the collection of anecdotes know by the title of, "Le cento Novelle Antiche"-the Hundred Ancient Stories. It is interesting from its simplicity, from its relation to the times in which it was written, and from its having occasionally supplied the subjects of the novels of Boccaccio. It commences with the following proëmium :-

exhibit should be intermixed in a multitude of other words-since gold is set off by black; and a single fine and delicate fruit will recommend a whole orchard, and a few fair flowers a whole garden. Let not this offend the reader-for many have lived through a long life without having ever said or done any thing worth recording."

has been observed, of historical anecThese "flowers of speech" consist, as dotes-for the most part curiously metamorphosed, of stories from the romances of the Round Table and the Paladins of France, which the writer

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