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VOL. 2.]

Natural History.—Original Anecdotes of the Dog.

451

ANIMAL SAGACITY.

From the London Sporting Magazine, July 1817.

CANINE PATHOLOGY. BY DELABERE BLAINE, VETERINARY SURGEON.

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"A fox-hound, in the middle of the chase, was taken in labour. Ardor for the pursuit, united to attachment for her progeny, induced her to snatch it up in her mouth and follow her companions, with whom she soon came up ; and in this situation continued the whole of the chase.

"IF F we separate attachment from away for an hour or two, and then re-fidelity in dogs, how many pleasing turned to look for his mother.--Having and affecting instances might be men- found her dead body, he laid himself tioned to prove the genuine warmth of down by her, and was found in that situtheir regard !-Many dogs have an uni- ation the next day by his master, who versal philanthropy, if I may so express took him home, together with the body it-a general attachment to all mankind: of the mother. Six weeks did this affecothers are not indiscriminately friendly tionate creature refuse all consolation, to every one; but such, almost invaria- and almost all nutriment. He became bly, make it up by a more ardent regard at length convulsed, and died of grief. where they do love. Where is the parent, wife, or lover, whose affection could be more durable than that of the tailor's dog, in the anecdote just related? "Their extraordinary attachment to mankind may perhaps be, in some measure, an inherent quality; and although it is certainly much improved and perfected, yet it may not be altogether dependent on cultivation; for we have failed to excite it in an equal degree in the other branches of the brute creation. In other domesticated animals, it is also a sentiment principally dependent on self-preservation-an attachment for protection and food; but in dogs it is wholly distinct. A servant shall regularly feed a dog, who will assuredly be grateful and attached; but the degree of his attachment for the servant, and that for his master, who perhaps never feeds him, shall bear no proportion; that to his master will be infinitely superior.

"This regard for particular persons is so great, that it frequently interferes with, and, now and then, totally overcomes their instinctive care for their young.Here the moral principle is at war with the instinctive; which is an additional proof of the height of their intellect.

"I have several times seen them, even while suckling their puppies, so unhappy at the deprivation of the society of their owners, that it seemed to be with difficulty that they forced themselves to perform the office of mothers.

"Two spaniels, mother and son, were self hunting, in Mr. Drake's woods, near Amersham, Bucks. The gamekeeper shot the mother; the son, frightened, ran

• Continued from page 413.

"I have also seen many instances of dogs voluntarily undertaking the office of nurse to others, who have been sick. When we consider the warmth of their feelings, and the tenderness of their regard, this is not to be wondered at, if it happens among those babituated to each other; but I have not unfrequently observed a dog take upon himself the office of nurse to a sick one, to whom he has been a total stranger. Were I to relate all the pleasing instances of this kind I have seen, I should be supposed to exceed the bounds of truth.

"One very particular case occurs to my recollection, where a large dog, of mastiff breed, hardly full grown, attached himself to a very small spaniel ill with a distemper, from which the large dog was himself but newly recovered. He commenced this attention to the spaniel the moment he saw it, and for several weeks, continued it unremittingly, licking him clean, following him every where, and carefully protecting him from harm. When the large dog was fed, he has been seen to save a portion, and to solicit the little one to eat it; and, in one instance, he was observed to select a favourite morsel, and carry it to the kennel where the sick animal lay. When the little dog was, from illness, unable to move, the large one used to sit at the door of bis kennel, where he would remain for hours, guarding him from in

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Natural History-Original Anecdotes of the Dog.

[VOL 2

terruption. Here was no instinct, no "Man is placed at the head of the aniinterest; it was wholly the action of the mal creation, and is destined to govern best qualities of the mind." those whose bodily powers are infinitely

"In the human species, gratitude has greater than his own: it was necessary, ever been considered as one of the high- therefore, that he should draw the means est virtues. Can it ever be practised in of subjecting them from the sources of a more perfect manner, or exhibited in a his mind. Hence in him, intellect is inmore interesting point of view, than by finitely superior; while, to the animals these admirable animals. A benefit is below him, it is given in different pornever forgotten by the majority of them; tions, according to their wants, their but, for injuries, they have the shortest habits, and their uses; but Nature, ever memory of any living creature. To se- provident to her children, has given to lect instances of the gratitude of dogs all animals another mental principle, to would seem almost invidious. Every make up for the deficiency of the reasonperson must have been an eye-witness to ing faculty. This principle is called inmany facts of this kind; but my oppor- stinct, which is weak in man, but strong tunities of seeing different dogs have in animals. It is a preservative princi presented me with varied occasions, ple, and hence is stronger in those in where this noble passion has been prac- whom the rational principle is weak; tised in its fullest extent. and, as tending purely to the preserva

"A large setter, ill with a distem- tion and propagation of the animal, it is, per, had been most tenderly nursed by a in an operative point of view, more pow lady for three weeks.-At length he be- erful than the rational principle; but it is, came so ill as to be placed on a bed, at the same time, infinitely more confin where he remained three days, in a dy- ed, and but little varied in its operation. ing situation. After a short absence, the It developes itself in all animals at the lady, on re-entering the room, observed very moment of their birth. The young him to fix his eyes attentively on her, and chick is no sooner hatched, than it runs make an effort to crawl across the bed about and selects its food with dexterity towards her this he accomplished, evi- and discrimination, though it be mixed dently for the purpose of licking her with much extraneous matter. hands; which having done, he expired "Instinct being given to animals in without a groan. I am convinced that the place of reason, and answering every the animal was sensible of his approach- purpose of existence, it was a superadding dissolution, and that this was a last ed bounty of Providence to give any forcible effort to express his gratitude for portion of the reasoning faculty. This the care taken of him. additional boon being given in different "Having, I hope, paid a just, and proportions, some particular purpose only a just, tribute to the bravery, fide- was to be answered by the unequal dislity, attachment, and gratitude of dogs, tribution. This purpose probably was, I would draw the reader's attention to a that such animals as had the intellectual still wider field; and when I propose to powers strong, should be placed more consider the varied intelligence of the immediately about man; enabling him animal, I present him and myself with thereby to profit, as well by their mental an inexhaustible fund of pleasing re- qualities, as by their personal properties. search. No one who does not pay a "Of all these domesticated subjects, marked attention to dogs, can possibly the dog possesses by far the greatest porbe aware to what an extent their mental tion of intellect; the instances of his saintellect can attain. If I can prove that gacity being as obvious as they are varithey reason on past events, draw pro ed and numerous. bable conclusions from present, and seem "A native of Germany, fond of travto foresee those likely to occur in future, elling, was pursuing his course through I establish such a plenitude of the rea- Holland, accompanied by a large dog. soning faculty in them, as must raise them Walking, one evening, on a high bank high in the scale of animated existence. which formed one side of a dike, or ca

VOL. 2.]

Natural History-Sagacity of Brute Animals.

nal, so common in that country, his foot slipped, and he was precipitated into the water; and, being unable to swim, he soon became senseless. When he recovered his recollection, he found himself in a cottage, on the contrary side of the dike to that from which he fell, surrounded by peasants, who had been using the means so generally practised in that country for the recovery of drowned persons. The account given by the peasants was, that one of them, returning home from his labour, observed, at a considerable distance, a large dog in the water, swimming and dragging, and sometimes pushing, something that he seemed to have great difficulty in supporting; but which he at length succeeded in get ting into a small creek on the opposite side to that on which the men were.

453

possibly stagger the faith of some.-I shall only remark, that I would not willingly trespass the bounds of truth: the facts were detailed to me by several persons of veracity, who professed to have been eye-witnesses of them; and all the circumstances appeared to be well known in the neighbourhood.

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A butcher and cattle dealer, who resided about nine miles from the town of Alston, in Cumberland, bought a dog of a drover.-This butcher was accustomed to purchase sheep and kine in the vicinity, which, when fattened, he drove to Alston market, and sold. In these excursions he was frequently astonished at the peculiar sagacity of his dog, and at the more than common readiness and dexterity with which he managed the cattle; till at length he troubled himself "When the animal bad pulled what little about the matter, but, riding care he had hitherto supported as far out of lessly along, used to amuse himself with the water as he was able, the peasant observing how adroitly the dog acquitdiscovered that it was the body of a man. ted himself of his charge. At last, so The dog, having shaken himself, began convinced was he of his sagacity as well industriously to lick the hands and face as fidelity, that he wagered that he would of his master, while the man hastened a- entrust him with so many sheep and so cross; and, having obtained assistance, many oxen, to drive alone and unattendthe body was conveyed to a neighbour- ed to Alston market. It was stipulated ing house, where the resuscitating means that no person should be within sight or used soon restored him to sense and hearing, who had the least control over recollection.-Two very considerable the dog; nor was any spectator to interbruises, with the marks of teeth, appear- fere, or he within five hundred yards.— ed, one on his shoulder, the other at the On trial, this extraordinary animal proroot of the poll of the head; whence it ceeded with his business in the most was presumed that the faithful beast first steady and dextrous manner; and alseized his master by the shoulder, and though he had frequently to drive his bis sagacity had prompted him to let go charge through other herds who were this hold, and shift it to the nape of the grazing, yet he never lost one, but, neck, by which he had been enabled to ducting them into the very yard to which support the head out of the water. It he was used to drive them when with was in this manner that the peasant ob- his master, he significantly delivered served the dog making his way along the them up to the person appointed to redike, which it appeared he had done for ceive them, by barking at his doora distance of nearly a quarter of a mile. What more particularly marked the dog's It is, therefore, probable that this gentle- sagacity was, that, when the path the man owed his life as much to the saga- herd travelled lay through a spot where city as to the fidelity of his dog.-- others were grazing, he would run forshould, in justice to the liberality of this ward, stop his own drove, and then, drivgentleman, who himself related the cir- ing the others away, collect his scattered cumstances to me, state that, wherever he charge, and proceed. He was several afterwards boarded, he always volunta- times afterwards thus sent alone, for the rily gave half as much for the support of amusement of the curious, or the convehis dog as he agreed to give for himself, nience of his master, and always acquitthereby ensuring care and kindness for ted himself in the same adroit and intellihis preserver. gent manner. The story reaching the ears "In relating the following, I shall of a gentleman travelling in that neigh

con

454

The dog Minuto.-Osman, a Turkish Tale.

[VOL. 2

bourhood, he bought the dog for a con- of Milan, who has been taught by his siderable sum of money. master, an Italian, to perform all sorts of "Extraordinary as the circumstances curious tricks, and in truth, does great are, I have no doubt whatever as to the credit to his instructions. The writer of perfect correctness of the statement. I the biographical account of this celebratresided for a twelvemonth within a few ed quadruped, sold at the entrance of the miles of the spot, and, as I before ob- place of exhibition, says: "While we served, the hole appeared fresh in eve- were writing this history we hoped that ry one's recollection. the account of Munito's talents would "I remember watching a shepherd's stimulate the ambition of indolent chilboy in Scotland, who was sitting on the dren." Accordingly there are but few bank of a wide but shallow stream. A parents but take their children to admire sheep had strayed to a considerable dis- this model of cleverness, who is become tance on the other side of the water; the so general a topic of conversation boy, calling to his dog, ordered him to throughout all Paris, that a person would fetch that sheep back, but to do it gently, be thought very meanly of who had not for she was heavy in lamb. I do not af- seen him, and could not describe his fect to say that the dog understood the wonderful performances. He writes and reason for which he was commanded to cyphers like the most expert master. Set perform this office in a more gentle man him a sum for example upon a slate-be ner than usual; but that he did under- places himself gravely before it, considers stand he was to do it gently was very for a few minutes, then seeks all the fievident, for he immediately marched through the water, came gently up to the side of the sheep, turned her towards the rest, and then both dog and sheep walked quietly side by side back to the flock.-I was scarcely ever more pleased at a trifling incident in rural scenery than this."

gures that form the answer, out of several sets that lie scattered upon the floor, without receiving the slightest perceptible sign from his master. He writes quite orthographically. A word is mentioned and he immediately seeks out all the letters that compose it. Ask him for ten or twelve cards and he will instantly pick them out from among a complete pack.-Munito not only exhibits in pubA Mr. Munito, an actor, is at this lic every evening at the rate of 3 francs moment engaging in no small degree the for each spectator, but is invited to perattention of the Parisians. The house form before private companies, by which where he exhibits is frequently too small, he is well paid. In short, this learned and it requires considerable patience to quadruped acquires riches and renown wait till you can be admitted to admire though strictly speaking the latter onhis talents. This M. Munito is a dog, a ly, as the former fall to the share of his kind of poodle, from the neighbourhood master.

From the New Monthly Magazine, Nov. 1817.

IN

From the Gentleman's Magazine.

OSMAN: A TURKISH TALE.

N noticing this new work, we shall be- A fainter tint his feebler beams bestow; gin with the Introductory Stanza, as affording a fair specimen of the author's poetical talents:

"'Tis eve---and o'er famed Helles' winding
spray

Fast sheds the Delphic god bis parting ray ;---
Tinged with the last receding gleams of light,
In radiant splendour glows each pine-capt
height;

And sinking slow, on Gargara's dizzy brow,*

"Gargara is the loftiest of the Idaan chain of

mountains." See Clarke.

Till dropp'd at last on ocean's reddening
breast,
He sinks in glory to his nightly rest.---
Greece, it was thus thy car of mental light
Sank to the sable shades of endless night.
Again that sun will glad the morrow's sky--
Again his beam will gild the vault on high---
But ne'er shall Science, bursting from ber
tomb,

Pierce the dark woof of Ignorance's gloom---
Oh! ne'er again shall Genius' vivid ray
Chase night's dim mists and gild the glowing
day---

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Wafts the rich fragrance of the orange trees;
And
every passing zephyr on his wings
A thousand varied odours sweetly brings.
And now night gently waves her pinions grey,
And all is hush'd-save where the ocean spray
Foams on the shore---or where some light
guitar

Hails the mild beam of Hesper's Westering

star.

"Oft let me rove at eve along this shore, Where, Greece, thy wisest--bravest---roved before;

Or, seated on some parted hero's mound,
Weep o'er the fetters of this far-famed ground;
Think o'er the glories of its days gone by,
And pay the tribute of a classic sigh.
Who can forget, that in this mouldering grave
Rest the cold ashes of the Pythian brave?"

Pursuing the idea in the Introduction to Canto III. the Poet adds,

"Fall'n clime! but oh! how lovely in thy

fall!

How fair thy scenes, though turban'd lords enthrall.

Where'er we turn, the feasting eye surveys Scenes that defy the tongue of human praise. Mountains above---rocks, sands, and waves below;

Vales, shores, and plains, in wildest beauty glow.

The moss-grown turret, and the mouldering fane,

In sacred fragments strew the classic plain; And tell, though now decay'd and dimly seen, That here the shrine, the home of gods, hath been!

But they have vanish'd---at the rifled shrine
Pours forth in floods no more the hallow'd wine,
But there the baleful night-weeds widely
spread,

And the sad nettle waves her trembling head.
The dome of sculptured beauty echoes now
No Pæans' choral hymn--no warrior's vow.
There all is silence---save the nightly shriek
Of the lone bird of evening's tuneless beak.'
The living statue, and the breathing bust,
Moulder alike into neglected dust.
Oh! who can marvel if the classic tear
Bedew each rude and shapeles fragment here?
Who but must mourn o'er this polluted scene?
Who but must weep o'er what the past bath
been?"

"In the scanty list of those who have done honour to Modern Greece, the names of Psalida and Coray, of Riga, and of Canzani, claim a distinguished place.They are, if I may be allowed the expression, the scintille that flash along the gloom, or perhaps the few faint embers which still survive, to tell us where the flame of glory and of science was kindled."

455

The Tale itself is short and very tragical; and in some parts the reader will perceive lines that will remind him of and Heroine are thus described: having read Lord Byron. The Hero

"Osman his name---bis aged sire had stood. First in the field when Wid ran with blood--

head,

'Twas he the rallying Horsetail first unfurl'd, And from his throne the rebel traitor burl'd ;--And now, when time his hoary hue had shed O'er his blanch'd beard---and silver'd o'er his He sought, retiring from life's busy stage, Such was old Assad.---Oft to Hassan's dome His native vales, in peace to end his age--Whilst yet his youth was in its earliest bloom, Young Osman came---at first, as children may, To seek some sharer in their sportive play; But soon the star that beam'd from Leila's eye And oft when cares ran high would he repair Awoke his soul to livelier ecstacy;

To her, to meet that rest he could not find elsewhere.

"His heart was form'd in Virtue's fairest

mould,

Unsullied from the hand that gave it birth,
No dross was temper'd with its purest gold;
Scarce caught his soul one stain of viler earth.-
His was that heart, which, form'd in Nature's
pride,

Laugh'd with the gay, and sigh'd with those that sigh'd;

Though love still bade his youthful pulse beat
Flush'd o'er his cheek, or glitter'd in his eye;
high,
Yet never shrank he from the battle fire,---
Keen was his blade, and dreaded was his ire.
His name was fear'd on every hostile shore,
Blese'd by his own, what wouldst thou, Chris-
tian, more?

"Achaia's plains with loveliest nymphs a-
bound,

And there the sweetest dark-eyed maids are found :'

So sang the Teian Bard of old :---his strain Might wake once more---his reed be heard again,

Could his dim eye in rapture scan the grace That beam'd and thrill'd the soul from Leila's face.

She was as fair and lovely as the ray
That gilds the rain-clouds of an April day;
Yet pure and spotless as the limpid wave
That, glittering, sparkles in the mountain cave.
It was as though some Honri, kindly given,
To teach and smooth the arduous path to

heaven,

Had come from high---to prove how sweet the kiss

That waits the Moslem in the bowers of bliss."

Osman, who

"Oft had long'd to roam o'er climes unknown,"

• Widhm was the usurped capital of the celebrated Oglou.

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