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3. One who pays no regard to the precepts of religion.

They say this town is full of couzenage, Disguised cheaters, prating mountebanks, And many such like libertines of sin. Shakspeare. That word may be applied to some few libertines in the audience. Collier's View of the Stage. 4. [In law; libertinus, Lat.] A freedman;

or rather, the son of a freedman.

Some persons are forbidden to be accusers on the score of their sex, as women; others on the score of their age, as pupils and infants; others on the score of their condition, asbertines against their patrons. Ayliffe's Parergon. LIBERTINE. adj. [libertin, French.] Licentious; irreligious.

There are men that marry not, but chuse rather a libertine and impure single life, than to be yoked in marriage.


Might not the queen make diligent enquiry, if any person about her should happen to be of Libertine principles or morals? Srift. LIBERTINISM. n. s. [from libertine.] irreligion; licentiousness of opinions and practice.

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Justly thou abhorr'st

The son, who, on the quiet state of man
Such trouble brought, affecting to subdue
Rational liberty; yet know withal,
Since thy original lapse, true liberty

Is lost, which always with right reason dwells.


Freedom, as opposed to necessity.

Liberty is the power in any agent to do, or forbear, any particular action, according to the determination, or thought of the mind, whereby either of them is preferred to the other. Locke.

As it is in the motions of the body, so it is in the thoughts of our minds: where any one is such, that we have power to take it up, or lay it by, according to the preference of the mind, there we are at liberty.

Privilege; exemption; immunity.


His majesty gave not an intire country to any, much less did he grant jura regalia, or any extraordinary liberties. Davies.

5. Relaxation of restraint: as, he sees himself at liberty to choose his condition.

Licence they mean when they cry liberty.

6. Leave; permission,

I shall take the liberty to consider a third ground, which, with some men, has the same authority. Locke. LIBIDINOUS. n. s. [libidinosus, Latin.] Lewd; lustful.

None revolt from the faith; because they must not look upon a woman to lust after her, but because they are much more restrained from the perpetration of their lusts. If wanton glances and libidinous thought's had been permitted by the gospel, they would have apostatized nevertheless. Bentley. LIBIDINOUSLY. adv. [from libidinous.] LI BRAL. adj. [libralis, Latin.] of a Lewdly; lustfully. pound weight.

Dict. LIBRARIAN. n. s. [librarius, Latin.] 1. One who has the care of a library. 2. One who transcribes or copies books.

Charybdis thrice swallows, and thrice refunds the waves: this must be understood of regular tides. There are, indeed but two tides in a day, but this is the error of the librarians. Broome. LIBRARY. n. s. [librarie, French.] A large collection of books, publick or private.

Then as they 'gan his library to view, And antique registers for to avise, There chanced to the prince's hand to rise An ancient book, hight Briton's monuments. Fairy Queen

I have given you the library of a painter, and a catalogue of such books as he ought to read.

Dryden. To LIBRATE. v. a. [libro, Latin.] To poise; to balance; to hold in equipoise. LIBRATION. n. s. [libratio, Lat. libration, French.]

1. The state of being balanced.

This is what may be said of the balance, and the libration of the body. Dryden's Dufresnoy. Their pinions still

In loose librations stretch'd, to trust the void Trembling refuse. Thomson's Spring. s. [In astronomy.]

Libration is the balancing motion or trepidation in the firmament, whereby the declination of the sun, and the latitude of the stars, change

from time to time. Astronomers likewise ascribe to the moon a libratory motion, or mption of trepidation, which they pretend is from east to west, and from north to south, because that at full moon they sometimes discover parts of her disk which are not discovered at other times. These kinds are called, the one a libration in longitude, and the other a libration in latitude. Besides this, there is a third kind, which they call an apparent libration, and which consists in this, that when the moon is at her greatest elongation from the south, her axis being then almost perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptick, the sun must enlighten towards the north pole of the moon some parts which he did not before, and that, on the contrary, some parts of those which he enlightened towards the opposite pole are obscured; and this produces the same effect which the libration in latitude does. Dict. Trev.

Those planets which move upon their axis, do
not all make intire revolutions; for the moon
maketh only a kind of libration, or a reciprocated
mction on her own axis.
LIBRATORY. adj. [from libre, Lat.] Ba-
lancing, playing like a balance.
LICE, the plural of louse.

Red blisters rising on their paps appear,
And flaming carbuncles, and noisome sweat,
And clammy dews, that loathsome lice beget;
Till the slow creeping evil eats his way. Dryden.
LICEBANE. n. s. [lice and bane.] A plant.
LICENSE. n. s. [licentia, Lat. licence, Fr.]
1. Exorbitant liberty; contempt of legal
and necessary restraint.

Some of the wiser seeing that a popular licence is indeed the many-headed tyranny, prevailed with the rest to make Musidorus their chief.

Taunt my faults
With such full licence, as both truth and malice
Have power to utter. Shaksp. Ant. and Cleopatra.
They baul for freedom in their senseless moods,
And still revolt when truth would set them free;
Licence they mean, when they cry liberty.

The privilege that ancient poets claim,
Now turn'd to license by too just a name. Roscom.
Though this be a state of liberty, yet it is not
a state of licence; though man, in that state,
have an uncontroulable liberty to dispose of his
person or possessions, yet he has not liberty to
destroy himself.

2. A grant of permission.

the senate.

They sent some to bring them a licence from Judith, Those few abstract names that the schools forged, and put into the mouths of their scho lars, could never yet get admittance into common use, or obtain the lisence of publick approbation.


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And the press groan'd with licens'd blasphemies. Pope. 2. To dismiss; to send away. Not in use. He would play well, and willingly, at some games of greatest attention, which shewed, that when he listed ne could license his thoughts. LICENSER. n. s. [from license.] A granter of permission; commonly a tool of power. LICENTIATE. n. s. [licentiatus, low Lat.] 1. A man who uses license. Not in use.


The licentiates somewhat licentiously, lest they should prejudice poetical liberty, will pardon thernselves for doubling or rejecting a letter, if the sense fall aptly. Camden.

2. A degree in Spanish universities.

A man might, after that time, sue for the degree of licentiate or master in this faculty. Ayliffe. TO LICENTIATE. v. a. [licentier, Fr.] To permit; to encourage by license.

We may not hazard either the stifling of generous inclinations, or the licentiating of any thing that is coarse. LICENTIOUS. adj. [licencieux, French; L'Estrange. licenciosus, Latin.]

1. Unrestrained by law or morality.


Later ages pride, like corn-fed steed,
Abus'd her plenty, and fat swoln encrease,
To all licentious lust, and 'gan exceed
The measure of her mean, and natural first need,
Fairy Queen.
How would it touch thee to the quick,
Should'st thou but hear I were licentious?
And that this body, consecrate to thee,

With ruffian lust should be contaminate? Sbak,
Presumptuous, unconfined.

The Tyber, whose licentious waves,
So often overlow'd the neighbouring fields,
Now runs a smooth and inoffensive course.

LICENTIOUSLY. adv. [from licentious.]
With too much liberty; without just

The licentiates, somewhat licentiously, will LICENTIOUSNESS. n. s. [from licentious.] pardon themselves. Camden's Remains. Boundless liberty; contempt of just restraint.

One error is so fruitful, as it begetteth a thousand children, if the licentiousness thereof be not timely restrained. Raleigh. This custom has been always looked upon, by the wisest men, as an effect of licentiousness, and not of liberty. Swift.

During the greatest licentiousness of the press, the character of the queen was insulted. Suift LICH. 2, s. [lice, Saxon.] A dead car

case; whence lich-wake, the time or act of watching by the dead, lichgate, the gate through which the dead are carried to the grave; Lichfield, the field of the dead, a city in Staffordshire, so named from martyred christians. Şalve

magna parens. Licbwake is still retained in Scotland in the same sense. LICHOWL. n. s. [lich and owl.] A sort of owl, by the vulgar supposed to fore

tel death.

To LICK. v. a. [licean, Saxon; lecken, Dutch.]

1. To pass over with the tongue.

Esculapius went about with a dog and a shegoat, both which he used much in his cures; the first for licking all ulcerated wounds, and the goat's milk for the diseases of the stomach and lungs. Temple.

A bear's a savage beast; Whelp'd without form, until the dam Has lick'd it into shape and frame. Hudibras. He with his tepid rays the sose renews, And licks the drooping leaves, and dries the dews. Dryden.

I have seen an antiquary lick an old coin, among other trials, to distinguish the age of it by its taste. Addison.

2. To lap; to take in by the tongue.

At once pluck out

The multitudinous tongue; let them not lick The sweet which is their poison. Shakspeare.

3. To LICK up. To devour.

Now shall this company lick up all that are round about us, as the ox licketh up the grass. Numbers.

When luxury has lick'd up all thy pelf, Curs'd by thy neighbours, thy trustees, thyself: Think how posterity will treat thy name. Pope. LICK. n. s. [from the verb.] A blow; rough usage: a low word.

He turned upon me as round as a chafed boar, and gave me a lick across the face. Dryden. LICKERISH. adj. [liccena, a glutton, LICKEROUS. S Saxon. This seems to be the proper way of spelling the word, which has no affinity with liquour, but with like.]

1. Nice in the choice of food.


Voluptuous men sacrifice all substantial satisfactions to a liquorish palate.


Eager; greedy to swallow; eager not with hunger but gust.

It is never tongue-tied, where fit commendation, whereof womankind is so lickerish, is offered unto it. Sidney. Strephon, fond boy, delighted, did not know That it was love that shin'd in shining maid; But lick'rous, poison'd, fain to her would go.

Sidney. Certain rare manuscripts, sought in the most remote parts by Erpenius, the most excellent linguist, had been left to his widow, and were upon sale to the jesuits, liquorish chapmen of all such ware. Wotton.

In vain he proffer'd all his goods to save His body, destin'd to that living grave; The liquorish hag rejects the pelf with scorn, And nothing but the man would serve her turn. Dryden.

In some provinces they were so liquorish after man's flesh, that they would suck the blood as it run from the dying man. Locke. 3. Nice; delicate; tempting the appetite. This sense I doubt.

Would'st thou seek again to trap me here With lickerish baits, fit to ensnare a brute?


LICKERISHNESS. n. s. [from lickerish.] Niceness of palate.

LICORICE. n. s. [yλunuþjiļu; liquoricia, Italian.] A root of sweet taste.

Liquorice root is long and slender, externally of a dusky reddish brown, but within of a fine yellow, full of juice, and of a taste sweeter than sugar; it grows wild in many parts of France, Italy, Spain, and Germany. The inspissated juice of this root is brought to us from Spain and Holland; from the first of which places it obtained the name of Spanish juice. Hill's Materia Medica, LICTOR. n. s. [Latin.] A beadle that attended the consuls to apprehend or punish criminals.

Saucy lictors


Will catch at us like strumpets.
Proconsuls to their provinces
Hasting, or on return, in robes of state,
Lictors and rods the ensigns of their power.

Democritus could feed his spleen, and shake His sides and shoulders till he felt 'em ake; Though in his country-town no lictors were, Nor rods, nor ax, nor tribune. Dryden. LID. n. s. [hlid, Saxon; lied, German.] 1. A cover; any thing that shuts down over a vessel; any stopple that covers the mouth, but not enters it.


Hope, instead of flying off with the rest, stuck so close to the lid of the cup, that it was shut down upon her. Addison. The membrane that, when we sleep or wink, is drawn over the eye.

Do not for ever with thy veiled lids, Seek for thy noble father in the dust. Shaksp. Our eyes have lids, our ears still ope we keep. Davies.

That eye dropp'd sense distinct and clear, As any muse's tongue could speak; When from its lid a pearly tear. Ran trickling down her beauteous cheek. Prior. The rod of Hermes

To sleep could mortal eye-lids fix, And drive departed souls to Styx: That rod was just a type of Sid's, Which o'er a British senate's lids Could scatter opium full as well, And drive as many souls to hell. LIE. n. s. [lie, French.] Any thing impregnated with some other body; as, soap or salt.

Chamber-lie breeds fleas like a loach.


Shakspears. All liquid things concocted by heat become yellow, ye, wort, &c. Peacham on Drawing. LIE. n. s. [lize, Saxon.] 1. A criminal falshood.

Thou liest, abhorred tyrant; with my sword I'll prove the lie thou speak'st. Shakspeare.

A lye is properly an outward signification of something contrary to, or at least beside, the inward sense of the mind; so that when one thing is signified or expressed, and the same thing not meant or intended, that is properly a lye.

South. Truth is the object of our understanding, as good is of our will; and the understanding can no more be delighted with a lye, than the will can chuse an apparent evil. Dryden.

When I hear my neighbour speak that which is not true, and I say to him, This is not true, or this is false, I only convey to him the naked idea of his error; this is the primary idea: but if I say it is a lie, the word lie carries also a secondary idea; for it implies both the falsehood of the speech, and my reproach and censure of the speaker. Watts.

2. A charge of falsehood: to give the lie, is a formulary phrase.

That lie shall lye so heavy on my sword, That it shall render vengeance and revenge; Till thou the lie giver, and that lie, rest In earth as quiet as thy father's skull. Shakspeare.

It is a contradiction to suppose, that whole nations of men should unanimously give the lie to what, by the most invincible evidence, every one of them knew to be true. Locke.

Men will give their own experience the lie, rather than admit of any thing disagreeing with these tenets. Locke.

3. A fiction. This sense is ludicrous.

The cock and fox, the fool and knave imply; The truth is moral, though the tale a lie.

Dryden. To LIE. v. n. [leogan, Saxon; liegen, Dutch.]

1. To utter criminal falsehood.

I know not where he lodges; and for me to devise a lodging, and say, He lies here, or he lies there, were to lie in mine own throat.


If a soul ye unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, he shall restore that which was delivered. Leviticus. Job.

Should I lye against my right?

2. To exhibit false representation.
Inform us, will the emp'ror treat?
Or do the prints and papers lie?


To LIE. v. n. pret. I lay; I have lain or lien. [liegan, Saxon; liggen, Dutch.] 1. To rest horizontally, or with very great inclination against something else.

2. To rest; to press upon.

Death lies on her like an untimely show'r Upon the sweetest flow'r of all the field. Shaksp. Lie heavy on him, earth, for he Laid many a heavy load on thee.

Epitaph on Vanburgh. 3. To be reposited in the grave.

All the kings of the nations lie in glory, every

one in his own house.
I will lie with my fathers, and thou shalt car-
ry me out of Egypt, and bury me in your bury-

4. To be in a state of decumbiture.

How many good young princes would do so; their fathers lying so sick as yours at this time is? Shakspeare.

My little daughter lieth at the point of death; I pray thee come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed.

5. To pass the time of sleep.

The watchful traveller,


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There lies our way, and that our passage home. Dryden. Envy lies between beings equal in nature, though unequal in circumstances. Collier of Envy. The business of a tutor, rightly employed, lies out of the road. Locke on Education.

What lies beyond our positive idea towards infinity, lies in obscurity, and has the undeterminate confusion of a negative idea. Locke. 10. To press upon afflictively.

Thy wrath lieth hard upon me, and thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves.


He that commits a sin shall find The pressing guilt lie heavy on his mind, Though bribes or favour shall assert his cause. Creech

Shew the power of religion, in abating that particular anguish which seems to lie so heavy on Leonora. Addison.

11. To be troublesome or tedious.

Suppose kings, besides the entertainment of luxury, should have spent their time, at least what lay upon their hands, in chemistry, it cannot be denied but princes may pass their time advantageously that way. Temple.

I would recommend the studies of knowledge to the female world, that they may not be at a loss how to employ those hours that lie upon Addison's Guardian.

their hands.

12. To be judicially imputed.

If he should intend his voyage towards my wife, I would turn her loose to him; and what he gets more of her than sharp words, let it lie on my head. Shakspeare.

13. To be in any particular state.
If money go before, all ways do lie open.

Shakspeare. The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceaseth. Isaiah.. The seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still. Exo us.

Do not think that the knowledge of any particular subject cannot be improved, merely because it has lain without improvement. Watts. 14. To be in a state of concealment.

Many things in them lie concealed to us, which they who were concerned understood at first sight. Locke.

15. To be in prison.

Your imprisonment shall not be long; I will deliver you, or else lie for you. Shaksp. 16. To be in a bad state.

Why will you lie pining and pinching yourself in such a lonesome, starving course of life? L'Estrange. The generality of mankind lie pecking at one another, till one by one they are all torn to pieces. L'Estrange's Fables. Are the gods to do your drudgery, and you lis bellowing with your finger in your mouth? L'Estrange. 17. To be in a helpless or exposed state. To see a hated person superior, and to lie under the anguish of a disadvantage, is far enough from diversion. Cellier.

It is but a very small comfort, that a plain man, lying under a sharp fit of the stone for a week, receives from this fine sentence. Tillotson.

As a man should always be upon his guard against the vices to which he is most exposed, so we should take a more than ordinary care not

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The image of it gives me content already; and I trust it will grow to a most prosperous perfection.

-It lies much in your holding up. Shaksp. He that thinks that diversion may not lie in hard labour, forgets the early rising, and hard riding of huntsmen. Locke.

19. To be in the power; to belong to.
Do'st thou endeavour, as much as in thee lies,
to preserve the lives of all men? Duppa.

He shews himself very malicious if he knows
I deserve credit, and yet goes about to blast it,
as much as in him lies. Stilling Fleet on Idolatry.
Mars is the warrior's god; in him it lies
On whom he favours to conier the prize.

Dryden. 20. To be valid in a court of judicature : as, an action lieth against one.

21. Ic cost; as, it lies me in more mo

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To importune; to tease. 23. Lie by. To rest; to remain still. Every thing that heard him play,

Ev'n the billows of the sea,

Hung their heads, and then lay by ;

In sweet musick is such art,

Killing care, and grief of heart,

Fall asleep, or hearing die.


24. To LIE down. To rest; to go into a state of repose.

The leopard shall lie down with the kid.


The needy shall lie doren in safety. 25. To LIE down. To sink into the grave. His bones are full of the sin of his youth, which shall lie down with him in the dust. Job. 26. To LIE in. To be in childbed.

As for all other good women that love to do but little work, how handsome it is to lie in and sleep, or to louse themselves in the sunshine, they that have been but a while in Ireland can well witness. Spenser.

You confine yourself most unreasonably. Come; you must go visit the lady that lies in. Shakspeare. She had lain in, and her right breast had been apostemated. Wiseman's Surgery. The doctor has practised by sea and land, and therefore cures the green sickness and lyings in. Spectator.

When Florimel design'd to lie privately in ; She chose with such prudence her pangs to conceal,

That her nurse, nay her midwife, scarce heard her once squeal.


Hysterical affections are contracted by accidents in lying in.

These are not places merely of favour, the charge of souls, lies upon them; the greatest ac count whereof will be required at their hands. Bacon.

It should lie upon him to make out how matter, by undirected motion, could at first necessarily fall, without ever erring or miscarrying, into such a curious formation of human bodies. Bentley's Sermons.

29. To LIE with. To converse in bed. Pardon me, Bassanio,

For by this ring she lay with me. Shakspeare. 30. It may be observed of this word in general, that it commonly implies something of sluggishness, inaction, or steadiness, applied to persons; and some gravity or permanency of condition, applied to things.

LIEF. adj. [iecF, Saxon; lief, Dutch.]
Dear; beloved. Obsolete.

My liefest lord she thus begel
For he was flesh; all flesh doth any

You, with the rest,

Causeless have laid disgraces on n hand;
And with your best endeavour have stin'd up
My liefest liege to be mine chomy. Shakspeare.
LIEF. adv. Willingly now used ony
in familiar speech.


If I could speak so wisely under an arrest, I would send for certain of my creditors; and yet to say the truth, I had as lief have the foppery of freedom, as the morality of imprisonment.

Shakspeare. LIEGE. adj. [lige, Fr. ligio, Italian; ligius, low Latin.]

1. Bound by some feudal tenure; sub-
ject: whence liegeman for subject.
2. Sovereign. [This signification seems
to have accidentally risen from the for-
mer, the lord of lige men, being by mis-
take called liege lord.]

Did not the whole realm acknowledge Henry
VIII. for their king and liege lord? Spenser.
My lady liege, said he,
What all your sex desire is sovereignty. Dryden.
So much of it as is founded on the law of na-
ture, may be stiled natural religion; that is to
say, a devotedness unto God our liege lord, so as
to act in all things according to his will.

Grew's Cosmography. LIEGE. n. 5. Sovereign; superiour lord: scarcely in use.

O pardon me, my liege! but for my tears
I had forestall'd this dear and deep rebuke.

The other part reserv'd I by consent,
For that my sovereign liege was in my debt. 1

The natives, dubious whom
They must obey, in consternation wait

Till rigid conquest will pronounce their liegt.
Arbuthnot on Diet.

27. To Lit under. To be subject to; to be oppressed by.

A generous person will lie under a great disadvantage. Smalridge's Sermons. This mistake never ought to be imputed to Dryden, but to those who suffered so noble a genius to lie under necessity. Pope.

Europe lay then under a deep lethargy, and was no otherwise to be rescued but by one that would cry mightily. Atterbury.

28. To LIE upon. To become the matter of obligation or duty.


LIEGEMAN. 2. s. [from liege and man.]
A subject. Not in use.

This liegeman 'gan to wax more bold,
And when he felt the folly of his lord,
In his own kind, he 'gan himself unfold. Spenser
Sith then the ancestors of those that now live,
yielded themselves then subjects and liegemen,
shall it not tye their children to the same sub-
Spenser on Ireland,

Stand, ho! who is there?
-Friends to this ground, and liegemen to the


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