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LIEGER. n.s. [more properly legier, or leger.] A resident ambassadour. His passions and his fears

Lie liegers for you in his breast, and there Negotiate your affairs. Denham's Sophy. LIEN. The participle of lie.

One of the people might lightly have lien with thy wife. Genesis LIENTE RICK. adj. [from lientery.] Pertaining to a lientery.

There are many medicinal preparations of iron, but none equal to the tincture made withut acids; especially in obstructions, and to strengthen the tone of the parts; as in lienterick and other like cases. Grew's Museum. LIENTERY.n.s. [from delov,læve, smooth, and shov, intestinum, gut; lienterie, Fr.] A particular looseness or diarrhica, wherein the food passes so suddenly through the stomach and guts, as to be thrown out by stool with little or no alteration. Quincy. LIER. n. s. [from to lie.] One that rests or lies down; or remains concealed. There were liers in ambush against him behind the city. Joshua. LIEU. n. s. [Fr.] Place; room: it is only used with in: in lieu, instead.

God, of his great liberality, had determined, in lieu of man's endeavours, to bestow the same by the rule of that justice which best beseemeth


4. In war, one who holds the next rank to a superiour of any denomination; as, a general has his lieutenant general, a colonel his lieutenant colonel, and a captain simply his lieutenant.

It were meet that such captains only were employed as have formerly served in that country, and been at least lieutenants there.

Spenser on Ireland. According to military custom the place was good, and the lieutenant of the colonel's company might well pretend to the next vacant captainship. Wotton.

The earl of Essex was made lieutenant general of the army; the most popular man of the kingdom, and the darling of the swordmen.

Clarendon His lieutenant, engaging against his positive orders, being beaten by Lysander, Alcibiades was again banished. Swift.

Canst thou so many gallant soldiers see, And captains and lieutenants slight for me? Gay. LIEUTENANTSHIP. n. s. [from lieutenant.] The rank or office of lieutenant. LIFE. n. s. plural lives. [lifian, to live, Saxon.]

1. Union and co-operation of soul with body; vitality; animation, opposed to an inanimate state.

On thy life no more.

-My life I never held but as a pawn

To wage against thy foes. Shakspeare's K. Lear. She shews a body rather than a life, Hooker.

In lieu of such an increase of dominion, it is our business to extend our trade.

Addison's Freeholder. LIEVE. adv. [See LIEF.] Willingly.

Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you, trippingly on the tongue: but if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lieve the town-crier had spoke my lines. Shaksp.

Action is death to some sort of people, and they would as lieve hang as work. L'Estrange. LIEUTENANCY. n. s. [lieutenance, Fr. from lieutenant.]

1. The office of a lieutenant.

If such tricks as these strip you out of your lieutenancy, it had been better you had not kissed your three fingers so oft. Shakspeare.

2. The body of lieutenants.

The list of undisputed masters, is hardly so long as the list of the lieutenancy of our metropolis. Felton on the Classics. LIEUTENANT. n. s. [lieutenant, Fr.] 1. A deputy; one who acts by vicarious authority.

Whither away so fast?

-No farther than the tower.

We'll enter all together,

And in good time here the lieutenant comes.


I must put you in mind of the lords lieutenants, and deputy lieutenants, of the counties: their proper use is for ordering the military affairs, in order to oppose an invasion from abroad, or a rebellion or sedition at home. Bacon.

Killing, as it is considered in itself without all undue circumstances, was never prohibited to the lawful magistrate, who is the viceregent or lieutenant of God, from whom he derives his power of life and death. Bramball against Hobbes. Sent by our new lieutenant, who in Rome, And since from me, has heard of your renown: I come to offer peace. Philip's Briton.

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A statue than a breather.


Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life. Genesis.

The identity of the same man consists in nothing but a participation of the same continued life, by constantly fleeting particles of matter, in succession, vitally united to the same organized body. Locke.

2. Present state; as distinct from other
parts of human existence.

O life, thou nothing's younger brother!
So like, that we may take the one for t'other!
Dream of a shadow! a reflection made
From the false glories of the gay reflected bow,
Is more a solid thing than thou!
Thou weak built isthmus, that dost proudly rise
Up betwixt two eternities;

Yet canst not wave nor wind sustain,
But, broken and o'erwhelm'd, the ocean meets


When I consider life, 'tis all a cheat, Yet fool'd by hope men favour the deceit, Live on, and think to-morrow will repay; To-morrow's falser than the former day; Lies more; and when it says we shall be blest With some new joy, takes off what we possest. Strange cozenage! none would live past years


Yet all hope pleasure in what yet remain;
And from the dregs of life think to receive
What the first sprightly running could not give :
I'm tir'd of waiting for this chemick gold,
Which fools us young, and beggars us when old.

Howe'er 'tis well that while mankind
Through life's perverse meanders errs,
He can imagin'd pleasures find,
To combat against real cares.



So peaceful shalt thou end thy blissful days, And steal thyself from life by slow decays. Pope.

3. Enjoyment, or possession of existence, as opposed to death.


Then avarice 'gan through his veins to inspire His greedy flames, and kindle life devouring tire.


Their complot is to have my life: And, if my death might make this island happy, And prove the period of their tyranny, I would expend it with all willingness. Shaksp. Nor love thy life, nor hate; but what thou liv'st

Live well, how long or short permit to Heav'n. Milton.

He entreated me not to take his life, but exact a sum of money. Broome on the Odyssey. 4. Blood, the supposed vehicle of life. His gushing entrails smoak'd upon the ground, And the warm life came issuing through the wound. Pope. 5. Conduct; manner of living with respect to virtue or vice.

His faith perhaps in some nice tenets might Be wrong; his life I'm sure was in the right.


Henry and Edward, brightest sons of fame, And virtuous Alfred, a more sacred name; After a life of glorious toils endur'd, Clos'd their long glories with a sigh.

Pope. Mrs. Barker.

I'll teach my family to lead good lives.

6. Condition; manner of living with respect to happiness and misery.

Such was the life the frugal Sabines led; So Remus and his brother god were bred.

Dryden. 7. Continuance of our present state: as, half his life was spent in study.

Some have not any clear ideas all their lives.

Untam'd and fierce the tyger still remains,
And tires his life with biting on his chains.


The administration of this bank is for life, and partly in the hands of the chief citizens. Addison. 8. The living form: opposed to copies.

That is the best part of beauty which a picture cannot express, no, nor the first sight of the life. Bacon's Essays.

Let him visit eminent persons of great name abroad, that he may tell how the life agreeth with the fame. Bacon.

He that would be a master, must draw by the life as well as copy from originals, and join theory and experience together.


9. Exact resemblance: with to before it. I believe no character of any person was ever better drawn to the life than this.


Rich carvings, portraiture, and imag'ry, Where ev'ry figure to the life express'd The godhead's pow'r. Dryden's Knight's Tale. He saw in order painted on the wall

The wars that fame around the world had blown, All to the life, and every leader known. Dryden. 30. General state of man.

Studious they appear

Of arts that polish life; inventors rare! Unmindful of their Maker.

All that cheers or softens life,


The tender sister, daughter, friend, and wife.


11. Common occurrences; human affairs; the course of things.

This I know, not only by reading of books in my study, but also by experience of life abroad in the world. Ascham.

Not to know at large of things remote From use, obscure and subtile; but to know That which before us lies in daily life,

Is the prime wisdom. Milton's Paradise Lost.

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The Helots bent thitherward with a new life of resolution, as if their captain had been a root out of which their courage had sprung. Sidney.

They have no notion of life and fire in fancy and in words; and any thing that is just in grammar and in measure, is as good oratory and poetry to them as the best. Felton.

Not with half the fire and life, With which he kiss'd Amphytrion's wife. Prior. 15. Anima!; animated existence; animal being.

Full nature swarms with life. 16. System of animal nature.

Lives through all life.



17. Life is also used of vegetables, and whatever grows and decays. LIFEBLOOD. n. s. [life and blood.] The blood necessary to life; the vital blood.

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4. Wanting or deprived of physical ener


The other victor-flame a moment stood, Then fell, and lifeless left th' extinguish'd wood. Dryden. LIFELESSLY, adv. [from lifeless.] Without vigour; frigidly; jejunely. LIFELIKE. adj. [life and like.] Like a living person.

Minerva, lifelike, on embodied air Impress'd the form of Ipthema the fair. Pope. LIFESTRING. n. s. [life and string.] Nerve; string imagined to convey life. These lines are the veins, the arteries, The undecaying lifestrings of those hearts That still shall pant, and still shall exercise The motion spirit and nature both impart.


LIFETIME. n. s. [life and time.] Continuance or duration of life.

Jordain talked prose all his lifetime, without knowing what it was. Addison. LIFEWEARY. adj. [life and weary.] Wretched; tired of living.

Let me have

A dram of poison, such soon speeding geer, As will disperse itself through all the veins, That the life-weary taker may fall dead. Shak. To LIFT. v. a. [lyffta, Swedish; loffter, Danish. I lifted, or lift; I have lifted, or lift.]

1. To raise from the ground; to heave;
to elevate; to hold on high.
Filial ingratitude;

is it not as this mouth should tear this hand
For lifting food to't?
Your guests are coming;
Lift up your countenance, as 'twere the day
Of celebration of that nuptial. Shakspeare.
Propp'd by the spring, it lifts aloft the head,
But of a sickly beauty soon to shed,

In summer living, and in winter dead. Dryden. 1. To bear; to support. Not in use.

So down he fell, that th' earth him underneath Did groan, as feeble so great load to lift.

Fairy Queen. 3. To rob; to plunder. Whence the term shoplifter.

So weary bees in little cells repose, But if night robbers lift the well-stor'd hive, Au humming through their waxen city grows. Dryden. 4. To exalt; to elevate mentally. My heart was lift up in the ways of the Lord.

2 Chronicles. Of Orpheus now no more let poets tell, To bright Cæcilia greater pow'r is given, His numbers rais'd a shade from hell, Hers lift the soul to heav'n.

5. To raise in fortune.


The eye of the Lord lifted up his head from misery. Ecclesiasticus,

6. To raise in estimation.

Neither can it be thought, because some lessons are chosen out of the Apocrypha, that we do offer disgrace to the word of God, or lift up the writings of men above it.

7. To exalt in dignity.

See to what a godlike height
The Roman virtues lift up mortal man!



8. To elevate; to swell, as with pride. Lifted up with pride. Timothy. Our successes have been great, and our hearts

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The mind, by being engaged in a task beyond its strength, like the body strained by lifting at a weight too heavy, has often its force broken. Locks.

LIFT. n. s. [from the verb.] 1. The manner of lifting.

In the lift of the feet, when a man goeth up the hill, the weight of the body beareth most upon the knees. Bacon.

In races, it is not the large stride, or high lift, that makes the speed. Bacon.

2. The act of lifting.

The goat gives the fox a lift, and out he springs. L'Estrange. 3. Effort; struggle. Dead lift is an effort to raise what with the whole force cannot be moved; and figuratively any state of impotence and inability. Myself and Trulla made a shift To help him out at a dead lift.



Mr. Doctor had puzzled his brains In making a ballad, but was at a stand. And you freely must own, you were at a dead Swift. 4. Lift, in Scotland, denotes a load or surcharge of any thing; as also, if one be disguised much with liquor, they say, 5. [In Scottish.] The sky: for in a starry He bas got a great lift. night they say, How clear the lift is! 6. Lifts of a sail, are ropes to raise or lower them at pleasure.

LIFTER. 2. S. [from lift.] One that lifts. Thou, O Lord, art my glory, and the lifter up Psalms.

of mine head.

To LIG. v. n. [leggen, Dutch.] To lie. Thou kenst the great care I have of thy health and thy welfare, Which many wild beasts liggen in wait, For to entrap in thy tender state. Spenser LIGAMENT. n. s. [ligamentum, from ligo, Latin; ligament, French.] 1. Ligament is a white and solid body, softer than a cartilage, but harder than a membrane; they have no conspicuous cavities, neither have they any sense, lest they should suffer upon the motion of the joint their chief use is to fasten the bones, which are articulated together for motion, lest they should be dislocated with exercise. Quincy.

Be all their ligaments at once unbound, And their disjointed bones to powder ground. Sandys. The incus is one way joined to the malleus, the other end being a process is fixed with a ligament to the stapes. Holder.

2. [In popular or poetical language.] Any

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The slumber of the body seems to be but the waking of the soul: it is the ligation of sense, but the liberty of reason. Addison. LIGATURE. n. s. [ligature, French; ligatura, Latin.]

1. Any thing tied round another; bandage.

He deludeth us also by philters, ligatures, charms, and many superstitious ways in the cure of diseases. Brown.

If you slit the artery, and thrust into it a pipe, and cast a strait ligature upon that part of the artery; notwithstanding the blood hath free passage through the pipe, yet will not the artery beat below the ligature; but do but take off the ligature, it will beat immediately.

Ray on the Creation. The many ligatures of our English dress check the circulation of the blood. Spectator.

I found my arms and legs very strongly fas tened on each side to the ground; I likewise felt several slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits to my thighs. Gulliver's Travels. 2. The act of binding.

The fatal noose performed its office, and with most strict ligature squeezed the blood into his face. Arbuthnot.

Any stoppage of the circulation will produce a dropsy, as by strong ligature or compression.


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O spring to light, auspicious babe be boxn! Pope. 6. Artificial illumination.

Seven lamps shall give light. Numbers. 7. Illumination of mind; instruction; knowledge.

Of those things which are for direction of all the parts of our life needful, and not impossible to be discerned by the light of nature itself, are there not many which few men's natural - сараcity hath been able to find out? Hooker.

Light may be taken from the experiment of the horse-tooth ring, how that those things which assuage the strife of the spirits, do help diseases contrary to the intention desired. Bacon.

I will place within them as a guide My umpire conscience, whom if they will hear, Light after light well us'd they shall attain, And to the end persisting safe arrive. Milton.

I opened Ariosto in Italian, and the very first two lines gave me light to all I could desire.


If internal light, or any proposition which we take for inspired, be conformable to the principles of reason, or to the word of God, which is attested revelation, reason warrants it. Locke.

The ordinary words of language, and our common use of them, would have given us light into the nature of our ideas, if considered with attention. Locke.

The books of Varro concerning navigation are lost, which no doubt would have given us great light in those matters. Arbuthnot.

8. The part of a picture which is drawn with bright colours, or in which the light is supposed to fail.


Never admit two equal lights in the same picture; but the greater light must strike forcibly on those places of the picture where the principal figures are; diminishing as it comes nearer the borders. Dryden. Reach of knowledge; mental view. Light, and understanding, and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him. Daniel.

We saw as it were thick clouds, which did put us in some hope of land, knowing how that part of the South Sea was utterly unknown, and might have islands or continents that hitherto were not come to light. Bacon.

They have brought to light not a few profitable experiments. Bacon. 10. Point of view; situation; direction in which the light falls.

Frequent consideration of a thing wears off the strangeness of it; and shews it in its several

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put as great difference between our new lights and ancient truths, as between the sun and Glanville.

a meteor.

Several lights will not be seen,
If there be nothing else between,
Men doubt, because they stand so thick i'th'sky,
If those be stars that paint the galaxy. Corley.
I will make some offers at their safety, by fix-
ing some marks like lights upon a coast, by which
the ships may avoid at least known rocks. Temple.
He must still mourn

The sun, and moon, and ev'ry starry light,
Eclips'd to him, and lost in everlasting night.

LIGHT. adj. [leoht, Saxon.]


1. Not tending to the centre with great force; not heavy.

Hot and cold were in one body fixt, And soft with hard, and light with heavy mixt. Dryden.

These weights did not exert their natural gravity till they were laid in the golden balance, insomuch that I could not guess which was light or heavy whilst I held them in my hand.


. Not burdensome; easy to be worn, or carried, or lifted; not onerous. Horse, oxen, plough, tumbrel, cart, waggon, and wain,

The lighter and stronger the greater thy gaine.

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It will be light, that you may bear it Under a cloke that is of any length. Shakspeare. A king that would not feel his crown too heavy, must wear it every day; but if he think it too light, he knoweth not of what metal it is made. Bacon.


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For heels were lighter than ever. Youths, a blooming band; Light bounding from the earth at once they rise, Their feet half viewless quiver in the skies. Pope. 8. Unencumbered; unembarrassed; clear of impediments.

Unmarried men are best masters, but not best subjects; for they are light to run away. Bacon. 9. Slight; not great.

A light error in the manner of making the following trials was enough to render some of them unsuccessful. Boyle.

10. Not dense; not gross.

In the wilderness there is no bread, nor water, and our soul loatheth this light bread. Numbers. Light fumes are merry, grosser fumes are sad, Both are the reasonable soul run mad. Dryden. 11. Easy to admit any influence; unsteady; unsettled; loose.

False of heart, light of ear, bloody of hand.
These light vain persons still are drunk and

With surfeitings, and pleasures of their youth.

They are light of belief, great listeners after



There is no greater argument of a light and inconsiderate person, than profanely to scoff at religion. Tillotson. 12. Gay; airy; wanting dignity or solidity; trifling.

Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Plautus-too wight. Shakspeares


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