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affliction, is a picture of an imitator of his composition, without his manner.
The catalogue which has now been giyen of the pictures, real or fictitious, still existing, by Van der Weyden, shows that many of his celebrated pictures are no longer extant. The canvases of the town-hall at Brussels perished in the bombardment of 1695. All the pictures in Italy are lost:—the Woman Bathing, at Genoa; the Adam and Eve, at Ferrara; and the pictures of Alphonzo of Naples. The portrait in the Gallery of Zuanne Ram, at Venice, may, as we have just remarked, be that which goes under the name of Memling in the late Mr. Rogers's Gallery. If it be so, it is not a real one of the master. A Virgin and Child, full length, in a temple, the property of Gabriel Vendramin, at Venice,1 and the panels of Cambrai, have also perished. The pictures of the Gallery of Margaret of Austria—the Trinity, a small piece; the portrait of Charles the Rash; and a Crucifixion, with St. Gregory—are no longer to be found.2 The altar-piece of the Carmelites of Brussels has disappeared, together with numerous canvases which adorned the convent of Groenendaele in the forest of Soigne,3 and the picture in the Collection of Archduke Ernest, in 1593."
Of the painters who bear the name of Van der Weyden
1 Anonimo di Morelli, ut sup., p. 81.
1 "Ung autre double tableau. En l'ung est Nostra Seigneur pendant en croix et Nostre Dame embrassant le pied de la croix, et en autre l'histoire de la Messe M. S. Saint Gregoire." The inventory of 1516 adds, "fait de la main de Rogier."—Inventaire deMarg. d'Autriche, De Laborde, ut sup., p. 29.
3 Sanderus, Flandria Must. vol. ii. p. 39.
* "Marie embrassant son fils de Rogier de Bruxelles."—Inventaire; ap. De Lab., Lea Dues de Bourg. ut sup., vol. i. Introd. p. 113.
no certain works are known. The pictures in the Brussels Gallery, to which reference has been made, if they be really by Goswyn Van der Weyden, are very distant in manner and execution from those of Roger Van der Weyden; and it is evident that his example did not stir the soul of the later painter. These pictures lack both sentiment and composition, although, perhaps, they are entitled to a place above the lowest rank of paintings executed in the decline of art in Belgium. Here and there in public galleries the name of Roger Van der Weyden the younger is given to productions, because of a certain rude similitude to the manner of the "portraiteur" of Brussels; but these exhibit so poor a spirit, and so weak a hand, that they cannot be attributed to so fine a master without disgrace to him. The better plan would be to give such works no name, but class them in the list of those produced by artists unknown to history. It will, in truth, be found that many panels, apparently imitations in a poor manner of the pictures by the great Roger Van der Weyden, have been mentioned in portions of this work, but classified without reference to the existence of Roger Van der Weyden the younger, of whom we have no distinct traces.
ANTONELLO DA MESSINA.
Antonello Da Messina was born at Messina in the early part of the fifteenth century, probably about the year 1414 .l His family had furnished more than one generation of painters, illustrating, under the name of the Antonii, the sacred places of its native city. Antonio d'Antonio, whose Martyrdom of Saint Placido, in the Cathedral of Messina, is mentioned in the "Memorie," was Antonello's grandfather, and Jacobello d'Antonio his uncle.2 The latter is mentioned as the author of several large altarpieces, such as "Thomas Aquinas and the Doctors," for the Church of San Domenico of Messina,3 and the Virgin
1 "Domenico Veniziano, pupil of Antonello, died when Antonello was forty-nine years of age."—Sandrart, Der Teutsch. Academic 2d Ed. Nurem. 1675, p. 77. Domenico died in 1463.
2 Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi. 8vo. Mess. 1821, p. 2. Antonello of Messina was so frequently confounded with Antonio Gagino, the architect and sculptor of Palermo, that "Il Gagino Eedivivo" was written by Auria in vindication of Gagino's fame. Auria said, "Ma perche alia chiarezza della sua patria s'o frapposto una non so qual nebbia, o di calunnia, o d'ignoranza, confondendolo con Antonello da Messina, famoso pittore, come appresso mostrero; sara il primo scopo di questo discorso il disgombrar un si fatto ostacolo."—// Gagino Redivivo, ab v. J. D. D. Vincentio Aitria. 8vo. Palermo, 1653, p. 2. "Fu Messinese Antonello degli Antonii eccelentissim pittore de' suoi tempi."—Padre Placido Samperi, Iconologia de Maria Vergine, lib. i. cap. 5, fol. 41. Auria, ut sup., p. 14.
s Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi, pp. 4, 5.
Mary for the Church of Spirito Santo." Salvadore d'Antonio, brother of Jacobello, and father of Antonello, was an architect as well as a painter, and laboured sometimes in company with his relative, but more frequently alone.” A joint production of both painters, an altar-piece for San Michele at Messina, is mentioned by the author of the “Memorie,” in addition to three other works executed by Salvadore alone,—such as an altar-piece for the Immacolata in the Church of Santa Anna, St. Francis of Assisi, for the Church of San Niccolò, and the Virgin with St. Jerome for the Annunziata.” Salvadore having taught his son the first rudiments of art, sent him at an early period to Rome to complete his studies.* The exact period of his stay we cannot decide, but we are inclined to believe that he went there about the year 1429; at which time the painters of the Tuscan and Siennese Schools had left a noble impress of their genius in various works adorning the holy city. Whether or not Antonello studied these masterpieces of Christian art, or the more perfect ones of the old Greeks and Romans, it is difficult to say; for although we have it on the authority of Wasari that he remained many years in Rome, we can trace no symptoms of a study of the great classical models in the pictures which he produced. Perhaps the genius of Antonello had already thus early shown itself, and led him to
*Note to Wasari, ut sup., Vita d'Antonello da Messina, vol. iv. p. 77. * Guida per la città di Messina. 12mo. Mess. 1826, pp. 6, 14, 18, 28, 86, 89. * Storia dell’Archiconfraternita di nostra Santa del Rosario, 39. Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi, ut sup., p. 13. * Vasari, ut sup, Vita d'Antonello da Messina, vol. iv. p. 78.
neglect the great examples of design for the pursuit of colour^
From Rome he went to Sicily,1 stopping, as he passed, at Palermo,2 where Alphonzo of Aragon held his court. Nothing, however, remains there of the master; although not improbably it was in that place he painted a picture, mentioned with admiration by Maurolyco, representing an old man and woman provoking one another to laughter. This piece was executed with such truth and ingenuity that, whoever beheld it, fell heartily into laughter also.3 He left Palermo for Messina, where, we think, he painted "a tempera" the panel4 now placed in the Museo Peloritano of that city, representing the Virgin and Child in a landscape. His talent at this time exhibited itself in the execution of animal life.' In the meanwhile, changes had taken place in art, which exercised an influence on Antonello's career. He came to Naples, perhaps, about 1438, and became the pupil of Colantonio del Fiore, and fellowlabourer with Antonio Solario, generally known as II Zingaro.6
The Neapolitan school, of which those painters were the chiefs, had not at that time a character peculiar to itself, but partook, in some sort, of the uncertain temper of the times. Two rulers, Alphonzo of Aragon, and R6ne" of
1 Vasari, ut sup., Vita d'Antonello da Messina, vol. iv. p. 78.
2 Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi, p. 13.
8 "Sioanicarum rerum compendium." Clar. Francisco Maurolyco. 2d Ed. Messina, 1716, p. 200.
* Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi, p. 7.
• Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi, p. 11. Summonzio, Letter written to M. Michele, at Venice, March 20, 1524. Puccini, p. 37.