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ANALYSIS." FIV. Intendancy of Valladolid.


indigenous still call their father (Tata don Vasco), was more successful in his endeavours to protect the unfortunate inhabitants of Mexico than the virtuous bishop of Chiapa, Bartholomé de las Casas. Quiroga became in an especial manner the benefactor of the Tarasc Indians, whose industry he encouraged. He prescribed one particular branch of commerce to each Indian village. These useful institutions are in a great measure preserved to this day. The height of Pascuaro is 2200 metres *

Tzintzontzan, or Huitzitzilla, the old capital of the kingdom of Mechoacan, of which we have already spoken.



The intendancy of Valladolid contains the mines of Zitaquaro, Angangueo, Tlapuxahua, the Real del Oro, and Ynguaran.

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This province, part of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, is almost twice the extent of Portugal, with a population five times smaller. It is bounded on the north by the intendancies of Sonora and Durango, on the east by the intendancies of Za. catecas and Guanaxuato, on the south by the province of Valladolid, and on the west, for a length of coast of 123 leagues, by the Pacific Ocean. Its greatest breadth is 100 leagues, from the port of San Blas to the town of Lagos, and its greatest length is from south to north from the Volcan de Colima to San Andres Teul 118 leagues.

The intendancy of Guadalaxara is crossed from east to west by the Rio de Santiago, a con. siderable river which communicates with the lake of Chapala, and which one day (when civilization shall have augmented in these countries) will become interesting for interior navigation from Salamanca and Zelaya to the port of San Blas.

All the eastern part of this province is the ta. ble-land and western declivity of the Cordilleras


Intendance of Guadalarara

of Anahuac. The maritime regions, especially those which stretch towards the great bay of Bayonne, are covered with forests, and abound in superb wood for ship-building. But the in-, habitants are exposed to an unhealthy and ex. cessively heated air. The interior of the country enjoys a temperate climate, favourable to health.

The Volcan de Colima, of which the position has never yet been determined by astronomical observations, is the most western of the volcanoes of New Spain, which are placed on the same line in the direction of one parallel. It frequently throws up ashes and smoke. An enlightened ec. clesiastic, who long before my arrival at Mexico had made several very exact barometrical measurements, Don Manuel Abad, great vicar of the bishopric of Mechoacan, estimated the elevation of the Volcan de Colima above the level of the sea at 2800 metres *. - This insulated mountain," observes M. Abad, “appears only of a moderate height when its summit is compared with the ground of Zapotilti and Zapotlan, two villages of 2000 varast of elevation above the level of the coast. It is from the small town of Colima that the volcano appears in all its grandeur. It is never covered with snow, but when it falls in the

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STATISTICAL) V. Intendancy of Guadalarara.


chain of the neighbouring mountains from the effects of the north wind. On the 8th December, 1788, the volcano was covered with snow for almost two thirds of its height *; but this snow only remained for two months on the northern declivity of the mountain towards Zapotlan. In the beginning of 1791 I made the tour of the vol. cano by Sayula, Tuspan, and Colima, without seeing the smallest trace of snow on its summits."

According to a manuscript memoir communi. cated to the tribunal of the Consulado of Vera Cruz by the intendant of Guadalaxara, the value of the agricultural produce of this intendancy amounted, in 1802, to 2,599,000 piastrest(nearly 13 millions of francs), in which there were computed 1,657,000 fanegas of maize, 43,000 cargas of wheat, 17,000 tercios of cotton (at 5 piastres the tercio), and 20,000 pounds of cochineal of Autlan (at 3 francs the pound). The value of the manufacturing industry was estimated at 3,302,200 piastres I, or 16 millions and a half of francs.

* Let us suppose that the snow only covered the volcano for the half of its height. Now snow sometimes falls in the western part of New Spain under the latitude of 18° and 20', at 1600 metres of elevation (5248 feet). These meteorological considerations would induce us to assign nearly 3200 metres (10,498 feet) for the height of the Volcan de Colima.

+ = 13,644,750 francs = 568,531l. sterling. Trans. I # 17,336,550 francs = 722,3511. sterling Trans,


ANALYSIS.} V. Intendancy of Guadalarara.

The province of Guadalaxara contains 2 ciu. dades, 6 villas, and 322 villages. The most celebrated mines are those of Bolanos, Asientos de Ibarra, Hostiotipaquillo, Copala, and Guichi. chila near Tepic.

The most remarkable towns are: Guadalarara, on the left bank of the Rio de Santiago, the residence of the intendant, of the bishop, and the high court of justice (Audiencia).- Population 19,500

San Blas, a port, the residence of the Departimiento de Marina at the mouth of the Rio de Santiago. The official people (officiales reales) remain at Tepic, a small town, of which the climate is not so hot and is more salubrious. Within these ten years the question has been discussed if it would be useful to transfer the dock-yards, magazines, and the whole marine department from San Blas to Acapulco. This last port wants wood for ship-building. The air there is also equally unhealthy as at San Blas, but the projected change, by favouring the concentration of the naval force, would give the government a greater facility in knowing the wants of the marine and the means of supplying them.

Compostella, to the south of Tepic. To the north-west of Compostella, as well as in the par.

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