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the campaign rendered efficient service to the party as a stump speaker. In 1841, he was elected to the State Senate, and, in 1843, at the age of thirty-five, he was elected to Congress, where he held his seat, being four times reëlected, until 1853. During this time he was thoroughly identified with the old Democratic party, and supported all the party
In 1853, he was elected Governor, after a very exciting contest, over Gustavus A. Henry. He was reëlected in 1855, over Meredith P. Gentry, the Whig candidate. At the expiration of his Gubernatorial term, in 1857, he was chosen United States Senator by a Democratic majority in the Legislature of Tennessee. In that body he commanded the respect of all his compeers, as an able, eloquent, and patriotic statesman. At the breaking out of the rebellion, Senator Andrew Johnson still proclaimed his allegiance to the United States, and continued to hold his seat in the Senate, though his course subjected him to much unpopu. larity, and even danger.
When, in the spring of 1862, our army had penetrated Tennessee to Nashville, and the northern and central portions of the States were wrested from rebel control, the President desired the services of a wise and sagacious man, of unquestionable loyalty, to act as Military Governor of that State ; and he did not have long to look-Andrew Johnson was at once recognized as the man for the place, and, being commissioned a Brigadier-General, he repaired to Nashville, where he for two years discharged the deli. cate and responsible duty of his charge with a degree of wisdom and efficiency which challenged general admiration. Under his administration, the rebellion had steadily been losing its hold in Tennessee, and loyalty was as constantly cultivated and developed.
He was nominated for the Vice-Presidency by the Union Convention at Baltimore, June 8th, 1864, and was elected November 8, 1864, and was sworn into office March 4th, 1865.
President Lincoln died April 15. Andrew Johnson was sworn into office as President of the United States, on the same day, by Chief Justice Chase. Soon after entering upon the duties of his office, he vo
toed the Civil Rights Bill, the Constitutional Amendment, the Military Government Bill, and all the important bills passed by Congress; also suspended Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, from office, during the recess of Con. gress; on the assembling of which, he sent them his reasons for so doing. Upon considering which, they reinstated Secretary Stanton. Whereupon the President issued an order removing him, and ordering Major-General Thomas, Adjutant-General of the army, to act as Secretary ad interim—the same being done without the consent or advice of the Senate-for which and many other acts committed by him, and by Congress deemed unconstitutional, the House did, on the 25th of February, 1868, impeach Andrew Johnson of high crimes and misdemeanors; and he was accordingly tried for the same by the Senate—the result of which trial will be found in the Impeachment Act, on another page.
NOVEMBER, 1860—PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. Nov. 6.-Each of the four political parties presented its candidate for the Presidency, and the same number for the Vice Presidency. The Republican party supported Abraham Lincoln, of Ilinois, and Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine. One wing of the Democratic party supported S. A. Douglas, of Illinois, and H. V. Johnson, of Georgia; the other wing sustained John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, and Joseph Lane, of Oregon. The Old Line Whigs and Know Nothings supported John Bell, of Tennessee, and Edward Everett, of Massachusetts. The result of the popular vote was as follows:
Lincoln and Hamlin received 1,857,610; Douglas and Johnson, 1,365,976; Breckenridge and Lane, 847,553; Bell and Ev. erett, 590,631.
Nov. 7.-The news of Mr. Lincoln's election received at Charleston, South Carolina, with cheers for a Southern Confederacy. The “Palmetto Flag" hoisted on the vessels in the har. bor.
Nov. 9.-An attempt to seize the arms in Fort Moultrie. Nov. 10.-A bill was introduced into the South Carolina Legislatere to raise and equip 10,000 men. The Legislature also ordered the election of a convention, to consider the question of secession. Jas. Chester, United States Senator from South Carolina, resigned.
Nov. 11.-Senator Hammond, of South Carolina, resigned.
Nov. 15.—Governor Letcher, of Virginia, called an extra session of the Legislature.
Nov. 18.-Georgia Legislature appropriated $1,000,000 to arm the State. Major Anderson sent to Fort Moultrie.to relieve Colonel Gardner.
Nov. 19.-Governor Moore called an extra session of the Louisiana Legislature.
Dec. 1.–Florida Legislature ordered the election of a con vention. Great secession meeting in Memphis.
Deo. 3.-Congress met. The President denied the right of a State to secede, and asserted the right of the General Government to coerce a seceding State.
Dec. 5.-Election of delegates to South Carolina Convention took place. The successful candidates were secessionists.
Dec. 10.—Howell Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury, resigned. Senator Clay, of Alabama, resigned. The Louisiana Legislature ordered the election of a convention, and appropriated $500,000 to arm the State.
Dec. 13.--An extra session of the Cabinet was held to consider the question of reinforcing Fort Moultrie; the President opposed it, and reinforcements were not sent.
Dec. 14.-General Cass, Secretary of State, resigned.
DEC. 18.—The Crittenden Compromise introduced in the United States Senate.
Dec. 19.-Governor Hicks, of Maryland, refused to receive the Mississippi Commissioner.
Dec. 20.-South Carolina Convention adopted a secession ordinance; the vote unanimous.
DEC. 22.-The Crittenden Compromise voted down in the Senate committee of Thirteen.
DEO. 24.-The people of Pittsburg stop the shipment of ordinance from the arsenal at that place to Southern forts. Governor Moore called an extra session of the Alabama Legislature.Election of members of the Alabama Convention took place; the majority for secession was over 50,000.-South Carolina members of Congress resigned.
Deo. 26.—Major Anderson left Fort Moultrie and took possession of Fort Sumter. He had with him only 111 men. South Carolina Commissioners arrived in Washington. The President refused to receive them.
DEC. 27.-Revenue cutter, William Aiken, surrendered to the South Carolina authorites.
Deo. 28.-South Carolina seized the Government property in Charleston, took possession of Castle Pinckney and Fart Moultrie.
Dec. 29. -John B. Floyd, Secretary of War, resigned.
Dec. 31.-South Carolina sent Commissioners to the slave States to make arrangements for a Southern Confederacy.
JANUARY, 1861. JAN. 2.-Governor Ellis, of North Carolina, took possession of Fort Macon. Georgia troops seized Forts Pulaski and Jackson, and the United States arsenal at Savannah.
Jan. 4.-Governor Moore, of Alabama, seized Fort Morgan, and the United States arsenal at Mobile. Fast-day, by proclamation of the President.
Jan. 7.—State Conventions of Alabama and Mississippi, Leg. islatures of Virginia and Tennessee, assembled.
JAN. 8.Jacob Thompson, Secretary of the Interior, resigned. Fort Johnson at Wilmington, and Caswell at Oak Island, seized by North Carolina.
JAN. 9. -The steamer Star of the West fired on by rebel batteries in Charleston harbor, and driven back. Mississippi Convention passed secession ordinance by vote of 84 to 15.
Jan. 10.-Florida Convention adopted an ordinance of secession by a vote of 62 to 7. Florida seized Fort McRae,
Jan. 11.--Alabama seceded; vote in Convention, ayes, 61; noes, 39. P. B. Thomas, Secretary of the Treasury, resigned, and was succeeded by John A. Dix, of New York. The Governor of Louisiana seized Forts Phillip and Jackson, on the Mississippi below New Orleans, the United States arsenal at Baton Rouge, and Forts Pike and Macomb, on Lake Ponchartrain.
JAN. 13.-Florida troops took possession of the Pensacola Navy Yard and Fort Barancas. Lieutenant Slemmer, in command of Fort Pickens, refused to obey Commodore Armstrong': order to surrender the fort to the Florida troops, and thus saved that important place to the Union.
JAN. 16.—The Legislature of Arkansas called a convention, Colonel Hayne, of South Carolina, demanded of the Presidenthe surrender of Fort Sumter, which was refused. The Mist souri Legislature voted to hold a convention.
JAN. 18.—The Legislature of Virginia appropriated $1,000,000 for the defense of the State.
Jan. 19.-Georgia adopted a secession ordinance by vote of 208 to 89.
Jan. 21.—Members of Congress from Alabama resigned. Jefferson Davis resigned his place in the Senate.
JAN. 23.-Georgia members of Congress resigned,