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riages, and the numerous hackney coaches, which often throng the streets at the present day.

The increase of paupers seems to have been quite commensurate with the general growth of the town.

The first poorhouse was situate in College-lane, but being ultimately too small for its inmates, the present workhouse was built. It was completed in the year 1771.

One of the most alarming features of British society at the present period, is the constant and rapid accumulation of pauperism, and unless some check be put to it, the class of the community immediately above those who are supported by eleemosynary aid must be reduced to the same level, and consequently add to the already intolerable load. Doubtless various are the causes that have led to this deplorable state of things, and notwithstanding the question has several times been brought under the consideration of the legislature, yet no plan has bitherto been devised that is at once unobjectionable and practicable.

The amount of parish rates in 1712 was £370, which, if compared with that of the last three years, will afford an amazing contrast, viz.:1830

£51,498 15s. 10d. 1831

51,324 15 0 1832

62,415 2 7 It has been asserted that a great part of this sum is consumed by the vast numbers of poor

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from the Sister Kingdom, who flock hither, and either obtain a settlement or add to the burthen by requiring to be passed to their own country. It is quite time that the legislature should devise some remedy for this evil. Why should the Irish poor

be left destitute of the necessaries of life, when their own country produces such abundance, and that merely to allow to the rich absentee greater means for riot and extravagance. In our opinion, the introduction of a proper system of poor laws into that part of the empire. so far from being detrimental to any portion of the community, would prove advantageous to all, by giving the lower orders an especial interest in the welfare of their native country, and by requiring the residence of the gentry, who would then spend at home that money which they now squander in other countries; and hence would arise a source of trade and employment, and this again might be succeeded by a sympathy and friendly feeling between the different classes of society,--on which, in a great degree, depends the prosperity of a nation.

The peaceable and orderly behaviour of the inhabitants of Liverpool is, perhaps, unsurpassed by that of any assemblage of an equal number of persons in any part of the world. The sum raised by the Commissioners of Paving and Sewerage in the year ending 1832 was £23,335 5s. 7d, and that by the Commissioners

for Watching and Lighting the town, amounted to £20,035 18s. Ild, which sums, combined with the Parish rates for the same year, make £105,786 6s. 6d.

MANUFACTURES. The ship builders of this port have long held a distinguished character; many frigates and smaller vessels of war were formerly built here for government. There are also many large establishments for the making of iron chain cables, besides several iron foundries, noted for the manufacture of steam engines, particularly those used in steam navigation. There are likewise many factories employed in making ropes. The manufacture of chronometers and watches is car. ried on in this town to a very great extent; it is supposed that between two and three thousand persons are here constantly employed in this trade. This beautiful and useful piece of mechanism is said to have been brought to a higher degree of excellence by the artizans of this neighbourhood than it has attained in most other places. There are likewise several large establishments for the refining and baking of sugar.

SOIL, CLIMATE, &c. The ground on which Liverpool and its environs stand is of a rocky nature, the superstratum being of a sandy quality, and in some places the surface consists of peat, in others of marl and loam. Many parts of the vicinity are remarkably fertile, and for a considerable distance, in various directions, horticulture is carried on to a great extent. For many miles to the north of the town, the land immediately contiguous to the shore consists of nothing but vast accumulations of sand, which, until a few years past, offered to the spectator's view little more than a waste of monotonous sterility; but latterly many acres have been inclosed, and are now in excellent cultivation. Within the last twenty years extensive tracts of land in Woolton, Bootle, and Warbrick Moor were common, which at the present day are portioned out into farms, that are in a high state of tilth, exhibiting the pleasing fruits of ingenious and persevering industry,and spots where once sterility and waste alone prevailed, are now the scenes of verdure and luxuriance.

Mr. Greenough, the president of the Geological Society, in his Geological Map of England, dated November, 1819, says, “ There is a subterranean forest extending all the way along the coast, from the Ribble at Penwortham, near Preston, to the Mersey at Liverpool. The inner line of this forest takes in Longton Moss and Muchhool, crosses the Douglas, continues by Rufford, in a direct line to Ormskirk, comes near to Melling, passes to Litherland, and terminates at the Mersey, opposite Everton. The parishes of Penwortham, Muchhool, Rufford, Halsall, Altcar, and part of Walton, stand upon the forest; taking the line pretty nearly of the Lancaster canal to Crowlane it extends to St. Michael's, and from thence keeps the canal line to Lancaster, and including the west side of the Lune, continues along the Kendal road to Warton; at Cartmel it appears again, and extends unto Furness, in that neighbourhood, for a short distance, say three or four miles, and a little of it is seen between Milnthorpe and the Sands."

Liverpool, like most parts of the country situate on the western coast, has been visited by violent storms. In 1565 a dreadful hurricane is stated to have carried away the only haven that was then in the town; and in 1757, another storm blew down forty-two feet of St. Thomas's church spire, sunk five ships in the river, and overturned several wind-mills. In 1793 a heavy gale upset the Frodsham market-boat, and seventeen persons perished, many flats were likewise sunk, and those on board were lost. Another storm in 1794 blew down the old wooden wind-mill on Copperas-hill, and caused much damage on the river. Again, in 1799, a violent hurricane arose, during which three vessels and all persons on board were lost, the roofs of many houses were carried away, several chimneys fell in, and some new houses were blown down. In 1802 much

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