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the margin of difference is great, amounting to $810. Of special significance is the small median salary for liberal arts, which is next to the lowest of all the major divisions. The liberal arts college employs the largest number of teachers and enrolls the largest number of students of any of the fields.

The division of physical education has the highest median salary for deans, professors, and assistant professors, while commerce and business has the highest median salary for associate professors and education for instructors. Compensation in home economics is on a consistently low basis. This field has the lowest median salaries for every one of the academic ranks with the exception of instructor. In this case the lowest median salary is in liberal arts.

The foregoing figures concern the staffs as a whole without reference to sex distinctions. In Table 5 are contained the median salaries of men and women teachers by rank for each of the major divisions.

TABLE 5.—Median salaries of men and women teachers in different major divisions

classified by rank

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2, 348

Liberal arts.
Education..
Home economics.
Agriculture..
Engineering -
Commerce and business.
Physical education...

$5, 638 $4,375 $4, 154 $3,675 $3, 230 $2,828 $2,705 $2,388 $2,031 $1,967 $3,048 $2,162
6,583

4,015 3, 188 3,558 3,125 3,058 2,663 2, 232 2, 102 3,632 2,529 4,375 3, 579

2,875 2, 579) 5, 235

2,095 4,072

3, 315 2, 864 6, 089

2, 141 4, 142

3,310 3, 250

2, 711 6,000

2,098 4,073 2,625 3, 521

2, 964

2, 684 2, 125 2,174 1,938 3,025 2,000 6, 625

6,063 3,600 3, 438 3,250 3,568 2,625 2,437 1,929 3,562 2,186

Women teachers receive a lower median salary than men teachers in every academic rank for every major division. In physical education is shown the greatest discrepancy, women teachers in this field having a median salary $1,376 less than men teachers. Large differences ranging from $1,103 to $886 exist also in education, commerce and business, and liberal arts. If reduced to percentage basis, it is found that women staff members in the several major divisions receive median salaries from 29 to 39 per cent below those of men. In the major divisions of home economics, agriculture, and engineering the staffs are not segregated as to sex.

Salaries by Departments in Arts and Sciences

The remuneration of individual staff members in the different branches of arts and sciences is controlled by the salary levels within the department units rather than in the major division at large.

In the present study the annual salaries of 2,576 teachers in arts and sciences distributed among 9 departments are used. The department of English with 555 has the largest number, while psychology with 110 has the smallest. The number of teachers in the other 7 departments varies from 374 to 124.

Because of the close relationship existing between the subjects of biology, physiology, botany, zoology, and bacteriology, salaries of teachers in these branches have been grouped under the heading of biological sciences, although separate departments for each of them are maintained in some of the institutions. Similarly, the salaries of teachers in ancient and modern languages have been classified under the single heading of foreign languages. As in the case of the major divisions, the distribution of staff members among the academic ranks within a department bears a direct relation to their compensation. The following table shows the percentages of teachers holding the several ranks in each department classified by sex:

TABLE 6.—Percentage distribution of each sex by academic rank in arts and sciences

departments

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Little uniformity prevails in the academic ranking of the staffs in the various arts and science departments. As shown by Table 6, in the department of English 21.1 per cent of the staff hold the professorial rank as compared with 37.3 per cent for psychology, the department with the largest proportion of its teachers ranked as professors. Similar differences prevail in the other ranks, particularly for the rank of instructor. In the department of English 44.8 per cent or more than twice that for history and political science hold the rank of instructor. Comparatively large percentages of the staffs in chemistry, mathematics, and physics likewise are ranked as instructors.

Academic ranking of women teachers in practically all the departments is much lower than that of men teachers. Of the different

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departments shown in Table 6, there are five in which 7 per cent or less of their women teachers hold the rank of professor. The percentages of men holding the rank of professors in these departments vary from as high as 43.2 to 26.1. History and political science has the largest percentage of women teachers ranked -as professors, but in this instance the percentage of men teachers with the professorial rank is twice as large. Very high percentages of women staff members in all the departments hold the rank of instructor. This is particularly true in English, biological sciences, and foreign languages where the women instructors constitute half or more of the total women in all ranks.

The median salaries by academic rank for each of the nine arts and science departments are set forth in Table 7. Detailed salary distribution tables for each department appear in Appendix C. TABLE 7.— Median salaries of teachers in arts and science departments by academic

rank

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English.
Chemistry
Mathematics
Biological sciences.
Foreign languages.
History and political science.
Physics.
Economics.
Psychology

$3,992
4, 133
4,083
4,077
4, 165
4,417
4,048
4,375
4,047

$3,058
3, 289
3, 206
8, 235
3, 239
8, 134
3, 139
8, 175
3, 350

$2,567
2, 699
2,560
2, 668
2,618
2, 875
2,672
2,700
3,094

$1, 975
2,000
1,991
2,022
2,082
2,083

$2,383
2,717
2,652
3, 007
2,955
3, 155
2, 852
3, 073
3, 275

1,995

2,063
2, 167

Salaries of the staff members in the various departments shown in Table 7 differ widely. In the department of psychology is found the highest median salary, which exceeds that of the other eight departments by rather wide margins. The department of English has the lowest median salary. It is $890 less than that of psychology. Among the other departments with lower median salaries are chemistry and mathematics, but both are on a considerably higher level than English. One of the interesting revelations is that the departments in which low median salaries are paid represent the basic or tool subjects that all students are generally required to pursue in their college work.

Among the several academic ranks, the highest median salary for professors is found in the department of history and political science, but the department of psychology has the largest median salaries for associate professors, assistant professors, and instructors. The lowest median salary is paid in the department of English in all the academic ranks with the exception of assistant professor. In this instance, the department of mathematics has the lowest median salary.

The question of whether the median salaries for men and women teachers differ within the same department is of importance. Table 8 gives information on this point. TABLE 8.—Median salaries of men and women teachers in arts and science depart

ments by academic rank

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English.
Chemistry.
Mathematice.
Biological sciences.
Foreign languages.
History and political science.
Physics..
Economics.
Psychology

$4, 033 $3, 375 $3, 152 $2, 643 $2, 647 $2, 226 $1, 091 $1, 944 $2,590 $2, 107
4, 1413, 125 3, 323 3,0632, 7202, 438 2, 0191, 825
4,063 | 4,500 3,266 2, 813

2, 494 2,333
2,570 2,500 2,012 1,931
4, 083 2, 625

2, 721 3,304 2,038 2,729 2,417 2,039 1,938

2, 204 4, 1883, 625

3, 144 | 2, 134 3, 300 3, 156 2,732 2, 281 2, 0942, 059 3, 191 4, 531

2, 179 3,750 3, 143 | 2, 125 3,000 2,563 2,177 2,000 3.205 4, 018 3, 139

2, 179
2, 672
1. 995

2, 852
4,375
3, 175
2, 700

2, 063
4,078 3,750 3,333 3, 438

3, 073 3, 089 3,000 2, 1252, 313 3, 4392, 718

In all ranks combined median salaries of women are considerably lower than those of men for all the arts and science departments where both sexes are employed. The differences range from as high as $1,026 in the department of history and political science to as low as $161 in the department of chemistry. Of all the departments it is interesting to note that the lowest median salary is paid women teachers in English.

Except in a few cases, women in each academic rank receive median salaries lower than those of men. A higher median salary is noted for women professors in mathematics, and for associate professors and instructors in psychology, but in the remaining ranks for all departments, the median salary of women is below that of men teachers. Where salaries of women exceed those of men, an explanation is probably found in the small number of women staff members which results in reducing the reliability of the median figure.

Summary

The results of this investigation of the financial compensation of staffs in 50 land-grant universities and colleges indicate wide variations in the salary levels between men and women teachers, among the different major divisions, and among the departments of arts and sciences. Differences are also found in the proportionate numbers holding the several academic ranks upon which the amounts of their salaries are largely dependent.

Salaries of women staff members are lower than those of men. This situation prevails when comparisons are made upon a basis of

• See Tables 17 and 21 in Appendix C.

the salaries of total teachers for all fields combined, upon a basis of major divisions, and upon a basis of arts and science departments. The median salary for women teachers as a whole including all fields is $860 less than that of men. Comparing the median salaries of the two sexes within each of the major divisions, it is disclosed that women staff members are paid from $1,376 to $886 less than men teachers in the same fields. Similar differences exist in the median salaries of men and women staff members in the arts and sciences departments. The largest difference is found in the case of the department of history and political science where the median salary of women is $1,026 lower than that of men, while the smallest is in the department of chemistry, where women have a median salary $161 less than that of men. Moreover in the distribution of academic ranks the larger percentages of women teachers are found holding the lower ranks while the larger percentages of men occupy the higher ranks.

Although the major divisions are coordinate units in the academic organizations of the institutions, salaries between them differ materially. The highest median salary is paid teachers in the major division of education, the figure being $3,358. A progressive decline occurs in the median salaries of the other fields to the division of home economics where the median salary is $2,548. Between education, the division with the highest median salary, and home economics with the lowest, there is a difference of $810. The variation in the percentages holding the several academic ranks among the divisions has an important influence on remuneration. In the fields of education and agriculture are found relatively large percentages of the teachers holding the higher ranks. Large percentages hold low ranks in home economics, physical education, and commerce and business.

A lack of uniformity likewise exists in the median salaries of the various arts and science departments. In some instances differences in compensation between them are almost as great as between the major divisions. The department of psychology, with a median salary of $3,275, has the highest salary level of any of the departments. The lowest is in the department of English, where the median salary is $2,385, or $890 less than that of psychology. Disparities in the distribution of academic ranks result in further differences in salaries among the departments. Comparatively large numbers of teachers in chemistry, mathematics, physics, and English hold the lower ranks. In psychology and in history and political science the majority of the staff members occupy the higher ranks.

Appendix A

The following table presents the salary distributions by sex and academic rank, including ranges, medians, and quartiles, for teachers in all the fields of study combined:

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