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certificates are awarded to those who complete the course of the school. Academic work is given only in the mornings; afternoons are reserved for field trips and group leadership training. A practice class for the prospective leaders is supplied by a group of 35 young girls. A daily schedule alternating rest periods with natureclub activities is arranged for the girls, who are chosen for their social background and their interest in the outdoors.

During the summer of 1931, the University of Michigan offered a 1-hour credit course in scouting, presenting the purpose of the Boy Scout movement and its plan of organization, and the curriculum. The course offered students a chance to take the scout tests and to receive actual practice in scout leadership; or to become directors in summer camps. One unit (swimming and life-saving) of a course training for women camp counselorship was offered the second four weeks of the summer session. One credit hour was given for the course, and those completing the tests satisfactorily received Camp Directors Association awards.

The State University of Iowa offered in its department of physical education for men a course in life-saving and camp counselor watermanship, at the end of which the student took the university life-saving test, or the American Red Cross life-saving test, or the master swimmers and life-saving test. In its department of physical education for women it offered an intensive course for camp counselors, consisting of four units of work-canoeing, swimming, camp craft, and camp education each carrying 1 unit of credit.

At its Lake Sebago camp, New York University offered a course in the organization and administration of camp-fire programs. The course was designed to prepare young women for positions with the Camp Fire Girls as local city executives.

Boston University offered a scouting course, for training leaders of boys, which consisted of a combination of lectures and practical scout and camp work.

A scout master's course, consisting of la:tures and field trips, given two days of two week-ends, was offered by Clemson Agricultural College, Clemson College, S. C.

The Department of Boy Guidance of the University of Notre Dame, in cooperation with the boy life bureau of the Knights of Columbus, offered a 10-day course in the principles and technique of boy leadership. The course was open to all men students in attendance at the summer session without additional fee. It was designed primarily for priests and laymen who expect to direct boys' activities or to act as members of committees sponsoring boys' work.

Ohio University offered a course in essentials of scout leadership, to prepare women as Girl Scout leaders. The course carried two hours of credit.

The Utah State Agricultural College gave a 1-week course in Girl Scout leadership, for which one credit was allowed.

State teachers colleges at Alamosa, Colo., Mayville, N. Dak., West Chester, Pa., and La Crosse, Wis., and the Northern Normal and Industrial School at Aberdeen, S. Dak., and Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (for Negroes), at Tuskegee, Ala., also offered courses in training for scout leadership.

The University of Porto Rico gave a 1-credit course in the elements of scoutmastership, comprising lectures and practical work. The purpose of the course was to give a general knowledge of the aims and content of the Boy-Scout program, with stress on the methods which can be used to teach the program to boys.

The University of Hawaii offered a Girl-Scout training course designed to furnish instruction to any student desiring information on leisure-time programs for girls.

MUSIC AND ART

Summer sessions are paying more and more attention to the subjects of music and art. The credit courses in these subjects are being supplemented by offerings which do not form a part of the work of the regular school year. A number of institutions offer, in addition to regular courses in music, opportunity for any student who so desires to participate, without charge, in a chorus or orchestra, membership in which is open to all summer-school students. These organizations study selections from the best choral and orchestral works. Rehearsals held once or twice a week prepare for one or more public concerts during the session. For such participation some institutions give academic credit but in general the work is offered for its cultural and pleasurable value.

During the 1931 summer sessions, choruses or orchestras, or both, were features at the following institutions: Western Reserve University, Ohio University, St. John's University, Miami University, Furman University, University of Wisconsin, Smith College, Skidmore College, Southwest Texas State Teachers College, Milwaukee State Teachers College, and Morgan College (for Negroes).

The University of Minnesota held in 1931 a 6-week round table in music and dramatic arts. The sessions in art were designed to bring together from 50 to 100 men and women responsible for dramatic productions in the Northwest schools and colleges.

Illinois Wesleyan University instituted a number of special features in the music and art departments; melody-way classes in piano for children 8 to 14 years of age, and in violin for children 6 to 15; a theory class for high-school students; a children's orchestra; a wood wind ensemble for high-school students; summer-session or

chestra and chorus; vocal repertoire classes; and a children's theater. No fees were charged in any of the classes except for materials in the melody-way classes and the children's theater. The department of art offered summer recreational classes in drawing and sketching for children and a class in sketching and painting for high-school and college students. These classes met in the open.

The Carnegie Institute of Technology offered in 1931, for the second time, a 6-week course for high-school students of outstanding musical ability who played orchestral instruments. The department of painting and decoration offered a 6-week course in drawing and design for a limited group of high-school students.

The University of Nebraska operated a juvenile art department offering courses in drawing and painting.

A 4-week summer field school of painting was conducted by the University of New Mexico at Taos.

Two institutions, Boston University and Salem College, gave courses in jewelry making and metal work which were practical in nature and required no definite preliminary training. At Boston University the courses carried 2-semester hours of credit. Alfred University gave courses in elementary and advanced ceramic design and pottery production, and elementary and advanced courses in jewelry and weaving.

The University of Georgia had a week of grand opera with regular stage productions employing well-known grand opera artists.

PARENTAL EDUCATION AND CHILD

DEVELOPMENT

Interest in parental education and child welfare work has grown materially in the last five or six years since the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation aided the establishment of child welfare institutes at several of the leading universities. The University of California, the University of Georgia, the University of Iowa, the University of Minnesota, and Columbia University have institutes of child welfare. The institutes are usually open during the summer sessions as well as during the regular school year, to serve as laboratories and demonstration centers.

The following brief descriptions indicate the extent and nature of summer-session work offered by institutions in child development and parental education in 1931.

The University of California offered a course in parental education for parents interested in training children of preschool age and for individuals who desired training for the leadership of discussion groups in parental education. A nursery school was maintained for children between the ages of 2 and 4 years of age. Several

courses were also offered in child development and other intimately related subjects.

The University of Georgia offered courses in child study and parent education; development of the young child; child care and train. ing; behavior problems in children. A nursery school afforded opportunity for observation and practice. Parents attending the summer school had the privilege of placing their children in the nursery school, for which they were charged only a small fee to cover the cost of the noon lunch.

The State University of Iowa offered courses in teaching in kindergarten and preschools; advanced work in preschool education; child study and parent education; and a beginning conference course in child study and parent education.

The University of Minnesota offered courses in child training; child psychology; health care of the young child; the development of the young child; parental education in child care and training; research in the development of the young child; principles of kindergarten and nursery-school education; permanent play materials, story telling for young children; methods and observation; child training; and modern aspects of child study. Nursery and kindergarten schools were in operation and open for observation within certain limitations.

Columbia University offered courses in the mental and social development of the young child; parent education; aspects of adult education; methods and materials for parent education; programs and principles for the cooperation of home and school; behavior problems of children; the measurement of mental growth of young children; introduction to child development and parent education; nursery education in relation to child development and parent education; and advanced nutrition with special reference to infancy and childhood. Three nursery schools for children under 4 years of age furnished opportunity for practical experience and training.

Ohio State University offered courses in parental education (primarily intended for parents whose children were enrolled in the parents' laboratory preschool); theory and problems of adult education (for advanced undergraduates and graduates); and leadership training.

Western Reserve University offered courses in child welfare; materials in parent education; nursery-school education; nurseryschool methods; and problems in nursery-school education.

Iowa State College offered research in child welfare; a seminar in child welfare; nursery-school organization; child care and training; techniques of guidance; and special problems. Two nursery schools, with 40 children from 2 to 5 years of age and 4 home-man

agement houses with an infant in each house provided opportunities for study of the varied aspects of child life.

Michigan State Normal College offered courses in psychology and education of preschool children; problems of preschool children in the home (a conference course, open to parents of the children and to those particularly interested in parent education). A nursery school was conducted for observation, and general and individual conferences were held.

University of Tennessee offered courses in child psychology; development of the young child; child guidance (consisting of observation and participation in the direction of young children at work, at play, at rest, and at meal times); and special problems in child development. A nursery school was in operation for observation purposes.

COURSES FOR ADMINISTRATORS AND INSTRUC

TORS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Professional training for college teachers is a subject which has received increasing attention during the past 10 years. Previously, knowledge of the subject-matter was generally accepted as the only prerequisite to college teaching. There were therefore no courses offered for prospective college teachers. Similarly, there was none for college administrators. The first course in college teaching was probably that offered by Yale Univervsity in 1923–24. The same year Columbia University offered courses in the organization and administration of higher education. The courses and the number of institutions giving them have greatly increased since that time. Many courses covering various phases of college and university work are given in the summer sessions, when the services of men and women from other institutions experienced in the higher educational field can be enlisted to assist in or direct the work. The offerings of the 1931 summer sessions were unusually varied.

University of Chicago: Organization and administration of colleges and universities; problems of college instruction; financial administration of higher institutions; professional duties of deans and registrars; the administration of student personnel in higher institutions; the junior college, its organization and administration; the organization and administration of teacher-training institutions; and problems of instruction in teacher-training institutions. The university also held an institute for administrative officers of higher institutions.

Columbia University: Two basic courses for instructors and administrators in higher educational institutions; problems of col

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