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2. Simple ideas all adequate.

3. Modes are all adequate.

4, 5. Modes, in reference to settled names, may be inadequate.

6, 7. Ideas of substances, as referred to real essences, not


8-11. Ideas of substances, as collections of their qualities, are all


12. Simple ideas &XTUTA, and adequate.

13. Ideas of substances are &XTUTA, and inadequate.

14. Ideas of modes and relations are archetypes, and cannot

but be adequate.




1. Truth and falsehood properly belongs to propositions.

2. Metaphysical truth contains a tacit proposition.

18. Real and nominal essence the same in simple ideas and

modes, different in substances.
19. Essences ingenerable and incorruptible.
20. Recapitulation.

10, 11. In mixed modes, it is the name that ties the combination

together, and makes it a species.
12. For the originals of mixed modes, we look no farther than

the mind, which also shows them to be the workmanship

of the understanding.
13. Their being made by the understanding without patterns,

shows the reason why they are so compounded.
14. Names of mixed modes stand always for their real essences.
15. Why their names are usually got before their ideas.
16. Reason of my being so large on this subject.



1. The common names of substances stand for sorts.

2. The essence of each sort is the abstract idea.

3. The nominal and real essence different.

4-6. Nothing essential to individuals.

7, 8. The nominal essence bounds the species.

9. Not the real essence, which we know not.

10. Not substantial forms, which we know less.

11. That the nominal essence is that whereby we distinguish

species, farther evident from spirits.

12. Whereof there are probably numberless species.

13. The nominal essence that of the species, proved from water

and ice.

14–18. Difficulties against a certain number of real essences..

19. Our nominal essences of substances not perfect collections

of properties.

21. But such a collection as our name stands for.

22. Our abstract ideas are to us the measure of species. In-

stances in that of man.

23. Species not distinguished by generation.

24. Not by substantial forms.

25. The specific essences are made by the mind.

26, 27. Therefore very various and uncertain.

28. But not so arbitrary as mixed modes.

29. Though very imperfect.

30. Which yet serve for common converse.

31. But make several essences signified by the same name.

32. The more general our ideas are, the more incomplete and

partial they are

33. This all accommodated to the end of speech.

34. Instance in cassuaris.

35. Men make the species. Instance, gold.

36. Though nature makes the similitude.

37. And continues it in the races of things.

38. Each abstract idea is an essence.

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