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IV. American naturalization.

1. Regulated by Congress. $ 381.

2. Committed to the courts. $ 382.

3. Persons capable of naturalization. $ 383.

4. Usual legal conditions. $384.

5. Declaration of intention.

(1) Usual requirement. $385.

(2) Exceptions. 386.

Immigration during minority.

Service in Army.

Service in Navy or Marine Corps.

Special case in Hawaii.

(3) Does not confer citizenship. $ 387.

Judicial decisions.

Executive action.

Cases of Italians.

6. Residence.

(1) Five years' rule. $ 388.

Meaning of “continued term.”

(2) Exceptions. $ 389.

Seamen.

Service in Army.

V. Conventional arrangements.

1. Treaties with the German States.

(1) Negotiations. $390.

(2) Conditions of change of allegiance. $ 391.

(3) Question as to Alsace-Lorraine. $ 392.

(4) Practice of expulsion. $ 393.

(5) Operation of treaties. $ 394.

2. Belgium. $395.

3. Sweden and Norway. $ 396.

4. Great Britain. $ 397.

5. Austria-Hungary.

(1) Conditions of change of allegiance. $ 398.

(2) Practice of expulsion. $ 399.

6. Denmark; Ecuador. $ 400.

VI. Naturalization not retroactive.

1. General priciples. $401.

2. German treaties.

(1) Military cases. § 402.

(2) Statutes of limitation. $ 403.

3. Austro-Hungarian treaty. $ 404.

4. Belgian treaty. $ 405.

5. Danish treaty.

$ 406.

6. Treaty with Sweden and Norway. $ 407.

VII. Nationality of married women.

1. Marriage of American women to aliens.

(1) Effect on status. $ 408.

(2) Reversion of nationality. $ 409.

2. Marriage of alien women to Americans.

(1) American law. $ 410.

(2) Reversion of nationality. $ 411.

3. Law in other countries. $ 412.

VIII. Effect of parents' naturalization on infants.

1. American law. $ 413.

2. Marriage of alien widow to American. $ 414.

3. Adoption of children. § 415.

IX. Naturalization internationally ineffective as to absent family.

1. Married women.

$ 416.

2. Infants. $ 417.

3. Good offices for emigration. & 418.

X. Proofs of nationality.

1. Evidences of citizenship. $ 419.

2. Proof of naturalization.

(1) The judicial record. $ 420.

(2) Loss or destruction of record. $ 421.

Question of fact.

Practice of Department of State.

3. Impeachment of naturalization.

(1) Rules of municipal courts. $ 422.

(2) Rule of international action. $ 423.

Repudiation of naturalization improperly obtained.

(3) Authority to make decision. $ 424.

(4) Disposition of fraudulent certificates. $ 425.

XI. Double allegiance.

1. Foreign-born children.

(1) Act of 1855. $ 426.

(2) Particular applications of principle. $ 427.

2. Native-born children.

(1) Double allegiance at birth. $ 428.

(2) Change of parents' nationality. $ 429.

3. Election at-majority. $ 430.

XII. Question of expatriation.

1. Common-law doctrine. § 431.

2. Judicial decisions.

(1) Prior to 1868. $ 432.

(2) Since 1868. $ 433.

3. Governmental doctrine.

(1) Executive declarations down to 1845. $ 434.

(2) Mr. Buchanan's assertion of unqualified right. § 435.

(3) Reversion to earlier doctrine.

§ 436.

(4) Reassertion of unqualified right, 1857-1861. $ 437.

(5) Course during civil war.

$ 438.

(6) Act of 1868. $ 439.

(7) Subsequent statements. $ 440.

4. Law of particular countries.

(1) China. $ 441.

(2) France. $ 442.

(3) Germany. $ 443.

(4) Greece. $ 444.

(5) Guatemala. $ 445.

(6) Italy. $ 446.

(7) Morocco. $ 447.

(8) The Netherlands. $ 448.

(9) Nicaragua. $ 449.

(10) Persia. $ 450.

(18) Venezuela. $ 465.

XIII. Modes of expatriation.

1. Acts held to effect expatriation. $466.

2. Acts held not to effect expatriation. $ 467.

3. Oaths of allegiance. § 468.

4. Military service. $ 469.

XIV. Renunciation of naturalization.

1. General principles. $ 470.

2. German treaties. $ 471.

3. Treaty with Ecuador. $ 472.

4. Treaty with Denmark. $ 473.

XV. Loss of right to national protection.

1. Foreign domicil.

(1) Native citizens. $ 474.

(2) Naturalized citizens. $ 475.

(3) American business interests. $ 476.

(4) Reasons of health. $ 477.

(5) Residence in Oriental lands. $ 478.

2. Office holding. 479.

3. Taking part in politics. $ 480.

4. Unneutral conduct. $ 481.

5. Fugitives from justice. $ 482.

6. Question of matriculation. $ 483.

XVI. Seamen. $ 484.

XVII. Corporations. $ 485.

XVIII. Care of indigent citizens. $ 486.

CHAPTER XI.

DOMICIL.

I. A source of civil status. $ 487.

II. Belligerent domicil. $ 488.

III. Thrasher's case.

$ 489

IV. The Koszta case.

1. Marcy-Hülsemann correspondence. $490.

2. Interpretations. § 491.

(1) In country of origin. $ 517.

(2) In third country. $ 518.

6. Statement as to intention to return.

$ 519.

7. Connection with American business interests. $ 520.

8. Missionaries. $ 521.

9. Effect of extraterritoriality. $ 522.

VI. Duration of passports.

1. Time limit. $ 523.

2. Cancellation. § 524.

VII. International effect.

1. Evidential force. $ 525.

2. Visé. $ 526.

3. False use.

$ 527.

VIII. Special passports. $ 528.

IX. Local papers.

1. European countries. $ 529.

2. American countries. $ 530.

3. China. $ 531.

X. War regulations.

1. American civil war. $ 532.

2. Other cases.

$ 533.

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