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40 county paupers, expense, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $666 13 Paid to overseers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 00 {{ justices, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 00 {{ transportation, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 00

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Deducting what we think a due proportion from the above, we estimate the whole number of paupers for the past year at 282, and the whole expense at $4,412.47 cents. It also includes the amount paid on justices’ orders for temporary relief, and the amount audited by the board of supervisors for the support of paupers. The whole expenses at the poor-house have only been $1,868.94 cents. The average number of paupers at the poor-house, 45%; making 2,366 weeks’ board.

LEWIS. Two children sent to common school four months each, and also one child three months.

LIVINGSTON.

The distinction between town and county paupers has been abolished in this county by the board of supervisors. The number of superintendents has been reduced from five to three. Allowance to physician for the poor-house, $75; stock purchased for the farm, $149.45 cents; furniture for the house, $84.07 cents.

There has been expended in the support of paupers not brought to the poor-house, $447.30 cents; allowed to overseers of the poor by supervisors, $49.75 cents; to justices, $22. These three last items are not embraced in the estimates of the report. We find it impossible to form an accurate estimate of the value of the labor of the paupers. Some of them are absolutely helpless, and can do nothing; others can do a little; and a very few can sometimes perform as much labor as well persons. There is one lunatic and one idiot under the care of the superintendents, but not kept at the poorhouse. The children who were of suitable age, have attended the district school.

MADISON.

Owing to the manner in which the accounts of the overseers of the poor and justices of the peace were audited by the board of supervisors, it is not in our power to fill the blanks for the allowances to those officers. We have called upon the clerk of the board and he is unable to give us the requisite information. Their accounts for services done for the poor being mixed in with numerous other charges for different services, and deductions having been made by the board upon their whole bills, it was impossible to procure an accurate statement. There are 4 lunatics, supported with their friends. Amount paid physician attending the poor-house $110.

MONTGOMERY.

The distinction between county and town poor is abolished. The superintendents have not included in their report the amount paid to overseers and justices for their services, nor the amount expended for temporary relief out of the poor-house, they having no data by which to ascertain those amounts. A school has been kept in the poor-house by two of the paupers for the term of ten months, and the number of scholars instructed was 34.

NEW-YORK. Mr. Burtis, the superintendent of the alms-house, gives the following statement in regard to the cost and extent of the poor-house establishment in the city of New-York, viz: We have now enclosed at Bellevue, by a high stone wall, 26 acres, which with the buildings reported by the committee as first completed, cost about 450,000 dollars; since then we have added two acres of land and a number of buildings, &c. which addition has cost more than 50,000 dollars; we have outside of the wall 109 acres at $600 per acre, making 61,500 dollars, and giving a total of 561,500 dollars, as the cost of the alms-house establishment. In this I have not included Blackwell’s Island, which contains 110 acres, and with the building now erected, has cost above 60,000 dollars: This establishment is almost entirely occupied with a class of paupers that may be fairly reported by you as such, a few only being confined there for petit larceny, but most of the persons being sent there as poor drunken vagrants. The following interesting extracts are taken from a report of the commissioners of the alms-house, of which body, John Targee, Esq. is chairman, and which report was presented to the corporation of NewYork on the 20th of September, 1830: That there will always exist a portion of every community, which will in some way be dependent upon the public for support, we must from the manner in which society is constituted naturally expect. Accidents and misfortunes are occurrences to which the most prudent are occasionally liable, but it is a rare occurrence indeed to find persons of cultivated minds in our alms-house. Education brings in its train, as a natural consequence, a certain degree of moral restraint upon our viscious passions and propensities. In order to the attainment of knowledge, habits of application and industry are the first and great leading pre-requisites; and these once firmly fixed, nothing but some extraordinary misfortunes will deprive their possessors of the ability to provide for their own wants. The school established in the alms-house at Bellevue, is a branch of the establishment which claims our most earnest solicitude; and it is sound essentially beneficial. Nearly three hundred children are here constantly instructed in the first rudiments of education, and the foundation thus laid for future improvement and usefulness. The liberality of our state legislature in their munificent appropriations to the common school fund, is worthy of all praise; and when we reflect on the vital importance to the rising generation, of a perpetuity of our republican institutions, and the necessity which now exists by reason of the extension of the elective franchise, that every individual should be capable of reading and judging for himself, on matters most essential, not cnly to himself, but to his posterity, we cannot but believe that every appropriation, whether by the state or city authorities, for the promotion of this important object, will meet the cordial support and approbation of every member of the community. There are in the house at Bellevue, at the present time, old and superannuated persons between the ages of 60 and 100

years, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Blind,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 - Cripples, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

From debility,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Subject to fits,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Idiots, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Lame and rheumatic, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Palsy," . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Nervous, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Women confined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Insane, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Sick in the hospital,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Children under the age of 11 years, many of them of very tender years, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Making an aggregate of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,699 persons, of whom it may be said that collectively they are incapable of taking care of themselves in the ordinary concerns of life, with all the conveniences that could be furnished to them. These may be considered as permanent claimants on the public bounty; for although from deaths and discharges, we are occasionally relieved of some of them, others are not wanting to fill their places. The system of affording temporary relief to poor persons out of the house, the commissioners are well aware is one requiring the utmost vigilance and attention which can possibly be bestowed on it; and for this purpose they have permanently employed a very efficient and useful officer, Mr. William Schureman, who they denominate a visitor, and whose special and very arduous duty it is made to visit every person or family applying for such relief; and upon whose report the commissioners are governed in making occasional donations which consist principally of fuel, potatoes, and occasionally small sums in money; the aggregate amount of which, however, in the course of a year, as shown in the statement here with submitted, forms an important item in the annual amount of the disbursments of the commissioners. In making these donations the commissioners are influenced by the consideration that in so doing, they sometimes, and in fact as they hope in most cases, thereby keep alive a desire in the parties to make efforts to provide for themselves and families, and relieve the public from the burthen of their entire maintenance in the house: motives deemed laudable in themselves, and if accompanied with the desired effect are certainly useful and economical. In the year 1827, the board of guardians of the poor of the city and district of Philadelphia, appointed a committee of their body to visit

the cities of Baltimore, New-York, Providence, Boston and Salem, for the purpose of inquiring into their systems and examining their institutions for the relief of the poor. This committee, after a careful and minute investigation of the subject, in making up their report, in order to contrast their own, with other establishments in lurge towns and cities, give the following statement as the result of their inquiries.

In Philadelphia for 1825-6. Amount expended for the support of paupers in the almshouse, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - $37,309 Average number in the house during the year, 994, being 72 cents each per week. Children’s asylum, . . . . . . • * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7,034 Pensions and relief to paupers out of the house,......... 47,357

Population of the districts about 125,000. $91,700

Baltimore for 1826. Ameunt expended for the support of paupers in the house, $15,509 Average number in the house, 392, being 75 cents each per week. Pensions and relief to paupers out of the house, . . . . . . . . . 2,491

Population 70,000. $18,000

New-York for 1826. Amount expended for paupers in the house, . . . . . . . . . . . . $58,500 Average number in the house, 1949, being about 60 cents each per week. Relief to paupers out of the house, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,690

Population 175,000. - $72,190

Boston for 1826. Amount expended for the support of paupers in the house, $18,276 Average number in the house, 450, being about 78 cents per week for each. Pensions and relief to paupers out of the house,......... 12,256

Population 60,000. $30,532

“Speaking of Baltimore the committee say, “the house is situated on a farm of upwards of three hundred acres, two and a half miles from the city, and a few acres contiguous to it enclosed by a wall.” Speaking of Boston, the committee also say, “the alms-house is at South Boston, about two miles from town, and is located on a farm of about sixty acres, surrounded by a stockade fence twelve seet high.” Thus we see that while in Philadelphia, Baltimore and Boston, (the only places with which it would be fair to contrast New-York,) they are pursuing in the two last mentioned places, agricultural employment for the poor, yet in those it costs them, in Baltimore 75, in Boston 78, and in Philadelphia (where their mode of employment is

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not mentioned,) 72 cents each per week; while in New-York including the asylum for the education of the children, and hospital for the sick, only 60 cents each per week.” “The aggregate number of foreign poor admitted into the house during the four years, 1826, 7, 8 and 9, was 5,146, making an average of 1,286 per annum. The aggregate number remaining in the house for the same period is 3,286, making an average for the four years of eight hundred and twenty-one, which at the rate of 64 cents each per week, (the average cost for the year 1829,) and leaving out of the calculation the expenses of those who died in and were discharged from the house, will form an aggregate average expense of $27,322.88 per annum; while the sum received from bonded passengers, and as commutation for the same period, amounts only to the sum of $8,968.23 per annum, leaving a balance against the establishment in this branch, of $18,354.65 per annum. If to which be added the expenses of those who have died in and been discharged from the house, it is confidently believed that this balance would be more than $25,000 per annum. And as the exhibit shows a gradual increase of this description of poor, we may not look forward to any amelioration of our burdens in this respect. “The commissioners cannot allow the present opportunity to pass without earnestly calling the attention of the common council to the deplorable condition of that part of the hospital establishment at Bellevue appropriated to the insane. It will be perceived that no less than 993 sick patients, and 143 insane, were admitted into the hospital during the last year. Circumscribed as we are for room, it is found utterly impossible so to classify the different cases of disease and of the insane, as not to be essentially injurious to all. The sick and the dying; those in a state of utter destitution of reason, and those in a state of partial alienation of mind, are necessarily from want of room, placed within sight and distinct hearing of each other; and with the utmost efforts of the resident physician and superintendent, it is found utterly impractieable to maintain that quiet and order in the establishment, so essentially necessary in a place specially devoted to a bed of sickness and disease. If a separate and distant place could be provided for the lunatics, the present hospital might be sufficient for the ordinary cases of sickness; and the commissioners would respectfully suggest the propriety of making an establishment on Blackwell's Island, specially for the accommodation of this most unfortunate class of our fellow-creatures.” There is a large room fitted up in the alms-house establishment, for a school room, where 325 were instructed the last year on the monitorial plan. This is the school returned by the trustees of the public school society at Bellevue, and it participates in the school money apportioned to that society. This is an excellent school, and affords advantages to the unfortunate tenants of the alms-house, not inferior to those enjoyed at the best of the public schools in the state.

NIAGARA. The expenses which have occurred separate from the poor-house for temporary relief, as near as we can estimate, is for physician's

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