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the centre of an alliance against her. As England, by its arrogant encroachments on Spain, unconsciously enlarged the coinmercial freedom, or began the independence, of colonies; so France, by its unjustifiable war on Austria, floated from its inoorings, and foretold the wreck of Catholic legitimacy." — Vol. 11. p. 302.
A schoolboy might perhaps be pardoned for asking who were Fleury and the Belle-Isles, and what was the “ pragmatic sanction," and for comprehending but imperfectly why France, by making war on Austria, “foretold the wreck of Catholic legitimacy.'
On the following page, Frederic the Second is spoken of as “the pupil of the philosophy of Leibnitz and Woll,” and the young reader would naturally inquire, why this fact was mentioned, and what peculiarity there was in the opinions of these celebrated men ; – a question which, as there is no English translation of the works of Wolf, nor of the entire writings of Leibnitz, perhaps many instructors would be puzzled how to
We regret that the writer overlooked this difficulty in preparing his abridgment, for it possesses qualities which render ils adoption in many seminaries very desirable. The reflections tend to nourish a liberal and patriotic spirit, the style is always animated, the descriptions graphic, and there are many passages in the narrative, over which the schoolboy would hang with intense interest. A judicious hint is given in the advertisement, that the work may be used as a reading book in classes, apart from its more direct application to the study of history. The careful teacher might select passages for this purpose, which are less open to the objection mentioned above. We must not omit allusion to the mechanical execution of the volumes, the neatness and elegance of which fully sustain the high reputation of the publishers for taste and enterprise displayed in improving the exterior of American publications.
In strong contrast with the character of this striking work appears the unpretending history by Mr. Hale, containing an unvarnished narrative of facts, which extends from the time of the first settlement made in the country down to the close of Mr. Madison's administration. The writer states in his preface, that the narrowness of his limits was not his sole reason for excluding “moral, political, and philosophical reflections," for he considers them “beyond the sphere of legitimate history." We can by no means admit the justice of this remark, when couched in such general terms, though there is some convenience in its application to a mere compendium, like the work now before us. A plain narration has its use as an introduction to works of a more broad and philosophical character, and the
rigid exclusion of all extraneous matter allows much information to be condensed within a narrow coinpass. As far as we have observed, Mr. Hale has executed his task with fidelity and skill. The materials appear to be drawn from authentic sources, and the simple and lucid style places the book within the comprehension of all classes of readers. But the principle of arrangement is a faulty one, for the history of each colony stands by itself, being carried on without interruption from its origin to the war of 1756. Hence there is less unity in the work than the subject admitted, for the relations between the colonies were numerous and close from a very early period ; and the perpetual doubling back of the narrative upon itself breaks the thread of interest, disturbs the reader's ideas of chronology, and prevents his attaining any comprehensive views respecting the relative situation and character of the various settlements. Apart from this fault, we see no reason why the book may not be used as a convenient manual by those who wish to obtain a general knowledge of the origin and progress of the several colonies, the establishment of our present form of government, and the more recent history of the country. This completeness of the work may give it the preference in some cases over Mr. Bancroft's abridgment, in which the narrative breaks off before the commencement of the revolutionary contest.
4.- The History of the Anglo-Saxons from the Earliest Period
to the Norman Conquest. By Sharon Turner, F. A. S.
The enterprise of American publishers is fast doing away with that argument for a system of international copyright, which is founded on the injustice done to English authors by the coarse, imperfect, and inaccurate reprints of their works, that were too frequently issued in this country. The change that has been effected in this respect within a few years is remarkable. Not only in what we may be excused for calling the comforts, but even in the luxuries, of the typographical art, we have already come to rival the rich productions of the English press. From the mean and rudely executed volumes, which once burdened our booksellers' shelves, a sudden transition has been made to tasteful and elegant books, of which the exterior is as gratifying to the eye, as the contents can be to VOL. LIII. - No. 112.
the mind. And the resources of the publishers' skill and taste are expended not merely on native productions, their exclusive property in which might well tempt them to be liberal, but also on the exotics transplanted to our soil without leave, the original producers of which may now console themselves for such appropriation, by observing that it is made in quite a gentlemanly fashion. In the case of works, which, from their bulk or the nature of the subject treated, must have been prepared and sent from the press without any expectation of pecuniary profit, we may even consider their reappearance in a rich dress on this side of the Atlantic, as a compliment paid to the author without any drawback, as a proof that his labors are appreciated here by a reading community, which is now perhaps quite as numerous as his own.
These remarks were naturally suggested by a glance at the very handsome edition of Sharon Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons," which has just issued from the Philadelphia press. It is comprised in two large octavo volumes, of which the paper, presswork, and binding are unexceptionable, and well suited to the grave and scholarlike character, the substantial inerits of the work itself. The labor of a lifetime has been spent upon it, as the author informs us, that thirty-seven years have elapsed since the publication of the first volume ; and the fact that this copy is printed from the sixth English edition, is good evidence to show that, in the judgment of the public, this toil has not been expended in vain. A critical examination is not needed for a production that has been so long before the world, the high claiins of which have moreover been repeatedly acknowledged by the leading journals of Europe. The subject, of course, is one of great interest to all of English descent, to our own countrymen not less than to our cousins across the water. The fame of the great Alfred and the saintlike Edward belongs to us as well as to the actual natives of Britain ; the institutions first established by their wisdom are in equal preservation and esteem on both sides of the ocean. For the origin of our language and laws, for our trial by jury and other primitive safeguards of freedorn, we must go back to the Anglo-Saxon tribes, the veritable gentis cunabula nostræ. As a guide in this interesting inquiry, in point of the value, extent, and accuracy of the information given, no single work is comparable to that of Sharon Turner. It is not a mere history, in the limited sense in which most people use that word, but a full account of the people of whom it treats, of their actions and institutions, their laws and habits, their language and literature. From the immense mass of curious learning which it exhibits, the work is necessarily addressed in particular to those who have some taste for antiquarian researches, but it abounds in interesting matter also for the general student. Its publication here is a matter of good omen for the cultivated taste and sober judgment of the purchasers of books ; and the augury will be fulfilled, if the speedy sale of the entire edition shall reward the publishers for their liberal and praiseworthy undertaking.
5. — Psychology, or a View of the Human Soul ; including An
thropology. Adapted for the Use of Colleges. By Rev. FREDERICK A. RAUCH, D. P., Late President of Marshall College, Pennsylvania. Second Edition, Revised and Improved.
New York : M. W. Dodd. 8vo.
Dr. Rauch's treatise bears the marks of much reading and deep reflection. His subject required him to pass over much ground, and the limits of the work obliged him to condense his materials within small compass. But the task has been executed without hurry or carelessness, and every part of the book shows the well trained habits of the thorough student, and the earnest inquirer after truth. It is a more readable book, than one would expect from the title and the nature of the subject. A German by birth and education, the writer's early studies took a direction with which few persons in this country are familiar, and consequently the borrowed speculations, no less than those which are original, and the merely illustrative matter, contain much, that is novel and interesting to English readers. This remark applies particularly to the first part of the volume, which treats of Anthropology, or the science of man as affected only by external influences. The researches of German naturalists have thrown much light on the physical history of mankiod, and the partial account of their labors was to us both new and curious. Dr. Rauch bad acquired extraordinary command over the resources of our language, and it requires a critical eye to detect here and there traces of the foreigner's pen.
We cannot say much for the order in which the materials are arranged ; there is a frequent jumbling together of topics, and the reader is often perplexed in the attempt to follow the main course of remark through a mass of subsidiary and illustrative matter.
The latter part of the volume, relating entirely to psychology, contains what are evidently the writer's favorite speculations. The treatise is imperfect, of course, for the space was far too narrow for a full consideration of a subject, which embraces so many disputed points, and branches out into such endless ramifications. But the work is judiciously executed, as far as it goes, manifesting neither a slavish adoption of other men's opinions, nor a hasty endeavour to propound new views and original theories. The writer confesses his obligations to several of the less distinguished metaphysicians of his own country, and has evidently derived some assistance from the study of English philosophy. On the foundation thus obtained, he has erected his own structure with careful industry and good success. Though not well suited for use as a manual of instruction, there are few persons who may not derive entertainment and profit from a perusal of this work. We should mention, that this second edition appears without the benefit of an entire revision by the author, who died while it was passing through the press. The preparations he had made to follow up this publication by several treatises on kindred topics, were left incomplete by his premature death.
The Lectures delivered before the American Institute of In
struction, at Providence, (Rhode Island, August, 1840 ; including the Journal of Proceedings, and a List of the Oficers. Published under the Direction of the Board of Censors. Boston: William D. Ticknor. 1841, 12mo.
“The American Institute of Instruction,” – we could wish that its founders had been less ambitious in selecting a title for the society, — has been an active and efficient agent of late years in directing public attention towards the academies and common schools of New England, and in originating and carrying forward measures for their improvement and increase. Its annual meetings have contributed to keep up an esprit de corps in the body of instructors, and thereby to prevent the zeal of many from being chilled by a sense of isolation arising from the constant recurrence of rather monotonous duties within a contracted sphere of exertion. This is an incidental advantage of such assemblages, it is true, their primary object being to secure for all the benefits of individual experience, and consequently to harmonize plans and to diffuse new and sound views respecting the general theory of education. Without undervaluing these general objects, we still attribute much importance to the extension of private intercourse, and