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"The most exquisite confusion reigned in his house; books and music were scattered in all directions; here the residue of a cold luncheon, there some full, some halfemptied bottles; on the desk the hasty sketch of a new quartett; in another corner the remains of a breakfast; on the piano-forte the scribbled hints for a noble symphony, yet little more than in embryo; hard by, a proof-sheet, waiting to be returned; letters from friends, and on business, spread all over the floor; between the windows a goodly Stracchino cheese, and, on one side of it, ample vestiges of a genuine Verona salai; and, notwithstanding all this confusion, he constantly eulogized, with Ciceronian eloquence, his own neatness and love of order!"— Vol. 11. p. 311.

In his habits of eating and drinking he was strictly temperate, even abstemious, but somewhat peculiar.

"Man," he would say, "is but little above other animals, if his chief pleasure is confined to a dinner table." His favorite food was fish, and on Thursdays he luxuriated in bread


"To compose this ten eggs were set before him, which he tried before mixing them with the other ingredients; and if it unfortunately happened that any of them were musty, a grand scene ensued; the offending cook was summoned to the presence by a tremendous ejaculation. She, however, well knowing what might occur, took care cautiously to stand on the threshold of the door, prepared to make a precipitate retreat; but the moment she made her appearance the attack commenced, and the broken eggs, like bombs from well-directed batteries, flew about her ears, their yellow and white contents covering her with viscous streams."

- p. 310.

The preparation of his coffee, which was often done by himself, was an affair of much nicety. He allowed sixty beans for each cup, and to avoid any error in his measure, he made it a rule to count out the exact number for each cup, especially when he had visitors. Supper was a matter of indifference to him, and he was in bed by ten o'clock. He never wrote in the afternoon, and very seldom in the evening, and had a great dislike to correcting his first copy. His favorite beverage was pure water, although he did not refuse wine, and enjoyed a glass of beer, and his pipe of tobacco in the evening.

When, from the state of his health, it became necessary to resort to prescriptions of his physician,

"He not unfrequently took in two doses the medicine destined for the whole day; or he forgot them entirely, when his ideas lifted him above the material world." - Vol. 1. p. 224. The account which M. Schindler gives of a weekly meeting that was held under the direction of M. Carl Czerny, for the performance of Beethoven's music, by a number of amateurs and others, deserves a passing notice. These meetings were continued, during three successive winters, with increasing interest, which was often enhanced by the presence of the composer himself. Here every one might make himself acquainted with the sublimest compositions, and kindred spirits learned to know and esteem each other.

"All foreign professional men and connoisseurs, who, in their own countries, could gain but obscure notions of the spirit of Beethoven's music, here found themselves at the fountain head of the purest poesy, which never flowed so clear and so brilliant since those memorable parties at Prince Lichnowsky's, (of which mention has been made in the first period,) and perhaps never may again in that place where this gigantic genius, so far in advance of his age, lived and wrought." pp. 183, 184.

It is in this way, that music can be truly enjoyed. We may write musical reviews and notices without end, and attend public performances brought forward for effect, and made up of a mixture of good and bad music, winter after winter, with far less improvement, far less appreciation of the sterling beauties of a composition, than will be derived from meetings like those just noticed. Let some American Lichnowsky come forward, and, with ample means, cultivated taste, and the refinement of elegant society, countenance and support, by similar meetings, the study and performance of classic music.

But we must hasten to give our readers some account of the last scene of the life of the great composer. In 1826, Beethoven, returning from a journey, sick, to Vienna, was immediately joined by M. Schindler, who was shocked to find that he had often in vain entreated his two former physicians (their names should be recorded, Drs. Braunhofer and Staudenheim,) to undertake the treatment of his case. The first declined to visit him "because the distance was too great," and the second promised to come, but did not keep his word. "A physician was sent to his house, he did not know how, or by whom, and who, consequently, knew noth

ing of him or his constitution." Abandoned by his nearest relations, Beethoven would have breathed his last without a friend to close his eyes, had not accident made known his situation. A marker at a billiard-table had been brought to a hospital, on account of illness, from whom it was discovered, that a nephew of Beethoven had come to the coffee-house, where he played billiards, and commissioned this man to find a physician for his sick uncle; but, being extremely unwell at the time, he had not been able to do so, and therefore begged Professor Wawruch (one of the physicians of the hospital) to visit Beethoven, which he immediately did.

"It was necessary, then, for the marker at a billiard-table to fall sick, and be taken to the hospital, before the great Beethoven could obtain help in time of need!! Who would not find his feelings revolted by this disgraceful fact? After this no further explanation can be necessary to show what were Beethoven's sufferings in his deplorable condition, or what was the ultimate cause of his early death."— Vol. 11. pp. 59, 60.

His disease was inflammation of the lungs, followed by dropsy. The water was several times removed by an operation, but with only temporary relief; and on the 24th of March, 1827, after receiving the sacrament with devotion, he expired at a quarter before six in the evening, during a tremendous hail-storm, aged fifty-six years, three months, and nine days. The man, who had met with so much neglect from his relations and countrymen, was now to be followed to his last resting-place with every demonstration of respect and regret by at least twenty thousand persons! solemn anthem, a hearse drawn by four horses, a line of more than two hundred carriages, eloquent poems, and effusions of the most touching character, wreaths of laurel, requiems, misereres and masses and every tribute and external expression of sorrow that could be contrived, were called forth and concentrated as a peace-offering to the departed spirit, and as an everlasting memorial of the oftboasted estimation in which this gifted being was held by his countrymen! A monument has since been erected to his memory, the cost of which was defrayed from the proceeds of the performance of his own compositions. Upon this are the following inscriptions.


Ad. Triste. Mortis. Nuncium.
Omnes. Flevere. Gentes.

Cœlitum. Choro.

FATO mortalis ; VITA bonus ; ARTE perennis.
MORTE SUUM MORIENS eximit ipse decus."

- p. 336. Beethoven was educated in the Catholic religion, but although, according to his biographer, he was "truly religious," he was not bigoted. He appears to have inclined to Deism. On his table he kept for many years two inscriptions in frames, copied with his own hand, and said to have been taken from a temple of Isis. A fac-simile of these in German, is given in the biography, the translation being as follows. "I. I AM THAT WHICH IS. I AM ALL THAT IS, ALL

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p. 163. These he regarded, says Schindler, as "an epitome of the loftiest and purest religion."

There were only two topics which in his conversations with his pupils (his method of giving instruction) he carefully avoided, thorough-bass and religion, declaring both to be exhausted subjects admitting no further discussion.

Of the personal appearance of Beethoven we obtain but an imperfect idea from any of the portraits of him that have been published. The best of these is from a painting by Schimon of Munich, an engraving from which is prefixed to these volumes. His unusually large head was covered with long, bushy hair, guiltless of comb or brush, and when, as was frequently the case, his beard had been suffered to attain a great length, he must have been, in fashion, as in music, in advance of his time. Add to this that "when he laughed, he might not inaptly be compared to a grinning ape," and we scarce need an engraving to bring him before us, seeing as we now do, so many aspirants to the enviable distinction of a near ap

proach in their attractive exterior to that of the quadrumana. In height Beethoven was five feet four inches; he was muscular, strong and compact, with a high and expanded forehead. Every thought that arose in his mind was expressed in his countenance. His mouth was well formed, with a slight protrusion of the upper lip; his nose was rather broad. Although his smile was peculiarly pleasing, his laugh was otherwise. His chin was marked by a deep furrow in the middle and by another on each side, imparting a striking peculiarity to that part of his countenance.

When we look at the long list of the works of Beethoven appended to these volumes, in which no fewer than three hundred compositions are enumerated, embracing every variety of style, from the sublime oratorio to the light drinkingsong, from the magnificent symphony to the sportive dance, abounding in new ideas and full of wonderful effects, we are struck with amazement; the more, now that we know under what afflictions and vexations they were produced. They not only prove the exhaustless fertility of his genius, but show that, even to the last, his inventive faculty was unimpaired. Other composers have exhausted themselves by some great effort, or more commonly have repeated their ideas with little variation, without investing them with fresh charms by new developements. But not so Beethoven; his active mind teemed with musical ideas to the last, fresh, original, and beautiful; it seems to have needed no repose to recruit itself. Having just completed his greatest work, he could pour out his touching melodies, or conjure up still new and ever varied combinations to all appearance as readily and as effectively as before. It was otherwise with Haydn, who exhausted himself by undertaking the composition of his "Seasons" immediately after having finished his immortal oratorio of "the Creation," and was never able afterwards to connect or combine his musical ideas, and became inconsolable for the remainder of his life.

Beethoven died while yet in the full enjoyment of his creative powers; the inventive faculty, which has rarely gained much in activity or energy beyond the age at which his last work was completed, was in him at least as vigorous as ever. Had he been spared for a longer time, he would unquestionably have produced what would have surpassed any thing he has left us. Some of the very best compositions have been the fruits of a much more advanced time of life. Gluck did

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