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“By a soft gliding transition from earnest gravity to tenderness and feeling, the eighth bar introduces the entreating principle alone.

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“This suing and flattering strain continues until the middle part is taken up in D major, when both principles are again brought into conflict, but not with the same degree of earnestness as at the commencement. The resisting principle is now relaxing, and allows the other to finish, without interruption, the phrase that has been begun.

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both approximate, and the mutual understanding is rendered distinctly perceptible by the succeeding cadence on the dominant.

“In the se nd section of the same movement the opposition is again resumed in the minor of the tonic, and the

resisting principle is energetically expressed in the phrase in A flat major. To this succeeds a pause on the chord of the dominant, and then in E flat the conflict is again resumed, till the tranquil phrase

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comes in, as it were, like a preparation for mutual concord, for both repeat several times the same idea, resembling an interrogation, beginning slowly, and with lingering pauses, then over and over again in rapid succession. The introduction in the tonic of the principal motivo renews the conflict, and the feelings alternate as in the first part ; but, at the conclusion of the movement, the expected conciliation is still in suspenso. It is not completely brought about until the end of the sonata, when it is clearly indicated, and as it were expressed, on the final close of the piece, by a distinctly articulated. Yes!' from the resisting principle.

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The difficulty of this piece is great, but it will amply repay careful and patient study. We have the usual marks and terms of expression ; but, however caresully the mere performer may adhere to these, he will still find that he is far from producing all the effect intended. No marks or words can convey an idea of the delicacy of light and shade, and it is only from an analysis like this, an outline of the plot, so to speak, that any one can do justice to the greater part of the compositions of Beethoven.

We would advise all our musical amateurs and professional performers to read this Life of Beethoven. They will find that the real spirit of his compositions has been often totally misunderstood ; they will gather many valuable and important hints as to the manner of conducting an orchestra, and will learn that to “perform Beethoven's music, without regard to meaning and clearness, is hunting to death the ideas of the immortal composer; - a mode of performance, which arises from ignorance of the sublime spirit of his works, and to which in a great degree is to be attributed their neglect. Still there is, as Moscheles remarks, so much intrinsic spirit and value in Beethoven's orchestral works, that it is beyond the power of occasional mistakes or exaggerations in tempo, on the part of performers, to destroy all their charm, or convert them into common prose.

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pp. 534.

Art. II. - 1. Transactions of the Historical and Philo

sophical Society of Ohio. Part Second. Cincinnati:

George W. Bradbury & Co. 1839. Svo. 2. A History of the State of Ohio, Natural and Civil, by

CALEB ATWATER, A. M., Member of the American Antiquarian Society, &c. Cincinnati. 1838. Svo. pp. 403.

The past and passing bistory of “ The West,” and every part and parcel of it, is precious. It will be more and more so as time advances. The transformation, as in Ohio, of a savage wilderness into a region of culture and civilization, with a million and a half of people, in a period so short that the oldest of its native children of the civilized stock) are yet in the prime of life, — is a most interesting phenomenon in human history. But the history of Ohio and other western States, has an aspect of much higher interest, as an important feature of the grand experiment enacting in our common country, touching the capacity of man for self-government. “I doubt not,” says Mr. Perkins, in a discourse which forms a part of the “ Transactions of the Historical Society," " that Ohio, when she became a State, was the truest democracy which had yet existed. How deeply interesting, then, her life as a State ; for it is a record of men uniting on a new central principle to form a living people ; and every fact, every law, every demonstration of public opinion, in short, every exbibition of the living force, which is carrying this State, Ohio, on to good or evil, is of the deepest interest, of the last importance. We know not the value of these things ; their very nearness hides their

proportions from our eye, and great and small seem alike. But by and by, the proportions and relations of these things will be seen, and it should be our wish and aim to transmit to the future true records of what has been and daily is ; of the founders of our State ; the strong, blunt Putnam ; the hopeful, rash Symmes ; of the resistance of our people to the United States Bank in former days, and of their acquiescence in the judgment of the Supreme Court ; of the abolition excitement, the riots in Cincinnati in 1836; the demand for Mahan ; the change of political parties from the last to this year ; in short every fact that goes to show the progress or regress of this self-ruling people, the rise or decline of the democratic principle.”

Without concurring entirely in the premises of Mr. Perkins, we join most heartily in his conclusions. Let us add, that the materials for the bistory of Ohio must be indited and preserved from year to year, or they will be lost for ever. Society in the West is in a state, if stato it may be called, - of continual transition. The waves of emigration commence in New England and in Europe ; they press on westward with accumulating volume and force, till they spread out and subside in what (for the time being) is styled the Far West. New York and Pennsylvania have many accessions by emigration ; but the great western tide carries off perhaps more than it leaves. The yearly wave, as it approaches Ohio and Michigan, becomes mighty, and, as it sweeps on westward, is largely swelled by Southern contributions. Ohio receives yearly a No. 113.

41

VOL. LIII.

very large accession, but the number of emigrants from Ohio, were it exactly known, would be astounding. The mode of this migrating current is thus. Many emigrants from Europe and from the Eastern States have the means of purchasing improved farms. They therefore establish themselves in districts already settled, where they can at once enjoy the benefits of society, and procure more land and improvements, than could be had for the same prices in the regions they have left. The man who sells, has perhaps been a backwoodsman; he moves westward till he can obtain (perhaps from a real backwoodsman) a like or larger amount of land with less improvement and at a less price. The backwoodsman " pulls up

stakes and steers for some wilderness in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, or Wisconsin. So they go ; and in this way the elements of society in the West are continually changing ; with far less confusion and inconvenience, too, than the hereditary dwellers in old and stationary settlements can well imagine. It is true, that a large portion of the men of Ohio are become somewhat rooted in her soil; but, as things are now going on, it would not be strange, if, twenty years hence, the majority of its inhabitants should be found to be neither the men, nor the sons of the men, who are now its citizens. Where then, will be the traditions of Ohio ? Scattered to the four winds. The varying phases of Ohio society must therefore be sketched as they are flying by, or never.

We have some encouragement, in this respect, from the fact that there is a Historical Society in the State, and that it has begun to publish its Transactions.

These consist of

1. Letters on the First Settlement of the Northwest Territory, by Jacob Burnet.

2. Annual Discourse, by Timothy Walker, December, 1837.

3. General Harrison's Discourse on the Aborigines of Ohio Valley

4. A Discourse by J. H. Perkins.

5. An Essay on the Origin and Progress of Political Communities, by James T. Worthington.

6. A Fragment of the Early History of Obio, by Arius Nye.

A very respectable collection. — But the Society has done little as yet, for the attainment of its object. The specula

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