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the lake that communicates with Lagos river, and not by the Niger, or any other river that communicates with the Niger.

The negroes obtained from the northeastward, by Cradoo lake, are principally of the Jaboo nation, and those obtained at Ardrah were natives belonging to Hio, Houša, Dahomy, Mahee, and Ardrah; not a negro of which nations did I ever see offered for sale on the Gold Coast, that had travelled from the interior, neither did I see any such sold at Bonny. So that the negroes sold on the Gold Coast, belong to nations totally distinct from those sold at Ardrah and Lagos; as those sold at the latter places are from those brought to market at Bonny; which would certainly not be the case, if, as asserted, Lagos and Bonny rivers were embouchures of the Niger, and had a communication with the same nations in the interior of Africa. Besides, I have never seen, except at Ardrah, any traces

of the Mohammedan religion in this part of Africa, which proves the free communication that exists between it and remote nations in the north, but this communication is carried on, on foot and on horseback*.

Many of the slaves of the Housa nation, with whom I have conversed, both at Ardrah and Lagos, and also on board of vessels slaving there, have invariably stated, that they travelled on foot from their own country through that of Hio; and that there is an immense lake in Housa, which they compared to the sea; that persons were frequently days and nights on it without seeing any land; and that the sun is observed to rise and set on its water. They described having seen white people in its vicinity with long hair like Europeans (meaning Moors of course); but I could never learn from them, that Housa had any communication whatever by any river with the sea-coast, by which they could be transported to it.

* I have little doubt but the Niger might be visited by way of Ardrah and Hio, with less personal risk to the traveller, from the natives, than by any other route we are at present acquainted with.

Horses are to be obtained at Ardrah, and also natives who understand both the Hio and French languages.

Slaves of the Housa nation are brought to Ardrah by the Hio traders, and then sold, either to European or black traders, belonging to Lagos and Badagry. Their attenuated bodies on their first arrival, proves their journey to have been long, tedious, and exhausting.


Vessels bound from England to Africa, will find the best route to be (wind permitting) to make the Canary islands, afterwards, shaping a course to carry them about mid-channel, between the Cape de Verd islands and the continent of Africa; by which means,

the circuitous route to the westward of the Cape de Verds (which is the beaten track) is avoided, and the most tedious portion of the passage to Africa (the calm latitudes), considerably abridged, by passing quickly out of the north-east trade wind into the south-west wind, which is the prevailing one on this part of the coast of Africa. Ships bound to the Gold Coast, and not intending to call on the windward coast, will find an advantage in passing the meridian of Cape Palmas in 3° 50', or 4° north latitude, and making the high

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land of Drewin, to the eastward of that cape, because the direction of the land from Cape Mount to Cape Palmas is nearly south-east by east, by compass, which requires a ship, allowing for variation, to steer ŞE. by S. to clear the land, and as the prevailing winds blow from south to south-west, with occasionally a strong current setting to the northward, much difficulty is often experienced, and valuable time consumed, in getting round Cape Palmas, by vessels falling in with the land to the northward and westward of that cape.

In running for the Canary islands, the indraft to the straits of Gibraltar, or easterly current, should always be carefully guarded against, otherwise a vessel


be wrecked on the coast of Barbary. I had often remarked this current, but on my last voyage, it exceeded in velocity, in a duplicate ratio, what I had before experienced. We passed in sight of Cape Finisterre, and in eight days arrived in the latitude of the Canary islands, when the longitude by dead reckoning was 16° 30' west, but by lunar observation, 13° 15' west, the current having set the vessel three degrees of longitude, or 144 nautical miles, to the eastward, in eight days. It may be proper to remark here, that the log was hove every hour, and all due precaution used to ascertain, with the greatest possible precision, the longitude by dead reckoning.

The atmosphere near the Canary islands is ge

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