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On Laurie and Whittle's chart there are good surveys of the entrance of both the above rivers, as well as those of Bonny, Benin, and Lagos; although the course from the west head of Benin river to New Town is marked, in Mr. Dalzel's survey, too much to the eastward ; and New Town is about three miles further from the bar than is there laid down. The embouchure of Lagos river is little more than half the width of that given by Captain Horsley, although, in other respects, his survey of that river, and part of Cradoo Lake, is correct.

During the period of the year when land-breezes alternate with those of the sea, the best mode of beating a ship to windward is to get under weigh as soon as the wind blows steadily from the land, hugging the shore on board as near as may be prudent; for by that means every advantage is derived from it that can be expected. Soon after day-light, this wind veers to the west, and lays the ship’s head off shore. By 11 a. m., the sea-breeze will have acquired its strength and true direction, at which time, also, the vessel will have made a good offing. Tack, and stand in shore, anchoring when in eight fathoms water, where it will be proper to wait for the land-wind.

By adopting this method, a vessel is placed in the best possible situation for taking early advantage of the breeze from the shore: whereas, if she were

kept under weigh during the night, the probability is, that she would lose all the ground she had gained the preceding day, independently of being placed where the land-breeze might not reach her.

During the rains, when the sea-breeze blows both in the day and night, and at a few leagues from the shore, from very near the south point of the compass, stand off shore for twenty-four hours, when the wind will mostly be found to blow at SSW. or S by W. and often at the south. With the larboard tack on board, the vessel will lie up west clean full, and the variation being nearly two points westerly, she will not only make good her course, but southing also. As the current at this season of the

year

sets strongly to the eastward, it will be prudent to allow thirty-six miles in twenty-four hours, for its mean velocity: otherwise, in bearing up, and making the land, the ship will be found to leeward of her port of destination. This is an error many fall into. Perhaps it would be better to allow even fortyeight miles; because it is easy to run a few leagues to leeward, should the vessel prove to windward of the place to which she is bound.

These directions are given for vessels navigating between Cape Palmas and Lagos, although they will apply equally to other parts of Africa, the localities of which are similar.

DESCRIPTION OF A VESSEL SUITABLE FOR THE

PALM-OIL TRADE, AND OUTFIT.

Perhaps the size of the vessel best adapted for this description of African voyage, is a burthensome one, registering 250 or 300 tons, coppered to the bends, and navigated with a crew of eight men to every 100 tons. Stores and provisions should be laid in for twelve months; and good casks, suitable in size to the stowage of the vessel, and adequate to contain all the oil she is capable of stowing. These casks must be put up in shakes, when leaving England, for the convenience of stowage; and their quality ought to be particularly good.

Two spare bower anchors, and one spare stream anchor, will be necessary; a chain cable, also, of 100 fathoms, being provided with a proper swivel in the middle, for mooring with, so that the hemp cable may be saved, and the tedious operation of clearing hawse be avoided. A conductor for lightning, and iron buoys, are proper: the one may save the ship from destruction, and the other the loss of anchors. Wooden buoys are liable to be wormed, and sink.

Craft, of sixty or seventy tons' burthen, that sail well, are best adapted for the gold and ivory trade, as they are capable of carrying a European cargo of sufficient magnitude, to barter for a large amount

in gold and ivory, and are navigated at a moderate expense.

Vessels trading for palm-oil should sail from Europe before Christmas; and if they are intended to run down the coast, it will be proper for them to sail two or three months earlier. They should arrive in Bonny or Calabar by the first of March, the height of the palm-oil season being in the months of April, May, June, and July.

It being the indispensable duty of every master of a vessel, to promote the health and comfort of the officers and men committed to his charge, as well on the ground of humanity, as for the ultimate success of the voyage in which he is engaged, the following brief remarks, founded on experience,

may be useful.

In selecting a crew for a voyage to Africa, a preference should be invariably given to those officers and men who have been inured to that climate, provided their characters, in other respects,

answer.

Neither officers nor seamen should be employed in any duty on shore, or in the navigation of boats in creeks or rivers, for the purposes of trade, or for obtaining wood or water, where natives can be procured capable of performing those duties. A parsimonious conduct in this respect is highly culpable and has occasioned the sacrifice of many valuable lives.

The charge of a boat, having a valuable cargo on board, must necessarily devolve on an officer: one, therefore, seasoned to the climate should be selected for the purpose.

No officer or seaman should be allowed to sleep one night on shore, if it can possibly be avoided : neither should they be exposed to rain, or the me. ridian

rays

of the sun. It is the practice in Calabar, Bonny, and Benin, for vessels to have roofs over them, constructed with mats, which are rendered impervious to rain, thereby preventing the crew from exposure to its baneful influence. Ships which do not proceed to those rivers, but are anchored off the coast, should be provided with superior main and quarter-deck awnings.

In rainy, foggy, or damp weather, fires, placed in various parts of a vessel, will be found beneficial; and fire-pans should be provided for that purpose.

The crew should be divided into watches as is consistent with the safety of the vessel, when in harbour, or at anchor off the coast; because a more vigilant look-out will be kept by men whose hours of rest are not too much abridged: and they will also be better able to perform their daily avocations.

Various kinds of vegetables and fruit are generally to be obtained cheap in Africa, which should be purchased and served to the crew, but not

as many

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