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figure of Fate inexorably persistent, demanding the penalty of his bond; he is no mere usurer punishing a bankrupt debtor; if he avenges private injuries, he also represents a nation seeking atonement for centuries of wrong. By what a technical quibble is he denied justice, and tricked out of both penalty and principal! What a pitiful cur is Gratiano to yelp at his heels! One's sympathies follow the baffled and persecuted Jew as he slowly withdraws from the court: it is impossible to feel much interested in the release from peril of that very dull personage, Antonio." Shakspeare, in his drama of “King John," Act I.,

" Scene 1, gives us a trial before the Aula Regis; the king himself being present in person, Fitz-Peter being chief justiciar, in a "legitimacy case," as it was called, which involved the legitimacy of one who was said to be the illegitimate son of Richard Cour de Lion. In that trial the doctrine pater est quem nuptias demonstrant, subject, however, to the exception of the absence of the husband extra quatuor maria, was contended for: and Lady Faulconbridge having remained in England while her husband was employed in Germany, the defendant was found illegitimate ; much stress being given to the testimony of Dowager Queen Eleanor, who declared that the defendant had a “trick of Cour de Lion's face," and that “she read in his composition the token of her son, and she was sure that she was his grandame.” So, by the advice of Lord Chief Justice Fitz-Peter, judgment was given for the plaintiff; while the defendant, kneeling before the king, rose Sir Richard Plantagenet.

SHIRLEY has a “Moral dressed in dramatic ornament,” entitled “Honoria and Mammon." These names describe two female characters, representing honor and riches. Phantasm, servant of Mammon, proposes to Traverse, a lawyer, an introduction to his mistress, with a design of making a match between them, telling him, “I have no mind the city would your client, sir, should break his back with burden of his gold.” A sort of legal lovescene ensues between the lady and the lawyer :

Traverse. ... I can court you In a more legal way, and in the name Of love and law, arrest you, thus. [Embraces her.

Mammon. Arrest me?

Trav. And hold you fast, imprisoned in my arms, Without or bail or mainprize.

Mam. This does well.

Trav. I can do better yet, and put in such
A declaration, madam, as,shall startle
Your merriest blood.

Mam. I may put in my answer.

Trav. Then comes my replication, to which
You may rejoin. – Currat lex!

Shall we join issue presently?
In view of his approaching alliance, the lawyer says, —
“Since fame spread my intended marriage
With Lady Mammon, methinks the people
Look on me with another face of fear
And admiration : in my thoughts I see

Myself already in the throne of law.” To make sure of the lady, he confines her to his house. Just then a doctor comes, informing Traverse that he is

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attending Alworthy, a sick scholar, in love with Honoria,
and her guest, and, describing the latter lady in glowing
terms, wonders that the lawyer has never sought her,

" Men that are eminent in law are wont
To be ambitious of Honour.

Trav. It is a maxim in our politics,
A judge destroys a mighty practicer:
When they grow rich and lazy, they are rife
For Honour.”

At length the lawyer is so inflamed by the doctor's description, that he consents to accompany him, disguised as a physician, to the lady's house, and once there, is so much pleased with her, that he craves possession of her person, and offers, if the doctor will advocate his claims, to give him gold, and do all his law business for nothing. The doctor thereupon says,

“I now suspect the lawyer is short-liv’d:

Men of his robe are seldom guilty of
These restitutions."

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Traverse, pretending that Alworthy is dead, gets Honoria's person in his possession, and proposes to make her his wife, and Mammon his concubine. But Mammon escapes : and Honoria, resisting all the lawyer's violence, and proffers of money, is finally released by Conquest, who himself vainly tries to prevail on her to become his, and then to induce Traverse to kill Alworthy; the lawyer resists, and is rewarded with the friendship of the lady and her lover. The allegory is too apparent to need explanation.

In “ Chabot” there is some fine argumentation on the

part of an advocate employed to impeach the chancellor on account of his corrupt and unjust prosecution of the admiral Chabot. He starts off, “ It hath been said, and will be said again, and may truly be justified, omnia ex lite fieri. It was the position of philosophers, and now proved by a more philosophical sect, the lawyers, that omnia ex lite fiant, we are all made by law — made, I say, and worthily, if we be just ; if we be unjust, marr'd: though in marring some there is necessity of making others; for if one fall by the law, ten to one but another is made by the execution of the law, since the corruption of one must conclude the generation of another, though not always in the same profession: the corruption of an apothecary may be the generation of a doctor of physic; the corruption of an alderman may be the generation of a country justice," etc. The treasurer interrupts him, and beseeches him to "leave all digressions, and speak of the chancellor.” He then abuses the chancellor most roundly, even commenting unfavorably on his personal appearance. The treasurer interrupts him again, saying, “Your tongue was guilty of no such character when he sat judge upon the admiral, — a pious, incorrupt man, a

, faithful and fortunate servant to his king; and one of the greatest honors that ever the admiral received was, that he had so noble and just a judge: this must imply a strange volubility in your tongue or conscience." To this the lawyer replies in the following masterpiece of sophistry : “He was then a judge, and in cathedra, in which he could not err ; it may be your lordships' cases; out of the chair and seat of justice he hath his frailties, is loosed, and exposed to the conditions of other human natures : so every judge, your lordships are not ignorant, hath a kind of privilege while he is in his state, office, and being; and although he may, quoad se, internally and privately, be guilty of bribery of justice, yet quoad nos, and in public, he is an upright and innocent judge. We are to take no notice - nay, we deserved to suffer, if we should detect or stain him ; for in that we disparage the office, which is the king's, and may be our own : but once removed from his place by just dishonor of the king, he is no more a judge, but a common person, whom the law takes hold on; and we are then to forget what he hath been, and without partiality to strip and lay him open to the world, a counterfeit and corrupt judge,” etc.


mont's pen.

The legal profession and Frenchmen were held up to scorn in Beaumont and Fletcher's comedy, entitled “The Little French Lawyer,” in which, strange to say, the lawyer is by no means the principal personage, and is not closely connected with the plot. The character of La Writ, the lawyer, is ascribed by several editors to Beau

La Writ is a fussy, busy, choleric, meanspirited fellow, who, by an accidental success in a duel forced on him by a ruffling gallant, is filled with the idea that he is a man of spirit, and courts strife until his affected bravery is cudgelled out of him. He makes his first appearance in a sort of general answer to a crowd of clients :

“I understand your causes, – Yours about corn, yours about pins and glasses — Will you

make me mad? have I not all the parcels? And his petition, too, about bell-founding? Send in your witnesses What will you have me do?

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