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AHN, Johann Franz, a Gernian teacher, of the New England states; was the superior, noted for his method of teaching foreign lan- in the school room, of even Massachusetts; and guages, was born in 1796, and died in 1865. He was almost the peer of New York and Pennsylgave instruction for many years in the Real- vania." In 1856, county superintendents were schule at Neuss, and published several manuals substituted for the county boards of school comfor teaching the German and other languages ; missioners previously existing. Under this sysbut his chief work was his Practical Method for tem, township trustees had complete control of the rapid and easy Learning of the French the school funds, and could aid schools already Language (Praktischer Lehrgang zur schnel established according to their discretion. In len und leichten Erlernung der französischen 1860, according to the census of that year, there Sprache). This work, between 1834 and 1875, were in the state 1,903 public schools, with 61,751 passed through 190 editions. He was also the pupils, and 17 colleges, attended by 2,120 stuauthor of several works in general literature. His dents, besides 206 academies and other schools, elementary books on the study of foreign lan- with 10,778 pupils. The income for the support guages have been translated into all the languages of common schools was $489,474, of which nearof the civilized world, and have every-where found ly $200,000 was derived from public funds. The an immense circulation. The fame thus acquired progress made during the previous decade is inby Ahn's method of studying foreign languages, dicated by the fact that, in 1850, there were rehas led to numerous imitations, not a few of ported 127,390 children in the state, of whom which are utterly unworthy of the just reputa- only 35,039 were attending school. The constition of the original author. The method of Ahn tution of the state, ratified Feb. 4., 1868, exwas, to a large extent, founded on the works of Dr. pressly provided that all children between the Seidenstücker, and combines both the analytical ages of 5 and 21 years should be educated free and the synthetical method. The principle on of charge; and in accordance with its provisions, which it is based is, that the mode of learning a new system was adopted the same year, which a foreign language should, as closely as possible, placed the schools under the supervision and correspond to the manner in which a child control of a board of education, and gave to acquires a knowledge of his native tongue. county superintendents much of the power be

AINSWORTH, Robert, an English teacher fore committed to township trustees. In 1871, and scholar of considerable eminence, was born the school law was again changed, the control of in 1660, and died in 1743. He taught private the schools being entrusted to a state superinschools for some years, but having soon obtained tendent, district superintendents, and township a competency, he was enabled to relinquish the trustees, all elected by the people. The state business of teaching. From 1714 to 1736, he was board of education was abolished, its duties beengaged in compiling the Latin dictionary which ing discharged by the legislature, which, in the has made him famous. This work was extensively words of the law, “ shall designate, in advance, used in schools both in England and in the United such days as they may deem best (during the States, but has for some years been superseded session of the general assembly) for the considerby works of greater accuracy.

ation of measures relating to the educational inALABAMA, one of the southern states of terests of the state; on which days the state the American Union, was originally a part of superintendent shall be entitled to a seat in the Georgia, except the south-western portion, which house then considering educational measures, belonged to Florida. It was set off from Georgia, and shall have, and may exercise, all of the rights in 1798, as a portion of the Territory of Missis- and privileges of a member of such house, but sippi. From 1817 to 1819, it was known as the have no vote.” In 1872, -3, and 4, various Territory of Alabama, in the latter year, being changes were made in the school law; but the admitted into the Union as a state. Its area is new constitution of the state, which took effect 50,722 sq. m.; and its population, in 1870, was December 6., 1875, supersedes all laws previous996,992, of whom 521,384 were whites; 475,510, ly passed, and confirms that portion of the act colored persons; and 98, Indians.

proposed in 1871, which relates to the adminEducational History.The first constitution istration of the schools. of the state declared that "schools and the means State Superintendents. — The office of state of education should be forever encouraged,” and superintendent was first filled by General W. F. gave directions for the preservation of all land Perry, his title being Superintendent of Educagrants received for this purpose from the general cation. He was elected by the legislature in government, and the seminary lands for a “state 1854. His successor, in 1854, was G. B. Du Val, university for the promotion of the arts, litera- who died in office, his successor being J.B. Taylor, ture, and science." Attempts were made, in who was appointed to fill the vacancy in 1865. 1823, and at various times thereafter, to organize John Ryan was elected to the office in 1866, and an efficient public-school system; but little was served till 1867, when the office was merged in accomplished till 1854, when a general system that of state comptroller, its duties being perwas established under which, according to the formed by M. A. Chisholm, from November, report of the superintendent of education, the 1867, to Šuly, 1868. In that year, the title of state, in 1857, was “in proportion to her white the office was changed to that of Superintendent tax-paying and school-attending population, far of Public Instruction, N. B. Cloud being the ahead of nearly all the southern states, and most first incumbent. His successors were J. Hodg.

16 1875...

son (1870—72); Joseph H. Speed (1872-4); | sembly shall provide by taxation or otherwise." John M. McKleroy (1874-6); and Leroy F.Box, It is, also, made the duty of the assembly to with the title of Superintendent of Education, increase, from time to time, the public school restored by the constitution of 1875.

fund, as the condition of the treasury and the School System. — By the law of 1877, the resources of the state will admit.” In addition officers of the school system are (1) a superin- to this, each county may raise, by annual taxatendent of education for the state, (2) a county tion, an amount not exceeding 10 cents on each superintendent in each county, and (3) three $100 of taxable property. Ninety-six per cent trustees of public schools in each township or of the money raised or appropriated must be other school district. The state superintendent used for the payment of teachers unless otheris elected by the people, and holds office for two / wise directed by a vote of two-thirds of each years. He is required to give a bond in the sum branch of the legislature. Schools for whites and of $15,000, for the faithful performance of his blacks must be separate. Sectarian or denominaduties, which are as follows: (1) To exercise a tional schools are not entitled to any share of the general supervision over all the educational in- public-school money. The school age is from 7 terests of the state ; (2) To visit annually every to 21 years. county in the state for the purpose of inspecting Educational Condition. - The number of the schools and their management, assisting also school-districts in the state, in 1875, was 1,696, in the organization and management of teachers' the area of each being six miles square except in institutes ; (3) To apportion and distribute an- the case of fractional townships. In each of these nually the school money as prescribed by law, districts. there must be, at least, one school for and to see to its proper disbursement ; (4) To each race,

e-white and colored. The school revekeep proper records, and to prepare and dis- nue, at that time, was as follows: tribute to the other school officers necessary Interest on 16th section fund.... $146,983.32 blanks; (5) To keep in his office an accurate ac

" the surplus revenue count of the capital of all sixteenth-section or One-fifth of the state revenge of


53,526.94 other trust fund to which each township may be

the previous year...

209,887.44 entitled ; and (6) To make an annual report to Poll-tax collected in 1872--3.. 80,486.66 the governor. The county superintendents are

73,555.30 appointed by the state superintendent for two

Total...... $564,439.66 years. Their duties are to pay the teachers, to receive and take charge of the school moneys of

This state has received from the Peabody fund, the county, and distribute the same, and to make since 1868, $59,550. The amount received in an annual report of their proceedings and the con

1875 was $4,300. (See PEABODY FUND.) dition of the schools of the county, to the state The expenditures were as follows: superintendent. They are required to give bonds Poll-tax disbursed by superintendfor the faithful performance of their duties.

... $73,555.30

Apportioned counties Three township trustees are elected biennially cities.

.476,332.29 who have the immediate control of the schools, Apportioned to normal schools... 10,000.00 subject to supervision by the county superiutend- Incidental expenses..

2,550.00 ent. In several of the cities, special school laws


.$562,437.59 are in force, by which the immediate management of the schools is entrusted to city boards of

The other principal items of school statistics commissioners, subject either to the supervision

are the following: of the county superintendent, or of city super- No. of children of school age : white, 233,733 intendents. Four grades of schools are compre

colored, 172,537 hended in the operation of the law-primary,


406,270 intermediate, grammar, and high schools. In the No. of children enrolled: white, 91,202 first, spelling, reading, and the elements of arith

colored, 54,595 metic and of geography are taught; in the


.145,797 second, these studies are continued, with the ad

Average attendance:

white, 67,024 dition of grammar and writing; in the third,

colored, 43,229 etymology, composition, history, and elocution are added ; and in the fourth, the higher branches


.110,253 eommon to schools of this grade are pursued. No. of teachers: white, male,

1,669 The school fund is composed of “the income

female, 1,006

colored, male, 1,002 from the 16th section trust fund, the surplus

female, revenue fund, until it is called for by the United States government;" the proceeds of “all lands


3,961 or other property given by individuals or ap- Average monthly salary, white teachers.. .$26.50


.$27.87 propriated by the state for educational purposes, and all estates of deceased persons who die with- Normal Instruction. — Three state normal out leaving a will or heir ;'* " an annual poll tax, schools are in existence, the expenditure for not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each which, during the year 1875, was $10,000. The poll;" with such other moneys, “ to be not less first, at Florence, organized in 1873, is designed than $100,000 per annum, as the general as- for the education of white teachers of both sexes.






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It has a library and apparatus valued at $8,000,' amounting to more than $100,000. Students besides the buildings, which are estimated at are required to pursue a three years' elementary $30,000; and, in 1875, reported 4 teachers and course, after which they are permitted to choose 126 pupils. The State Normal School and Uni- one of four courses—that of scientific agriculture, versity, at Marion, and the Normal School, at of civil and mining engineering, of literature, or Huntsville, are neither of them so extensive as of science. Under agricultural chemistry, are that at Florence. They are intended for the taught the composition of soils, the relation of education of colored teachers. The former, in air and moisture to vegetable growth, the chem1875, had 3 teachers and 70 pupils; the latter, istry of farm processes, the methods of improving 2 teachers and 84 pupils. This institution is soils, etc. These are accompanied by lessons in designed to become a university for the colored practical agriculture throughout the course. Milipopulation of the state. Besides these state nor- tary training is given, but only to the extent of mal institutions, there are four schools of the improving the health and bearing of the stusame grade under the control of the American dents. Free scholarships, two in number, are proMissionary Association, and one conducted by vided for each county in the state. The course the Methodists, having an aggregate, in the state, of study covers four years. The number of inof 659 pupils under normal instruction. structors in all the departments, in 1875, was 7;

Teachers' institutes were held, during the the number of students, 50, in the regular course, year 1875, in six counties, and their organization and 5 in the special. Law is taught in departments is contemplated in four more. The interest organized for the purpose in the State University aroused, both on the part of the teachers and of and the Southern University ; theology, in the the people at the places of meeting, leads to the Southern University, in Talladega College, and, belief that their permanent establishment is only to some extent, in Howard College ; medicine, a question of time.

in the Southern University, and in the Medical Secondary Instruction.— There are 218 pub- College of Alabama, at Mobile. This last inlic high schools in operation in the state, 3 of stitution provides a two years' course of study, which are for colored, the remainder, for white and, in 1875, had 9 instructors and 50 students. pupils. The course of study prescribed for these Special Instruction.-- The Alabama Institution institutions has been already stated. A number of for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind was founded in high schools and academies are scattered through 1860 at Talladega, and is maintained at an annual the state, which occupy a position intermediate expense of about $18,000. The deaf-mute departbetween the primary schools and colleges. Accu- ment is provided with a small museum of natural rate statistics in regard to them are, however, dif- history and a library of 300 volumes. The studies ficult to procure. In Talladega College, the work pursued are mathematics and the ordinary Enhas thus far been entirely preparatory, the colle- glish branches. Instruction is also given in agrigiate classes not having been formed. In 1875, culture and gardening. In 1875, there were it had 12 instructors, and a total of 247 students in 4 instructors and 52 pupils

. In the department all the departments. It is conducted by the for the blind there were, in the same year, 2 inAmerican Missionary Association for the benefit structors and 10 pupils. of the colored people.

ALABAMA, University of, at Tuscaloosa, Superior Instruction.—There are several in- was chartered in 1820, but not organized till stitutions of this grade in the state, the most 1831. At the commencement of the civil war, important of which are enumerated in the fol- it was in a prosperous condition, but was burned lowing list :

by a federal force during the war. It was rebuilt

in 1868, and is now in a flourishing condition. When Religious The value of its grounds, buildings, apparatus,

etc., is estimated at $150,000 ; and it has an en

dowment of $300,000. Its library contains 5,000 Howard College

1843 Bap. Southern University. Greensboro 1856 M. Epis.s. volumes. In 1874, the number of instructors Spring Hill College.. Near Mobile

was 9, and of collegiate students 76. 1 he acaUniv. of Alabama..

1820 Non-sect.

demic department embraces eight courses of study, To the above list, must be added 9 institutions open to the selection of the students: (1) Latin which afford opportunities for the higher edu- language and literature; (2) Greek language and cation of women. In addition to the studies literature ; (3) English language and literature; usually pursued in such institutions, special at- (4) Modern languages; (5) Chemistry, geology, tention is given to the ornamental branches. and natural history ; (6) Natural philosophy; The number of instructors in these institutions, (7) Mathematics and astronomy; (8) Mental and in 1875, was 80; the number of students, 883. moral philosophy. The department of profes

Professional and Scientific Instruction.— sional education embraces a school of law, and The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Ala- a school of civil engineering. All the students, bama was established at Auburn by an act of the except those specially infirm, are subjected to legislature, its endowment being the proceeds of military drill. A special military school affords inthe land grant made by Congress for the benefit struction in military science and art, in military of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The law, and in elementary tactics. The president of amount thus derived was $218,000, to which was the institution is Carlos G. Schmidt, LL. D., added all the property of East Alabama College, 1 elected in 1874.



found- denomina

ed tion


1836 R. C.


ALBION COLLEGE, at Albion, Mich., was Woman's Guide, The Young Housekeeper, etc., chartered as a college in 1861, by members of etc. Dr. Alcott was a genuine philanthropist, the Methodist Episcopal Church. The number though extreme and somewhat eccentric in many of students is about 200, males and females. It of his views. As one of the pioneers in the has a preparatory, classical, and scientific course cause of common-school education and reform in of instruction. Its endowment fund is $200,000. practical teaching, his labors were of incalculable Its library contains about 2000 volumes. Rev. value. G. B. Jocelyn, D. D., is the president of the ALCUIN (Lat. Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus), institution (1875). The tuition is free. a distinguished English scholar, ecclesiastic, and

ALCOTT, Amos Bronson, an American reviver of learning, was born in Yorkshire educator, was born in 1799. He first gained about 753, and died in 804. He was educated distinction by teaching an infant school. for at York under the direction of Archbishop which employment he evinced a singular aptitude Egbert, and was subsequently director of the and tact. He removed to Boston in 1828, where seminary in that city. Returning from Rome, he manifested the same skill in teaching young whither he had gone by direction of the English children, at the Masonic Temple. His methods, king, he met the emperor Charlemagne at however, were in advance of public opinion, and Parma, and was induced by that monarch to were disapproved. On the invitation of James take up his residence at the French court, and P. Greaves, of London, the co-laborer of Pesta- become the royal preceptor. Accordingly, at lozzi in Switzerland, in educational reform, Mr. Aix-la-Chapelle, he gave instruction, for some Alcott, in 1842, went to England ; but the death time, to Charlemagne and his family, in rhetoric, of Mr. Greaves, which occurred before his arrival, logic, divinity, and mathematics. It has been interfered with his prospects. On his return to said with much truth, that “ France is indebted this country, he attempted with some of his to Alcuin for all the polite learning of which it English friends to establish a new community could boast in that and the following ages.” The at Harvard, Mass. ; but the enterprise was soon universities of Paris, Tours, Soissons, and many abandoned. Mr. Alcott has since written several others were either founded by him, or greatly works, one of which, Concord Days, was pub- benefited by his zeal in their behalf, and the lished in 1872.–See E. P. PEABODY, Record of favor which he procured for them from CharleSchool (Boston, 1834), and Conversation on the magne. In 796, he was appointed abbot of St. Gospels (Boston, 1836).

Martin's at Tours, where he opened a school which ALCOTT, William Alexander, M. D., acquired great celebrity. Here he continued cousin of the preceding, noted for his zeal and teaching till his death. Alcuin was probably success as a common-school teacher, and his life- the most learned man and the most illustrious long efforts in behalf of popular education, was teacher of his age; and his labors were very imborn in Wolcott, Ct., in 1798, and died at portant in giving an impetus to the revival of Auburndale, Mass., in 1859. He had only an learning, after the intellectual night of the Dark elementary education; and, for several years, he Ages. He left many epistles, poems, and treattaught in the district schools of his native State, ises upon theological and historical subjects, all distinguished for his remarkable earnestness, and written in Latin, and noted for the elegance and the many reforms which he labored to introduce purity of their style. The Life of Alcuin (Leben into the imperfect school management and in- Alcuin's) by Prof. LORENZ, of Halle (1829) has struction of his time. He afterwards studied been translated into English (1837) by SLEE.-See medicine ; but his chief labors were devoted to Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, art. Alcuin. the cause of education, co-operating with Gallau- ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL, a name yaridet, Woodbridge, and others in the endeavor to ously applied, but chiefly designating (1) a school bring about much-needed reforms in the public of philosophers at Alexandria in Egypt, which schools of the State. Subsequently, he associated is chiefly noted for the development of Neoplatohimself with William C. Woodbridge, and as- nism, and its efforts to harmonize oriental theolsisted him in the compilation of his school geog- ogy with Greek dialectics; (2) a school of raphies, and also in editing the American An- Christian theologians in the same city, which nals of Exlucation. He also edited several juve- aimed at harmonizing Pagan philosophy with nile periodicals. His newspaper contributions Christian theology. T'he city of Alexandria bewere very numerous, and quite effective on ac- came, soon after the death of Alexander the count of their racy and spirited style. An Great, by whom it had been founded, a chief article which he published on the Construction of seat of science and literature. The time during School-Houses gained him a premium from the which the teachers and schools of Alexandria American Institute of Instruction. His labors enjoyed a world-wide reputation, is called the as a lecturer on hygiene, practical teaching, and Alexandrian Age, and is divided into two pekindred subjects were severe and unintermitting. I riods, the former embracing the time of the He is said to have visited more than 20,000 | Ptolemies, and extending from 323 to 30 B. C., schools, in many of which he delivered lectures. I and the second embracing the time of the RoHis writings are very numerous ; and some of mans, extending from 30 B. C. to 640 A. D. them were widely popular. The most noted are: Grammar, poetry, mathematics, and the natural Confessions of a Schoolmaster, The House I sciences were all taught in the Alexandrian Live in, The Young Man's Guide, The Young School; and among the most illustrious teachers

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