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present to the eye of the student the analyzed or subtract fractions by finding a common de sentence, so as to show clearly the relation of its nominator. If the object of the instruction given parts; and, in the rudimental stages of the in- were, exclusively, to make the pupil expert in struction, these are, without doubt, of consider- adding and subtracting fractions, the synthetic able utility; but they should not be carried so method would perhaps have some advantage over far as to present to the student a confused mass the analytic; but, since an important part of of loops, lines, curves, or disjointed phrases, far this object is to train the mind, the analytic methmore difficult to disentangle than to analyze, with- od is greatly to be preferred; for (1) it stimu-. out any such aid, the most involved sentence. lates the mind to greater activity, (2) it teaches All such devices, it must be remembered, are it how to investigate for itself, and to discover only auxiliaries to the mind's natural operations, truth, and (3) it gives it a much clearer knowland cannot at all supersede them. Neither edge of the fundamental principles involved in should the exercise of analyzing sentences be al- the subject taught. Whether the analytic methlowed to degenerate into the mechanical applica-od should be employed and to what extent, is tion of its most simple requirements. As the to be determined by a consideration of the nature student advances, he will be able to omit more of the subject taught, and the degree of advanceand more of the routine, until he reaches a stag? ment of the student. In the higher stages of of progress, at which the general structure of education, much time would be lost by rigorously the sentence—its component clauses and their re- following this method; and if, in the more lations, will be all that he need observe or state. clementary stages, the pupil's mind has been When judiciously and rationally employed, sen- thoroughly trained in this way, it will not be tential analysis must engender a very important necessary to adhere to it when he comes to study quality of mind, and greatly conduce to clear the higher branches. At every stage, and in every thinking, intelligent.critical reading, and accurate. branch of instruction, however, there will be oeterse expression. See MULLIGAN, Grummutical casion for the use of both analysis and synthesis ; Structure of the English Lamguage (N. Y., 18.32); and the skill and judgment of the teacher must GOOLD Brown, Grummır of English Gram- be exercise, at every step, to determine which is mms, ad Institutes of English Grammır, the appropriate method to be employed. --- See with KIDDLE's Inalysis ; WELCI, Analysis of PALMER, The Teacher's Manual (Boston, 1840). the English Sentence; GREENE, Analysis of the ANDREÆ, Johann Valentin, a German English Limguuge; CLARK, Normal Gramm'ır clergyman and educator, was born at Herrenof the English Language; CRUTTENDEN, Phi- berg, in Würtemberg, in 1586, and died in losophy of Sentential Language; MARCH, Pars Stutgart, in 1654. After filling several eccleing and Analysis; Andrews and STODDARD, siastical positions in the Lutheran church of Lutin Grammar.
his country, he became, in 1650, Superintendent ANALYSIS, Mathematical. See Matu- General at Labenhausen, and in 1054 at Adel
berg. lle was a stern and influential opponent ANALYTIC METHOD OF TEACH- of the principles which the Lutheran orthorlony, ING. This is the method used by the teacher at that time, endeavored to carry out in eduwhen he presents to his pupils composite cation. lle denounced, in particular, the metruths or "facts, and by means of analysis chanical method of teaching Latin, which then shows the principles involved, or leals the prevailed, as well as the equally mechanical mind of the pupil to an analysis of them for method of catechetical instruction in the pubhimself. In this way he teaches principles lic schools ; and he is known, in the history of which the pupil is to apply to the elucida- German education, by the reforms which he intion of many diverse problems. In the synthetic troduced in these studies. He insisted that no method, the teacher begins with principles, ex- orders should be given to the pupils in a foreigu plains their meaning, and shows how they are to language, that they should not be required to be applied. Thus, suppose the pupil is to be learn any thing which they did not understand. taught how to add and subtract fractions. Ac- and that no explanations should be given to them coriling to the analytic method, the fractions to exceeding their comprehension, or not enlisting be operated upon are presented to the pupil's their interest. His views on pedagogical and mind, and he is shown, first the difficulty in- didactical reform are fully developed in the volved, and secondly, how to surmount this diffi- work Reipublicæ Christiana Descriptio (1619); culty, by (1) tin ling a common denominator, which sketches the constitution of an ideal and (2) by changing the numerator so that the Christian republic, giving due prominence to the fractions with the common denominator may organization of education. Another work, writhave the same value as the given fractions. Thenten in his youth, Ilea Bonne Institutionis, is no the method of al lition or subtraction becomes longer extant. Andreæ was an intimate friend of obvious. In this way learning the principle him- Amos Comenius, whose work, Didactica Vagnn, self by analysis, the pupil is enabled to construct he earnestly recommended. The autobiography a general rule, and apply it to any given case. In of Andreæ in Latin has been published by Rheinthe synth tic method, the pupil would be taught wald (Berlin 1849). See SCHMIDT, Geschichte in the first place the nature and use of a common der Pädagogik, iu, 338; HOSSBACH, Andre lesominator, then the method of rulucing frae- und sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1830); Henke in tions to a conımın denominator, and then to all Deutsche Allgemeine Biographie, art. Andrea.
ANGLO-SAXON is the current name for as in Latin and Greek. The uses of the modes the mother-tongue of the modern English lan- are also a matter of great nicety. The body of guage. During the 5th and 6th centuries, tribes rules for the use of the subjunctive rivals that from the shores of the North Sea, — Anglcs, for the Latin subjunctive. Most of the diffiSaxons, Jutes, and others, made conquests and culties of English syntax find their solution in the settlements in England. They spoke Low German fact that they are relics of idioms which were gendialects, and after they were converted to Chris- eral, and are easily understood, in Anglo-Saxon. tianity, Roman alphabetic writing was intro- The laws of sound, including prosody, are noteduced, and a single literary language came into worthy. The vowel sounds are very susceptible use through the whole nation. This language to the influence of adjacent letters. A root a they commonly called Anglise, or Englisc, i. e. I will change to ae, ea, e, o, as one or another English, but since the 17th century it has been letter follows it; and so with the other vowels. It called Anglo-Suuron. its best period was the is in this way that the plural of man comes to be reign of Alfred the Great, A. D. 871—901. men, from mani. And, in general, the changes In the careful studly of its literary remains, it is of the original letters of an English word in innecessary to distinguish three dialects, the North- flection are to be explained from the phonetic umbrian, the West Saxon, and the Kentish; and laws of Anglo-Saxon. The verse, like that of three periods, the early, the mi llle, an l the late; the other early Teutonic nations, is accentual, but in this article, our attention will be mainly and marks•off ihe lines by alliteration. The art directed to classic Anglo-Saxon, which is West of poetry was highly cultivated; the scop, or Saxon of the middle period. This literary lan- pott, was highly honored, and it was a disgrace guage was cultivated mainly by rewriting in it, to any man not to be able to sing in his turn at for the use of the people, the best latin works the feasts. We have specimens of the old ballad of the time on religion, history, and philosophy. epic reaching far back into heathen antiquity, King Alfred and his learned assistants thus pre- the Iliad and Odyssey of the North. There is pared Gregory's Pastorale; the General History also a body of Christian poetry in similar verse of Orosius, the Ecclesiastical History of Bede, the and in somewhat similar style. Consolations of Philosophy of Boethius; and From this sketch of the language and its these were followed by many other translations literature it will appear, that whatever disciplinin prose and verse. The language in this way ary advantages are to be gained from the study attained accuracy and ease in following Latin of an inflected tongue as such, or of a literature compositions, and a higher general cultivation introducing us to a new world of thought and than any other Teutonic tongue of the time. manners, are to be gained as well from the It is a very pure Low German speech, closely study of Anglo-Saxon as of Latin or Greek. It akin to the Friesic, Old Saxon, and Dutch. These has, however, additional and more intimate uses Low German tongues are most nearly related, on to those who speak and write English, and have the one side, to High German, and on the other English for their foster-mother in literature. It is to Scandinavian; and more remotely to Latin, the mother of our mother-tongue, and the knowlGreek, Slavic, Sanskrit, and the other Indo- edge of it helps us at every step in our study of European or Aryan languages. The Anglo- English grammar and literature, and is essential Saxon is to be classed with the older inflected or to any really advanced scholarly knowledge of synthetic languages, like the Latin, Greek, and either. We may, therefore, find a place for Sanskrit, rather than with the analytic, or little Anglo-Saxon in all grades of schools in which inflected, like French and English. The noun language and literature are studied, using it in has five cases, and three genders; and four de- | different ways at different stages of progress. clensions growing out of differences in the stems. The study of language must always occupy a The adjective is declined as in German, in a chief place in any comprehensive educational definite and an indefinite declension, with two scheme. It has two great divisions : (1) as the numbers, three genders, and five cases. The study of the art of communication, (2) as the personal pronouns are also fully declined in study of the record of human thought. Withthree numbers, having special forms for the dual out the art of communication, man cannot live; number in the first and second persons. There without access to the accumulated thought of the awe two great classes of verbs, one of which race, any generation would be savages; without forms the past tense by reduplication, and the an introduction to the emotions and ideals of other by composition with dide, did. In the the great and noble which are embodied in litfirst class are five conjugations, arranged accord- erature, any generation would lapse toward ing to their root vowels, and from these come moral idiocy. most of what are called the irregular verbs of Common Schools. — The Anglo-Saxon is no modern English; our regular verbs come îrom the longer spoken, and it would be hardly worth sixth conjugation. Our suffixes of derivation, while to learn to speak it; but in learning to our prepositions, and conjunctions are also in speak and write English we need to know much great part Anglo-Saxon. The syntax is of of it. The power to speak well is founded on course that of a highly inflected language. Some familiarity with choice idioms and synonyms. verbs govern an accusative, some a dative or in- , These are learned in connection with the history strumental, some a genitive, some two accusa- of the formation and meanings of words, and tives, some an accusative and dative, and so on : especially in English, of our Anglo-Saxon words
There are several school etymologies which afford study. A lesson a day during the last school manuals of practice in the study and use of the term skillfully directed to the most frequent exAnglo-Saxon elements of our speech, among amples in which this knowledge comes into use, which may be mentioned : Hand-Book of Anglo- would perhaps answer the most pressing necessiSacon Root-Words (New York); Hand-Book of ties of the common school teacher. Twice that Anglo-Saxon Derivatives (New York); GIBBs's time would be a meager allowance to lay the Teutonic Etymology_(New Haven); SARGENT'S foundation of the education of an accomplished School Manual of English Etymology (Phila.). high-school teacher in this department. For this In these books the pupil is told the meanings of study may be used MARCH's Comparative Gramcertain Anglo-Saxon words, prefixes, and suffixes, mar of the Anglo-Saxon Language (New York); and of English words which are derived from - this contains a full syntax; R. MORRIS's Histhem; and exercises are arranged in which to torical Outlines of English Accidence (London); acquire skill in the ready use of this knowledge. Hadley's Brief History of the English LanThey are intended for the Common School. guage, in Webster's Dictionary (1865). HALDEMAN'S Affices (Phila.) is a treasury of this Colleges and Universities. — The earliest imbranch of learning
portant use of Anglo-Saxon in our schools was In the High School or Academy, Anglo-Saxon that introduced by President Jefferson into the is to be read and studied not only as explanatory University of Virginia, in 1825.
1825. He thought of English, but for its own structure and liter- that it was a rude form of colloquial English disature, just as Latin, Greek, and German are guised by bad spelling, and that the whole gramstudied. Manuals for this study in its simplest matical system as given in the text-books was a form contain brief grammars, selections for read- series of " aberrations into which our great Angloing, notes, and vocabulary. Such books are S. Saxon leader, Dr. Hickes, has been seduced by M. SHUTE's Anglo-Saxon Manual (N. Y.); Bar- too much regard to the structure of the Greek NES's Anglo-Saxon Delectus (London); Vernon's and Latin languages." “Remove," he says, “ the Guide to the Anglo-Saxon Tongue (London); obstacles of uncouth spelling and unfamiliar CARPENTER's Introduction to the study of the character, and there would be little more diffiAnglo-Sacon Language (Boston). Similar to culty in understanding an Anglo-Saxon writer these, but containing more apparatus for a than Burns' poems." He proposed to have textcomparative study of the language and philo- books prepared, in which the original Anglological notes, are March's Introduction to the Saxon should be accompanied by a parallel Anglo-Saxon Language (N. Y.); MORRIS's Ele-column containing the same matter respelt into mentary Lessons in Historical English Gram- modern English or forms like the modern Enmar, containing Accidence and Word Forma- glish, and by explanations of the meaning of tion (London).
unusual words. These he thought would be few, Normal Schools. There are no persons to whom so that the whole tongue might be mastered this study is more important, than to teachers of with great ease and rapidity. These views of the English grammar. The explanations of the forms language are all wrong; the best Anglo-Saxon of words are all to be sought in it. The origin and manuscripts are really spelt on a more careful meaning of the possessive ending 's, of the plural and more scientific system than our modern endings, of the endings for gender, of the tense English. The language, really, is an inflected forms and other forms of the verb, the adverbial language, like Latin and Greek, having its caseendings, the prepositions, may at any time be de- endings and other inflective forms from the manded of the teacher. Pupils will ask him same original as those sister-speeches. Of course, whether John's book is a contraction of John his no one has carried out Mr. Jefferson's plan literbook; how comes geese to be the plural of goose, ally. One of its suggestions has, however, been and men the plural of man; how comes lady embodied in March's Introduction to Angloto be the feminine of lord; how comes I have Saxon (New York). An early division of the loved to express the perfect tense; what does the prose is prepared in parallel pages of Angloto mean when you say to be, or not to be, that is Saxon, and a sort of English made by giving for the question, and so on without end. But such each Anglo-Saxon word the corresponding Enquestions cannot be answered without knowing glish word to which it has given rise, if there be Anglo-Saxon. It is the same with questions of any, or a kindred English word. The following syntax. Almost all difficulties grow out of is a specimen: Anglo-Saxon idioms, or find their solution in Se leornere segeth : Wê cildru biddath thế, the forms of that speech. Teachers who know eâlâ lâreow, thaet thû tâece ûs sprecan on Ledenè nothing of the history of the language puzzle gereordê rihte, fortham ungelaerede wê sindon, themselves infinitely with subtle reasonings to and gewemmedlice wê sprecath. prove that expressions must be parsed in one (The learner saith: We childer bid 2 thee, O-lo way or another, when a glance at an Anglo- lore-master, that thou teach us to-speak in Latin Saxon grammar would settle the matter in a i-rerd 3 right, for-that + un-i-leredo we are, and moment. No teacher can safely pronounce on i-wemmedly o we speak.) any such mooted questions of our language without knowing the Anglo-Saxon forms. No normal school ought to send out graduates from its
1 children (Chaucer). 2 pray. 3 language (Halliwell).
4 because. sunlearned (Stratmann), corruptly, from grammar department wholly ignorant of this wem, a spot.
An extract from the poetry of Caedmon is and substance, as thorough and scientific study is prepared in the same manner. It will be seen given in this way to a portion of the Anglo that this affords an easy introduction to a gen-Saxon as can be given to Greek or Latin with eral knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, the ordinary college text-books. The study is and is a grateful means of enabling beginners pursued in this way at several of the American who wish only to read in an off-hand fashion, to colleges. In others, rapid reading for literary get a fair knowledge of the contents of Anglo- purposes prevails. The text - books used are Saxon books, especially of simple prose, and Marcu's Grammar and Reader, as above, in makes a good beginning for grammatical and which are also bibliographical notes, and a sketch philological study.
of the literature; SAUTE's Anglo-Saxon Manual; There has been a great increase of Anglo-Saxon KLIPSTEIN'S Anglo-Saxon Grammar(New York); study in our colleges within the last ten years. Corson's Anglo-Saxon and Early English From being almost unknown, and wholly unpro- (New York); T'HORPE's Analecta Anglo-Saconica vided with any suitable apparatus, it has become (London); CARPENTER’s Introduction to Angloa common study, and a number of manuals have Saxon (Boston). been published for beginners in it, both in America Nowhere else is this study pursued as in and Europe. There is a difference of opinion America. It is almost wholly neglected in the among our educators as to whether it should be English universities. Nine German universities studied early in the college course and in connec- announced lectures on it for the winter semester tion with English simply, or later and in connec- of 18745. tion with Latin, Greek, and German; whether it Dictionaries of Anglo-Saxon are BoswoRTH'S should be mainly a literary study, for reading and (London); ETTMUELLER'S Lecicon Anglo-saxconithe vocabulary, or chiefly a grammatical and cum (Quedlinburg & Leipsic, 1851),—an etymophilological study. The earliest of the later text- logical dictionary. Other valuable works of books announced for publication was a Compara- reference or for further reading are THORPE'S tive Grammar by F. A. March, Prof. of the Beowulf, with translation, notes, and glosEnglish Language and Comparative Philology in sary (London); Gren's Beowulf, with GerLafayette College. This was primarily intended man glossary (Cassel, 1867); HEYNE's Beovulf, for the use of a Junior Class in college, who with German notes and glossary (Paderborn, have already studied Latin, Greek, French, 1873); THORPE's Gospels (London); BoswORTH'S and German, according to a progressive plan by Four Versions of the Gospels (London); E. which each language is compared with the others MÆTZNER’s Englische Grammatik (Berlin, 1860 in its grammatical forms and analogous words, so —65); C. F. Koch's Historische Grammatik that when beginning Anglo-Saxon, the students der englischen Sprache (Weimar, 1863—71); are good comparative grammarians within the Marsu's English Language, and its Eurly range of the above languages. It is the plan of Literature (New York, 1862); MORLEY's English this grammar to compare the Anglo-Saxon with Writers (London, 1867); Wright's Biog. Brit. Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Literaria (London, 1842); ETTMUELLER's Scôpas Frisic, Icelandic, and Old High German. Gen- and Bóceras (Qued. & Leips., 1850); C. W. M. eral principles of phonology, enough to cover GREIN's Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie all the changes of sound, are first laid down, (Cassel & Göttingen, 1857–1864); Grein's Biand then parallel paradigms of the inflection bliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa (Cassel, forms in these languages are given, and the 1872); Grein's Sprachschatz der angelsächsiAnglo-Saxon explained under their guidance. A schen Dichter (Cassel & Göttingen, 1864); and comparative syntax is also given. The author articles in APPLETON’s New American Cyin this way introduces the student to the clopædia, and Johnson's New Universal Cymethods of the modern science of language in clopædia. connection with the study of Anglo-Saxon, so ANSELM, of Canterbury, a saint and that our mother-tongue may share the honors doctor of the Roman Catholic Church, is reof this new science. This grammar was followed garded as one of the founders of scholasticism. by a Reader, which is prepared with notes (See ScHOLASTICISM.) He was born at Aosta, in adapted to lead to and aid in the study of the Piedmont, about 1033, entered, after a dissolute grammar. These books have been since studied youth, the Benedictine order in 1060, succeeded, at Lafayette College in the manner here sug- in 1063, Lanfranc as prior of the monastery of gested. A class goes slowly on with the reader Bec in Normandy, and, in 1079, became abbot. and grammar together, studying, word by word, He was, in 1093, consecrated archbishop of Canletter by letter, the relations of the forms to terbury, and died in 1109. The school of Bec those of other languages, and the laws of change became, through him, the most famous of the which govern their history, and trying to ground age. He endeavored to show the entire harmony all in the laws of the mind and of the organs of between faith and science, and was the first to speech. Besides this grammatical study, how- develop what is called the ontological argument ever, the substance of the selections is carefully to prove the existence of God. He was a destudied, including choice extracts from the termined and effective opponent of the discipline Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Beda giving the which at that time prevailed in the monasteries, noticeable events of history, Anglo-Saxon laws, and which even allowed abbots to cudgel disand extracts from the great poets. In method obedient monks. “A fine education," he once
replied to an abbot, who complained of the in- is an instinctive dislike. Such a feeling is apt efficiency of his educational efforts, “ which edu- to exist on a first acquaintance only, and is often cates man to animals ! Because they receive from dismissed subsequently as a prejudice. No peryou no mark of love and kindness, they mistrust son can succeed in teaching children, who posyou, suspect you of malignity and hatred, and sesses an unfortunate temperament or mental concan only face you with lowered looks and averted stitution of this kind, and such a one should seek eyes." 'An edition of Anselm's complete works, other employment; since all real success in pracalso containing his life, by his friend and com- tical education, depending as it does upon inpanion Eadmer, was published, in 1744, in Ven- spiring the minds of pupils with love, esteem, and ice (Opera omnia, 2 vols.).-See Menler, An- confidence, must be founded upon the opposite selm's Leben und Schriften (Tüb.Quartalschrift, quality, sympathy. (See SYMPATHY.) 1826, 1827); HASSE, Anselm von Canterbury, APHORISMS, Educational. The expres(2 vols., 1843—52 ; an abridged English trans- sion of general truths in the form of aphorisms lation by TURNER, London, 1860); C'H. DE RÉMU- has some advantages over more extended stateSAT, St. Anselme de Cantorbéry (Paris, 1852). ments, particularly in their brevity, pithiness,
ANTIOCH COLLEGE, at Yellow Springs, and point. The understanding grasps them Green Co., Ohio, was incorporated in 1852. Its as the keys to practical rules, and as guides in buildings, which were erected at a cost of conduct; and the memory more readily retains $150,000, have a pleasant and healthful situa- them. It is not, however, to the uninformed, tion. This institution is designed to afford the untrained mind, that such expressions are of the means of a useful education, at small expense, to greatest use, but to those who, having already acboth sexes.
Its charter forbids the teaching of quired by experience and reflection a good store sectarian dogmas; but the instruction is given of facts and ideas upon the subject treated, are in consonance with the spirit of liberal Chris- glad to find them concentrated, as it were, in tianity. Its first president was Horace Mann these small and convenient verbal repositories. (1853–59). He was succeeded by Thomas No subject is richer in such aphorisms than Hill
, D. Ó. (1859—62), George W. Hosmer, education ; and to no one will their study and D. D. (1866–72); and since then, the college has acquisition prove more serviceable than to the been under the direction of Prof. Edward Orton practical teacher, eager to avail himself of the and Samuel C. Derby, A. M., acting presidents. treasured experience of others. In these scintilIts endowment is upward of $120,000. It has a lations of wisdom, struck out from the minds of preparatory and collegiate department; and stu- ancient and modern sages, philosophers, and edudents are permitted to select any studies from its cators, will be found an illumination sufficient percurriculum which they are able to pursue with haps to guide the humble explorer in the field of advantage, and receive a certificate for the same, pedagogical lore, to the true path to professional after passing a satisfactory examination. In this success, as well as to the temple of speculative respect, the institution affords the advantages of and practical truth. The few here given have the best academies. It has a musical institute been selected not only for their appositeness, but under the supervision of the faculty, and a li- for their value as the exponents to correct educabrary of 5000 volumes. The number of students tion and teaching. Their arrangement by topics in 1874 was about 100. The co-education of the will not only serve to divest them collectively sexes has been very successful in this institution. of their fragmentary character, but render them The annual tuition fee is $37.
easy of reference and application. In regard to the ANTIPATHY. This term, the opposite of value of aphorisms in general, Coleridge remarks: sympathy, denotes the instinctive dislike which “ Exclusively of the abstract sciences, the laris fest towards some persons on account of cer- gest and worthiest portion of our knowledge tain peculiarities of temperament, disposition, consists of aphorisms; and the greatest and best manners, etc. The natural characteristics of dif- of men is but an aphorism." ferent persons show remarkable diversities in
I. Value of Education. this respect. Some seem to exert a kind of magnetic influence, which attracts and engages for his study than education and all that per
Man cannot propose a higher or holier object others, and by means of which they immediately tains to education.-PLATO. gain the good-will and affection of those with
Man becomes what he is principally by eduwhom they are brought into communication. cation, which pertains to the whole of life.-PLATO. Others, on the contrary, appear to repel, as it Man becomes what he is by nature, habit, instrucwere, all who approach them, and are obliged, tion; the last two together constitute education, and therefore, to make special effort to secure the con- must always accompany each other. -- ARISTOTLE. fidence and good-will of their associates. Frank- There is within every mind a divine ideal, the ness and candor tend to inspire confidence; while type after which he was created, the germs of a an exhibition of reserve and shyness produces perfect person ; and it is the office of education to aversion and distrust. Shy, secretive persons
favor and direct these germs.-KANT. strive to avoid others, and are instinctively avoided.
Man is the product of his education.
HELVETIUS. They naturally produce antipathy. Hatred is
A right-directed system of education is a moral engendered in the mind towards those who com- power in the mind, second only to that creating mit positive acts of injury, wrong, or crime; but energy that formed and sustains in existence its this is to be distinguished from antipathy, which material frame-work.-A. R. CRAIG.