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questions, are, whether the two sexes should be regarded at that time as necessary for this study. educated separately or conjointly, to what extent but Agricola advised his friend always to reprothe same course of instruction should be pre duce what he had learned in German Three scribed for both, whether special studies should be things were needed for pursuing any study: (1) To begun at this age, or whether the entire course understand what had been learned; (2) To retain should be obligatory for all the children of a what had been understood; (3) To derive adschool. (See CO-EDUCATION OF the Sexes.) vantage from what had been learned. The first

The age of youth extends from the beginning was obtained by application, the second was the of puberty to the complete development of sexu- gift of memory, the third could only be acality, or from the fourteenth to about the twenty- quired by practice. While the works left by first year of age. At this time the growth of Agricola would alone not suffice to assign to him the body is completed ; young men and women a prominent place among the educators of the become aware of their special duties of life and of middle ages, it appears from the writings of his the difference in the careers upon which they are contemporaries that his personal influence was respectively to enter. The time of study is draw- very great, and that, in fact, he was regarded as ing to its close; the entrance into active life is at second to none but his friend Reuchlin. His hand. Among the lower classes of society, this letters to Reuchlin, to Alexander Hegius, an extransition occurs at the beginning of this age ; cellent educator, who founded the famous school and the only increase of knowledge that is access- of Deventer, to Antonius Liber of Soest, a very ible to most persons of these classes must be de- zealous humanist, who, after fruitless efforts to rived from evening schools, public lectures, and establish a school at Emmerich, Kampen, and reading; while those of the wealthier classes, and Amsterdam, at length succeeded at Alkmaar, all who wish to fit themselves for any of the where he died in 1514, and to other contemlearned professions, now enter upon the special poraries, contain a large amount of information studies of those professions, or finish the general on the educational movements of his times. A studies of the preceding age. Toward the close of complete edition of the works of Agricola has this period, if not earlier, the preparations for enter- been published by Alardus, of Amsterdam (Co- ing public life are completed, or an actual entrance logne, 1539).-See SCHMIDT, Geschichte der into life begins.—See Schwarz, Erziehungslehre; dagogik, 11, 452; RAUMER, Geschichte der PädaSCHLEIERMACHER, Erziehungslehre, edited by gogik, trans. in BARNARD's German Educational Platz; BENEKE, Erziehungs- und Unterrichts Reformers: GEIGER, in Allgemeine Deutsche lehre; HERBART, Umriss pädagogischer Vor- Biographie, 1, 151 — 156; TRESLING, Vita et lesungen.

merita Rudolphi Agricola (Groningen, 1830); AGRICOLA, Rodolphus, an eminent edu- HALLAM's Literature of Europe. cator of the middle ages, was born in August 1443 AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. It is (or 1442) at Baflo, near Groningen, in Holland. only within the last fourteen years that any His original name was Huysmann, which, after general and systematic effort has been made in the custom of his time, he exchanged for a Latin the United States to furnish facilities for acquirname. After his native province, Friesland, he ing a thorough scientific and practical education is also sometimes called Frisius. He studied at in agriculture. In 1862, Congress gave to the the universities of Louvain, Paris, and Ferrara ; several states and territories land scrip to the and, after returning to his native country, distin- amount of 30,000 acres for each senator and guished himself greatly by introducing the study representative in Congress, provided that each of Greek into the countries north of the Alps. state or territory, claiming the benefit of this In 1483, he accepted an invitation from his act, should, within five years from its passage, friend, Bishop Dalberg of Worms, and deliv- “provide not less than one college, which should ered lectures alternately at Heidelberg and at receive for its endowment, support, and mainWorms. He died in Heidelberg, Oct. 28., 1485. tenance the interest of all moneys derived from His works, which are not very numerous, are the sale of the aforesaid scrip or lands." · It written in Latin. His principal work De inven- was further required that “the leading object" tione dialectica attacks the scholastic philosophy of these colleges “should be, without excluding of the age. In an educational point of view, his other scientific and classical studies, and includepistle to Barbirianus in Antwerp, the so-called ing military tactics, to teach such. branches of Epistola de formando studio, is of special im- learning as are related to agriculture and the portance. At the time of its publication, it was mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal regarded as a compendium of the pedagogical and practical education of the industrial classes, views of the German humanists. Its prime ob- in the several pursuits and professions of life." ject was to advise his friend as to the continua- The main supporter of this law was the Hon. tion of his studies. Agricola recommended philos- Justin S. Morrill, senator from Vermont. Of ophy, by which term he understood also ethics all laws enacted, either state or national, for and physics, and, in general, the entire range of the advancement of higher education, no one has natural science, as the study most deserving his ever been productive of such fruitful results. friend's attention ; he represents it as the only The originators and framers of this law, "builded road to true knowledge and perfect felicity, better than they knew.” The tabulated statewhile the other sciences could procure only a ment below, while it shows a vast amount acdoubtful happiness. The Latin language was complished in a short space of time, cannot, of


necessity, give more than a faint idea of what | increased population shall furnish a demand for has been done in advancing agricultural edu- the products of the soil at prices sufficiently recation in the single direction of a systematic munerative to induce many trained and educated and thorough collegiate training. Looking back men to embark in agriculture. over the last ten years, we notice that those It is difficult to give an exact statement of the engaged in agriculture have made marvelous present condition of agricultural colleges, since progress in general information, as well as in they are only a part of colleges or universities technical subjects having a direct bearing upon devoted also to teaching mechanic arts, and scientheir special calling. This has been largely tific and classical studies more or less germane to brought about by the munificent endowments of agriculture. We find that, in this department, and Congress. For as soon as the act had become a in that of mechanics, there are at present about 300 law, numerous energetic and far-seeing men professors and teachers. So far as reported, 361 brought the matter prominently before the students have graduated after a full course in several state legislatures, setting forth the great agriculture. According to the usual proportion benefits that would arise from an acceptance of of freshmen to graduates, this would indicate the donation. Some strenuously opposed its ac- that 1,444 had pursued the course for a longer or ceptance, as it would add heavy burdens, in order a shorter period. The number of graduates who to furnish buildings etc., to those already im- during their course have, to use the phraseology posed by the war; and others opposed it, believ- of the act of Congress endowing these instituing the whole scheme to be chimerical and im- tions, pursued studies “relating to agriculture practicable. Through these discussions, which and the mechanic arts," is 669 ; making the total have not yet wholly ceased, much valuable in- number who have entered these courses, for a formation has been disseminated; and the effect longer or a shorter period, 2,676. The number has been, to arouse thoroughly the agricultural of students, as far as reported, in all the departclasses to a sense of their rights and duties. ments of the institutions named, is 6,907, of These earnest and continued discussions have whom 715 are ladies, and 2,889 are receiving developed latent talents, and excited a desire for instruction in military tactics. The minimum cost information among the farmers, that is, as yet, of board-usually in clubs—is $1.25 per week; only partially gratified. They have made it pos- the maximum cost, $5,00; and the average, sible to publish and sustain numerous agricult- $3.00. The cost of room rent per term ranges ural journals with regular contributions from from $1.33 to $12.00. In all but two or three the pen of many of the ablest writers on the institutions, some provision is made for a greater practical and scientific subjects of the day. They or less number of free scholarships, and several have created such a demand for agricultural offer free tuition for all. As a general rule, no literature, that a large proportion of our relig pains have been spared by these colleges to furious and political journals devote more or less nish all the facilities for pursuing a college course space to the subject. These are but a few of the at the least possible expense. Manual labor is reincidental results of this wise and munificent act quired in 11 of the colleges ; in the others, it is of Congress; and they are none the less real or optional. The price paid for students' labor beneficial, although they cannot be tabulated or ranges from 5 to 18 cents per hour. State apset forth in long columns of figures. Such rapid propriations have been made of nearly one and strides have been made in some directions within a half million of dollars, which have been largely the last few years, that a chemist and a laboratory used for erecting buildings. The amount of prihave become a necessary adjunct to many of the vate donations it is impossible to arrive at acagricultural industries, notably to that of the curately, but they cannot fall short of $5,000,000. manufacture of cheese, butter, and commercial The late Ezra Cornell gave $700,000 to the unifertilizers. Up to 1865, the agricultural college versity that bears his name, and the total amount of Lansing, Mich., was the only one in the United of private donations to this single institution is States in which students could pursue a college | not less than $1,400,000, of which the colleges of course arranged and adapted to meet the wants agriculture and the mechanic arts have received of those who might desire, in after years, to en- their due proportion. The number and equipment gage in agriculture. Since that time, some thirty of laboratories, workshops, etc., in the colleges colleges have been organized-about one half of that serve, directly or indirectly, to illustrate and them from parts of universities—which are teach subjects relating to agriculture, are as follargely devoted “to teaching such branches of lows: mechanical laboratories or workshops, 10, learning as are related to agriculture and the all of which are furnished with tools for workmechanic arts." The donation of lands by Con- ing in iron and wood, and several with engines, yress did not furnish endowment sufficient fully planers, turning-lathes, drilling-machines, saws, to equip and man these numerous institutions; and other necessary but less expensive tools; but it afforded the means to lay the firm founda- physical laboratories, 16, most of which are tions upon which, aided by state and individual furnished with apparatus for illustrating the submunificence, have been reared many noble insti. jects of mechanics, electricity, magnetism, heat, tutions of learning, which are doing an important acoustics, and optics. All, with one or two exand much-needed work. We can hardly con- ceptions. have well equipped chemical labaratoceive of the grand and important position these ries; and several of them furnish facilities for ininstitutions are to occupy when the wants of an struction in chemistry not excelled in any other

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institutions in the United States. Nine anatom- | training students in the art and practice of the ical, 12 geological, and 15 botanical laboratories care, preservation, and planting of forests. As are already equipped for student practice. Eight a part of the equipment for illustration and of these colleges have greenhouses in operation; practice on these farms. are found some 500 head most of them have drafting-rooms, with the of neat-cattle, 236 of which are thorough-breds, necessary tables and models for illustrating the representing nine distinct breeds. The horses subjects taught. A large amount of practice in and mules number 129, only 3 of which are drawing is, moreover, required in several of the thorough-breds; the total number of sheep is branches related to agriculture. Free-hand 233, of which 58 are pure bloods of various drawing, as yet, has not been largely introduced. breeds; the swine exceed 500, including about Some ten colleges have large collections of mod- 400 pure-bred animals, representing nearly all of els of farm implements and machinery; engrav- the well-established breeds. This aggregation of ings, photographs, charts, and drawings; to- laboratories, workshops, museums, greenhouses, gether with numerous specimens of grains, orchards, gardens, farms, and domestic animals grasses, and other plants; geological and miner- is furnished and provided for the express puralogical specimens; collections of insects and pose of affording, not only the means for illusskeletons of domestic and other animals; all trating the subjects taught, but actual experience constituting what might be called an agricult- and skill in those processes which require that ural museum, though usually kept in separate the judgment, eye, and hand, as well as the inrooms for the sake of convenience. Ten of these tellect, should be trained. institutions offer one or more prizes for good The propriety and expediency of the Congresscholarship; six report, through their leading sional grant by means of which these instituofficer, that the effect of offering such prizes tions have been established, have been seriously appears to be "good;" six consider it bad;" called in question ; indeed, it has been held that two,“ doubtful ;" one, that it depends on cir- the function of government should be strictly cumstances ;" one, that it is “ a healthy stimu- confined to the promotion of elementary instruclant to be carefully used ;' and one, "non con- tion. In 1873, President Eliot, of Harvard stat.At least twelve appear to have kept care- College, took strong ground against the endowful accounts of farm receipts and expenditures ; ment, by the Government, of institutions for subut since we have no reports of the amount of perior or technical instruction, and was susincrease in the valuations of farm-stock, imple- tained in this view by President McCosh and inents, etc., it is impossible to say whether the others. At the session of the National Educafarms are worked at a profit or a loss. The tional Association, held at Elmira, N. Y., in Autotal gross receipts of twelve farms reported, for gust, 1873, this question was considerably dis1874, are $64,329.60, or an average of $5,360.80 cussed, and the principle underlying the endowpor farm. The total expenditures for experi- ment of the agricultural colleges was ably vindiments, during the same year, on eight of these cated in a paper by Prof. G. W. Atherton, of farms, are $8,143.26. This indicates that farm New Jersey, entitled The Relation of the Genexperiments are not, as yet, carried on to any eral Government to Education, in which he great extent; and the reason for this is, doubt- said, " These younger institutions have a larger less, a lack of means rather than of disposition. average of students, by more than one-tenth, Every professor of agriculture fully appreciates than the long-established colleges, and are fairly the benefit, not only to his class but to himself occupying with them the field of higher educaas well, of extended and systematically conducted tion. In an important sense, however, they are experiments. They are, indeed, effective but not the rivals of the older colleges. Their gradcostly auxiliaries to the class-room lectures. uates, to only a limited extent, enter the learned There is a constantly increasing tendency to professions. They become engineers, farmers, ward using the farm and its appliances, regard- mechanics, architects. They labor with hand less of profit or loss, in order to teach and illus- and brain. They become leaders and organizers trate the principles of agriculture, rather than- of labor, and thus precisely fulfill the intent of as has too often been the case-using it simply Congress when it designed these institutions to as a means of increasing the common fund. The furnish a liberal and practical education to the aggregate number of acres used for general and industrial classes.'” Prof. Atkinson, on the experimental farming by twenty of these col- same occasion, took similar ground. “ What." leges is 5,081; added to which there are 142 said he, " is the government domain but the acres of orchard, 92 acres of vegetable gar- property of the people, and to what higher use den, 29 acres of small-fruit garden, 1,360 acres can the people put it than to promote the higher of native timber, 438 acres of planted timber, as well as the lower education of all the people? and 580 acres used as college grounds. Though We have in this country no aristocracy of eduwe find that the planted timber is about six cation—not one education, as in the old country, acres to each hundred of arable land,—which is for the masses,' and another and higher one for certainly a very creditable showing—yet forestry the privileged minority. The republican prinis taught to but a limited extent, there being no ciple is, the best education for all the best and distinctive course yet marked out in that branch highest education for the masses.' That is the of study. We are far behind some of the Euro only principle on which republican institutions pean countries in our facilities and methods for can be founded." The words of Washington

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fully justify this principle: “In proportion as I ileges ; (20) farm accounts; (21) the manufactthe structure of a government gives force to ure, preservation, and application of farm mapublic opinion, it is essential that public opinion nures; (22) the rotation of crops ; (23) farm mashould be enlightened."

chinery and tools ; (24) rural law. The subjects Course of Study. The full course of four of instruction, as far as possible, are illustrated years in agriculture comprises the following sub- by diagrams, cuts, and models. The lectures jects: (In some cases, a few are omitted or a few are supplemented by field practice, varying from added; but those mentioned will serve to show | 5 to 15 hours per week, and sometimes even what studies are now generally considered appli- more. Visits are frequently made to adjoining cable and necessary in this course) -(1) algebra ; farms and herds. The lectures and practice (2) solid, plane, and analytical geometry, trigo- usually extend through at least one year. The nometry, and the calculus; (3) rhetoric and foregoing statement shows conclusively that there composition, declamation and English literature; has been an earnest, systematic, and successful (4) drawing, free-hand and linear; (5) surveying effort to promote the education of the rural clasand mapping ; (6) book-keeping, especially applied ses; and it may be truthfully said, that, within to farm accounts; (7) botany, general and agricult- the last ten years, no other department of educaural ; (8) horticulture, floriculture, and general, tion has made an equal degree of advancement. market, and landscape gardening ; (9) history, The first agricultural school in Europe was which may comprise one or more of the follow-founded, in 1804, by Fellenberg, at Hofwyl in ing: American, English, Roman, French, agricult- Switzerland. It flourished for more than 30 ural, and history of civilization ; (10) physiology, years under the excellent direction of Wehrli, hygiene, and comparative anatomy, (11) zo and educated nearly 3,000 pupils. The success of ölogy and entomology; (12) veterinary anatomy, Hofwyl led to the establishment of other schools physiology, medicine, and surgery ; (13) chem of the same character; and, at present, such istry, general and agricultural; (14) French and schools are found in every country of Europe. Gerinan, usually extending through not less They are very numerous in Germany and Austhan two or three terms (when both languages tria, and are divided into two classes,--a lower, are not required, German is usually preferred); called Ackerbauschule, intended chiefly to give (15) physics, geology, mineralogy, and meteo- practical instruction in agriculture, and a higher, rology ; (16) constitutional and municipal law called Landwirthschaftsschule, in which the and political economy ; (17) mechanics applied whole science of agriculture, with all its auxil. to agriculture ; (18) strength and preservation of | iary sciences, is taught. The most celebrated materials; (19) rural architecture. The subjects among the schools of a higher class are those at treated of under the head of applied or practical Hohenheim (established in 1818), Schleisheim agriculture-with slight changes—are as follows: (1822), Jena (1826), Eldena (1835), Wiesbaden (1) stock-breeding, including the laws of likeness (1836), Tharand (1829), Regenwalde (1842), or similarity, variation and atavism; the influence Poppelsdorf (1846), Proskau (1847), Ungarischon the subsequent progeny of the dam, by thy | Altenburg (1818).' Special chairs of agriculture first fruitful connection, in-and-in and miscel- have been established at the universities of Berlaneous breeding, the government of sex, the lin, Halle, Göttingen, Munich, Leipsic, Giessen, relative influence of sire and dam on the prog- and Jena; and instruction in agriculture is also eny, pedigrees and their value, the history, forma- given in the polytechnic schools. England has tion, and characteristics of breeds and families ; a Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, (2) the selection, breeding, feeding, and general founded in 1849; and in Scotland, the Unimanagement of domestic animals, each species versity of Edinburgh has a chair of agriculture, and race being treated of separately ; (3) annual and special lectures are given in a college at nutrition; (4) the education, shoeing, driving, Aberdeen. Ireland has two agricultural schools and care of the horse ; (5) drains,—their material of a higher grade,—one at Templemoyle, founded and construction, and the effect of drainage on in 1827; and the other at Glasnevin. founded health, soil, climate, and plants; (6) soils,--their in 1838. France has three higher agricultural classification, character, mechanical division, and schools and one school of forestry. In Italy, preparation for the cereals and grasses ; (0) the there are two agricultural schools of a higher preparation and selection of seed; (8) sowing, grade, at Milan and Portici. Russia, besides planting, cultivating, and harvesting ; (9) the a large number of schools of agriculture and nutrition of plants; (10) insect enemies and forestry of a lower grade, has an Agricultural fungi ; (11) the culture of roots and their value Institute at Gorygorezk, founded in 1836, an as food for man and beast ; (12) forage plants,- Institute of Agriculture and Forestry at New their culture, use, and value; (13) weeds, Alexandria, and an Academy of Agriculture their habit of growth, time of seeding, and mode and Forestry at Petrovskoi. See LOEBE, Die of eradication; (14) the effects of air, water, heat, landhoirthschaftlichen Lehranstalten Europa's and light, on the fertility of the soil and the (Stuttgart, 1849); SCHULZ, Die theoretisch-prakgrowth of plants; (15) the care, cultivation, and tische Ackerbauschule (Jena, 1869). use of natural and artificial forests; (16) fields, In the following tabular exhibit, will be found - their number, shape, and size ; (17) fences, a full statement of the location, condition, re- their material, construction, and durability; sources, etc., of all the agricultural colleges and (18) farm yards and buildings; (19) water priv- departments in the United States.

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115 56)

LL. D...

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Arkansas. Fayetteville...

(Ark. Indus. University,
Jan. 1871.....

X. P. Gates, A. M., 42... 10 0
Agr. & Mechan. Coll. of


I. F. Tichenor,
Alabama, March 1872.

5 0

D. D., 49.

(Univ. of California, Fall
California...... Oakland...
of 1869.

Yale Coll. - Sheffield
Connecticut.... New Haven..

Rev. Noah Porter, D.D.,
Scientific School, 1846..


Delaware Newark

Delaware College...

Wm. H. Purnell, A. M. 10

Florida State Agr. Coll. (Not yet organized.)

Univ. of I Coll. of Agr.
(Dahlonega Georgia. 1 & Mech. Arts

Rev. A. Lipscomb, D.D.' 11
Illinois Champaign..

III. Indus. University, John M. Gregory, LL.D.,
March 1868...

29 22

La Fayette..

Perdue t'niv.. Septem-

A. M. Shortridge, A.
ber 16th, 1874..

M., 42.

1! 0

lowa State Agr. Coll. '68 A. S. Welch, LL.D., 53.. 13 40
Kansas State Agr. Coll.
Rev. Joseph Denison,



| Agr. & Mecban. Coll. of J. B. Bowman, LL. D.,
Kentucky Lexington
Kentucky, 1866.......

13 0


Not yet organized.)
Maine... Orono

Maine State Coll. of Agr.
1 & Merh. Arts, 1869.

Rev. C. F. Allen, D.D., 59 8 4
Maryland Near Hyattsville. Maryland Agr. Coll., '68 W. H. Parker, 49

I Mass. Inst. of Technol John D. Runkle, Ph.D.,


| Mass. Agr. College, Oc-
1 tober 24, 1857..

s W. S. Clark, LL. D., 50... 10 77

Mich. State Agr. Coll.,
Michigan Lansing...

February 1855..

T. C. Abbot, LL.D..... 13 | 123
Minnesota...... Minneapolis Univ. of Minn., 1868.... W.W. Folwell, M. A., 43. 10
Mississippi..... Oxford.

Univ. of Mississippi..

Rev.J. N. Waddel, D.D., 13


Univ. of Mo., 1840..
Missouri ....... Columbia..

Agr. College, organized D. Read, LL, D., 68 ..... 25 40

Nebraska Lincoln

Agr. Coll. of Nebraska,
June 1872
S. R. Thompson Dean, 42

3 1
Prep. Department

D. R. Sessions, Prin

cipal, 35......
Dartmouth Coll.-N. H.

Rev. Asa D. Smith, D.D.,
New Hampshire Hanover

Coll. of Agr. & Mech.

LL. D...
New Jersey..... New Brunswick.. Rutgers College, 1770...

Rev. W. H. Campbell,

New York.. Ithaca

Cornell University, 1868 A. D. White, LL.D., 43.. 23 5
North Carolina. Chapel Hill.

Univ. of North Carolina (Not yet organized.)
Ohio ........ Columbus..

Ohio Agr. & Mech. Col-
lege, 1873.

Edward Orton, A. M... 10

Corvallis College, Au-
Oregon ....... Corvallis.

B. L. Arnold, A. M., 38.. 5
gust, 1868..

· Pennsylvania State Col.
Pennsylvania .. State College..

lege, February 1859..

Jas. Calder, D. D., 50... 11
Rhode Island... Providence.. Brown University.,

Rev. E. G. Robinson, D.
Claflin University State

D., LL.D.....
South Carolina. Orangeburg

Rev. E.Cooke, A.M., M.D.

Agr. Coll. & Mech. Ins.
Tennessee...... Knoxville

Tenn. Agr. Coll., 1869...
(Rev. T. W. Humes, S, T,


D., 60.
Texas ........

( Agr. & Mech. Coll. of

Not yet organized.

Univ. of Vermont and
Vermont. Burlington

M. D. Buckham, A.M., 43
State Agr. Coll., 1865.

Hampton Normal & Agr. 1

S. C. Armstrong, 36. ... 18 0
Virginia Agr. & Mech. C. L. C. Minor, M. A.,

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222 P

College, 1872

LL.D., 39.
West Virginia . . Morgantown .... West Virginia Univ.....
Wisconsin...... Madison..

Univ. of Wisconsin, 1868

Rev. J. H. Twombly, D.

16 0

D., 48 * No distinct degree for these departments. Graduated as Ph. B. ** No Report.

345 P

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