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13. But what is chiefly to be obferved in the whole continuance of the Roman Government; they were fo liberal of Naturalization, that in effect they made perpetual Mixtures. For the manner was to naturalize, not only particular perfons, but Families, Lineages, and even whole Cities and Countries. Whence at length Rome became a Patria Communis, or common Country, as fome Civilians call it.

14. So we read of St. Paul, after he had been beaten with rods, and thereupon charged the officer with the violation of the privilege of a citizen of Rome; the captain said to him, Art thou then a Roman? That privilege has coft me dear. To whom St. Paul replied, but I was fo born; and yet, in another place, St. Paul profeffes that he was a Jew by tribe: Whence 'tis manifeft that fome of his ancestors were naturalized; and fo the Right was convey'd to him and their other defcendants. Thus it was one of the firft defpites done to Julius Cæfar, that whereas he had obtain❜d Naturalization for a City in Gaul, a Perfon of that City was beaten with rods by the conful Marcellus. So we find in Tacitus, that in the Emperor Claudius's time, the wilder part of the Nation of Gaul, call'd Comata, fued to be made capable of becoming Senators and Officers of Rome: And after long Debate, it was carried that they should be admitted. So likewife Machiavel, enquiring the causes of the growth of the Roman Empire, gives judgment, that there was none greater; for this reason, that the State fo easily compounded and incorporated with firangers.

has pro

15. 'Tis true, moft States and Kingdoms have taken the contrary method; A contrary whence the enlargement of Empire and Territory became matter of burthen course in to them, rather than ftrengthm: And even kept alive the feeds and roots of other States revolts and rebellions for many ages; as we fee by a fresh and remarkable duced conExample in the kingdom of Aragon: Which, tho united to Caftile by mar- trary effects. riage, not by conqueft, and fo defcended in hereditary union for more than a hundred years; yet because it was continued in a divided Government, and not well incorporated and cemented with the other Crowns, now lately enter'd into a rebellion, on account of their liberties.

culars re

Union in

16. The feveral parts of the FORM whereby States and Kingdoms become Four Partiperfectly united, are, besides the fovereignty itself, four; viz. (1.) Union in Name; (2.) Union in Language; (3.) Union in Laws; and (4.) Union in Employments. perfect Union quired to the (1.) For Name; tho it feem but a fuperficial and outward matter; yet it of States, viz. carries great impreffion, and enchantment: The general and common name of (1.) Græcia made the Greeks always ready to unite (tho otherwife full of Divifi- Name. ons amongst themselves) against other Nations, which they call'd barbarous. The Helvetian Name is no fmall Cement to their Leagues and Confederacies. The common name of Spain, no doubt, has been a special means of the better union and conglutination of the feveral kingdoms of Caftile, Aragon, Granada, Navarre, Valencia, Catalonia, and the reft; comprehending Portugal, of late.

(2.)

17. (2.) For Language, 'tis needlefs to infift upon it; because both your Majefty's kingdoms are of one Language, tho of feveral Dialects; and the Language difference is fo fmall between them, as promifes rather an Enrichment of one Language, than a Continuation of two.

See the Fable of Perfeus explain'd in the De Augmentis Scientiarum, Sect. II. See also
Sect. XXV. of that Work, and the Sapientia Veterum, SUPPLEMENT VII. Sect. III.
VOL. II.
C

(3.) For

(3.)

which come

(3.) For Laws, in general; which are the principal finews of Government ; Laws, under they may be of three kinds; viz. (1.) Jura, which I term Freedoms or PriPrivileges. vileges; (2.) Leges, or Judicial Laws; and (3.) Manners. For Freedoms and Privileges; they were among the Romans of four kinds or degrees; viz. (1.) Jus Connubii; (2.) Jus Civitatis; (3) Jus Suffragii; and (4.) Jus Petitionis, or Honorum. 1. Jus Connubii is a thing at prefent out of use: For Marriage is open betwixt all Diversities of Nations. 2. Jus Civitatis answers to what we call Denization, or Naturalization. 3. Jus Suffragii anfwers to our Voice in Parliament; and 4. Jus Petitionis answers to our place in Council, or Office. The Romans afterwards feparated thefe Freedoms; granting Jus Connubii, fine civitate; Civitatem fine Suffragio; and Suffragium fine Jure Petitionis; which was commonly with them the laft

Judicial
Laws.

'And Man

ners.

(4.) Employ

ments.

ment drawn

Time.

18. For those we call Judicial Laws: 'Tis a matter of curiofity and inconvenience to endeavour the extirpation of all particular Customs; or to draw all Subjects to one place of Judicature and Seffion. 'Tis fufficient that there be an Uniformity in the principal and fundamental Laws, both Ecclefiaftical and Civil. 19. For Manners; a confent in them is to be industriously fought, but not enforced: As nothing breeds fo much pertinacity in a People to hold their Cuftoms, as fudden and violent Attempts to change them.

20. And for Employments; it requires no more, than to carry an indifferent hand, and fhew no favour to one Nation more than another".

So in Li

Two capital 21. There remains only to remember, from the Grounds of Nature, the two Rules of Union conditions of perfect Mixture; the firft whereof is Time. The natural Philoin Govern fophers fay well, that Compofition is the work of Man; but Mixture the work of Nature. For 'tis the office of man to make a fit application of bodies together: from Nature; viz. To allow But the perfect fermentation and incorporation of them must be left to Time and Nature; and all unnatural haftening does but difturb the Work, not promote it. So after the Graft is put into the Stock and bound up; it must be left to Time and Nature to make that continuous, which at firft was but contiguous. And 'tis not any conftant preffing or thrusting of the Parts together, that will haften Nature's Seafon; but rather hinder it. quors, thofe Commixtures which are at the first troubled, grow afterwards clear and fettled, by the benefit of Reft and Time. 22. The Second Condition is, that the greater draw the lefs. So when two Lights meet, the greater darkens and dims the leffer. And when a smaller River runs into a larger, it lofes both its Name and Stream. And hereof we fee an excellent Example in the Kingdoms of Judah and Ifrael. The Kingdom of Judah contained two Tribes; the Kingdom of Ifrael ten. King David reigned over Judah for certain Years; and after the Death of Ifbbofheth, the Son of Saul likewife obtain'd the Kingdom of Ifrael. This Union continued in him, and in his Son Solomon, feventy years, at leaft, between them both: But because the feat of the Kingdom was kept ftill in Judah, and fo the lefs fought the greater; upon the firft occafion offer'd, the Kingdom broke again, and fo continued ever after. SUP

And Suffer

the greater to attract the

Lefs.

n Might not the feveral Cafes abovemention'd be exemplified, and illuftrated, by apt Phy fical Obfervations?

This Piece is only propofed as a Specimen, not a finish'd Work; and may in fome meafure be fupplied from the Doctrine of Government, deliver'd in the De Augmentis Scientiarum, Sect. XXV. the Sapientia Veterum, SUPPLEMENT VII. Sect. III. the Piece of War, SUPPLEMENT XII. and the Prudent Statesman, SUPPLEMENT XIII.

SUPPLEMENT IX.

A

SPECIMEN

OF

ANIMATED ASTRONOMY;

OR,

An ESSAY towards a PHILOSOPHICAL HISTORY of the HEAVENS.

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PREFACE.

T

HIS is an imperfect Piece, and, doubtless, never intended by the Author to be publish'd; till it had, in his ufual manner, undergone a ftrict Correction.

The Original makes part of the Scripta, or the Author's Latin Pofthumous Pieces publish'd by Gruter; and is inconfiderately tack'd to certain imperfect Chapters of the De Augmentis Scientiarum, under the Title of Defcriptio Globi Intellectualis. The Defign, however, appears by the Introduction, to have been compleatly form'd in the Mind of the Author; tho not executed in all its Parts; nor perfectly indeed in any one: For the first Part, which is the only one we have of it, wants the Ufes promifed in the Introduction. Had it been finish'd, it might have nobly supplied the Animated Aftronomy fet down for deficient in the De Augmentis ; and, as it now ftands, it exhibits the whole Plan, executes fome confiderable Proportion, and inftructs ́ a lefs able Architect to carry on the Work.

The Author proceeds in the cautious way of Enquiry, by Queftions, and Arguments on both fides; without undertaking to determine any thing in a Subject that lies fo remote from direct Experiment. This Method has, perhaps, been too much neglected by Writers in Aftronomy; for Questions are in the power of the Querift, and may gradually lead to great and folid Difcoveries; whilst a dogmatical Procedure, pretending to over-rule things, is often fruftrated, or falfify'd by farther Enquiry.

See the De Augmentis Scientiarum, Sect. IV. 4, &c.

A SPE

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