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Mr. Locke's
Efay upon

Human Under-
Landing.

Heads of Enquiry; which being afterwards added to the former, may require the whole to be new-moulded; and afford a much more copious and ufeful Set of Titles, than the firft: all which Titles are to be filled up, as Experiments or Obfervations are made, or the proper Informations obtained. But after all, as many Particulars may happen to be omitted, or not be thought of at the proper Time, or when they are wanted; and as the Hiftory muft needs be improvable by After-thought, and farther Knowledge; the Author leaves a Place empty, by way of Appendix to his Titles, for receiving the Particulars omitted, that belong to fome of the Titles; but were forgot or overlooked: and another for Particulars to be added; under which fuch new Matter was to be received, as might be procured by farther Discoveries and Improvements made, after the Hiftory fhould be written, or published m.

29. Mr. Locke appears to have defigned a kind of familiar Explanation, and Illuftration of many Aphorifms of the first Part of the Novum Organum; in his excellent Effay upon Human Understanding; and again, in his pofthumous Piece concerning the Conduct of the Understanding: but he seems no where to have explained the fecond Part of the Novum Organum ; or the Art of Investigating Forms. His Philofophical Writings are now generally known and read; but as they tend to the curing of Prejudice, preparing the Mind, and fitting it for the Difcovery of Truth, rather than to open any fresh Fountains of Science, or teach the Art of Discovery, they need not here be infifted on; efpecially as they have but little immediate regard to Natural Philofophy; from whence all the Sciences fhou'd be derived and fupplied. And the fame Character may be understood proportionably of Father Malbranche's Recherche de la Verité. 30. Dr. Hooke, who was a great Mafter in the Art of Invention; as Method of im- appears by his numerous Contrivances and Difcoveries; pursued much proving Natu- the fame Method as Mr. Boyle. In his Piece for Improving Natural Phiral Philofophy. lofophy, he feems to have propofed to perfect the Defign of the Lord Bacon's Novum Organum. And it is great Pity that a Perfon fo well fuited to the Work, did not proceed farther in it. All he has done towards it, is little more than a familiar Repetition of what the Lord Bacon had before laid down under the Doctrine of Idols; Helps for the Senses; the Doctrine of Prerogative Instances; and the Method of collecting a History of Nature: tho' the Doctor has fometimes added apt Illuftrations, large Explanations, and particular Improvements.

Dr. Hooke's

Left unfinished.

31. Had Dr. Hooke finifhed the Piece, according to the Scheme he at first propofed, it would doubtlefs have familiarized the Parts of the Novum Organum, which are already extant; and, perhaps, have fupplied the reft but as it now ftands, it is defective in thofe very Parts which are wanting in the Novum Organum. It was indeed a pofthumous Piece; and, perhaps, purpofely neglected by the Doctor towards the Clofe of his Life,

m See Mr. Boyle's Works, Abridgm. Vol. I. Prelim. Difc. p. 24.

Life; for fear of divulging his Mechanical, or Philofophical, Algebra, which he feems to have learnt from the Novum Organum, and defired to conceal u.

32. Sir Ifaac Newton appears to have had a very extraordinary Me- Sir Ifaac thod of making Difcoveries: but as that great Philofopher did not think Newton's Method conjeproper to reveal it; Philofophers of an inferior Rank can only guess at atured. it, and admire what they do not fully understand. Where the Business of Investigation depended upon Experiments; as particularly in his excellent Enquiries about Light; he feems firft to have imagined, in his Mind, how Things were; and afterwards contrived his Experiments, on purpose to fhew, whether thofe Things were as he had preconceived them, or not: and according to the Information thus obtained; whether from his own. Experiments and Obfervations, or thofe of others; he altered and improved his Notions, till after various Trials, and various Amendments, his Notions appeared to be juft and perfect. And this is a fhort, or mechanical Method of Induction.

33. But befides this kind of mechanical Method, Sir Ifaac Newton had His Algebra a mathematical one, afforded him by his Dexterity in Algebra, and his and Fluxions. admirable Invention of Fluxions; which are not to be understood and applied in Philofophy, without great Sagacity and Caution: for otherwife they will be apt to mislead. And here this great Author has shewn uncommon Addrefs; and found the Secret of calculating mathematical, or mental Forces, Powers, and Motions, and afterwards applying them to natural Bodies, and natural Things. But the Attempt is fuitable only to a distinguishing and fublime Genius, that can let Mathematics conftantly rule and prefide over Phyfics, without corrupting Philosophy, or rendering it fantaftical.

34. At other Times this great Philofopher obferved the ftricter Laws His Method of of Induction; collected the neceffary Facts, Obfervations, and Expe- Induction. riments; and by contemplating them in his Mind, or reafoning upon them, gave the Refult, with its Confequences; as in the Theory of the Tides, Moon, Comets, &c. So that he feems to have used all forts of Methods, by Turns; or to have formed one to himfelf, compounded of the mechanical, mathematical, and the ufual inductive Method. So that if this mixed Method alfo were to be profecuted, and brought to the greatest Perfection whereof it is capable, it may fall under that still more general one of the Novum Organum.

35. This Novum Organum, we have seen, is divided by its Author into The general two general Parts; viz. one that is defigned to be preparatory or intro- Scheme of the ductory to the other, which is fcientifical or doctrinal; fo as clearly to deliver a new Way of Proceeding upon all kinds of Enquiries; with vided into

See the Account of his Life, prefixed to his Pofthumous Works, p. 4. See alfo his Method of improving Natural Philofophy, p. 65. and compare the whole of that Piece, the Preface to his Micrographia, and his own particular Enquiries, with the Doctrine of the Novum Organum.

Novum Or

ganum, di

two Parts.

VOL. II.

Dddd

the

The firft Part

divided into feven Sections.

Яion.

the greatest Advantage to the Mind, for acquiring a thorough Knowledge of the Works of Nature; and leading to an unlimited Practice for accommodating human Life.

36. The Defign of the preparatory Part, is to remove Prejudice, procure a fair Hearing, and give fome tolerable Notion of the whole Inftauration. It may be fubdivided into feven leffer Parts, or Sections; the firft whereof endeavours (1.) to awaken the Mind, as it were from its Lethargy; and make it fee that Philofophy and the Sciences are fo far from being perfected; that (2.) Men are hitherto unprovided of the true Inftruments and Means of forming the Sciences; (3.) that, as The Result of Knowledge and Power conftantly go hand in hand, Men have but little the first Se Knowledge, because they produce but few confiderable Effects; (4.) that the common Ways of Reafoning and Contemplating, tho' fo much magnified, are but delufory Things, and require much Rectification and Amendment; (5.) that the common Logic and Syllogifm, however useful in common Affairs, are of no Service in Philofophy; (6.) that our first Notions of Things are faulty, and require to be corrected, improved, and verified; (7.) that the fure Way of difcovering Truth has not hitherto been tried; (8.) that Men form vain Idols to themfelves, instead of difcovering the Truths of Nature; (9.) that a more powerful Logic than the common, or a kind of Engine for the Mind, is abfolutely required for the Service of Philofophy; (10.) Men prepofteroufly delight in a hafty and erroneous Way of difputing, judging, and confuting, according to the fcanty Measure of their own Knowledge, and the fuppofed Truth of their own ill-form'd Notions.

The Refult of the fecond Se

tion.

Falfe Imagi

nations belonging to

ral.

37. The Second Section fhews the feveral Errors we commit in forming our Notions of Things; and how detrimental fuch Errors are to the Progrefs of Philofophy. It fhews that the Mind is tinged and infected four feveral Ways: for (1.) Men in general have a ftrange Propensity, and obftinate Property, of referring all Things to themselves; as if nothing existed otherwife than is reprefented by their immediate Senses; Men in gene- or as if there was nothing in Nature, but what their Senfes immediately perceive whereas the other Parts of the Univerfe, as the Air, Ether, &c. and other Creatures, are to be regarded in Philofophy, as well as Man. And here Man is fhewn (1.) inclined to feign and invent from within himself, instead of searching and difcovering; (2.) to be extremely liable to Prepoffeffion and Prejudice, fo as with Difficulty to remove thofe falfe and fuperftitious Notions he has once imbibed; as of Aftrology, Omens, Judgments, &c. (3.) to be eafily moved and led away by thofe Things that affect the Imagination, more than the Reafon; (4) to be fond of launching into Infinity, and the highest Univerfals; difdaining the intermediate Truths, which in Practice are more ferviceable; (5.) to be drenched in the Affections of his Body, and thence easily turned afide to Pride, Vanity, falfe Hopes, &c. (6.) 'tis fhewn that the human Senfes, without farther Affiftance, are of little Use

in Philofophy, tho' Men attribute fuch great Matters to them; and (7.) that Men are fond of abstract Notions, and general Theories; at the fame time neglecting the due Enquiry into Nature, and Particulars; which alone can fhew them what Things are. And thefe Imperfections belong to the Species of Men, or Mankind in general.

38. (2.) The Mind is alfo infected differently, according to the Con- Others to each ftitution, Complexion, Bent, or Inclination of each particular Perfon; Man in partior according to his Education, Cuftom, Converfation, Studies, Courfe of cular. Reading, Employ, .and other accidental Matters; whence every Man has his own peculiar Biafs; or, as it were his own particular Glafs, tinged to his Humour, thro' which he views every thing. And hence fome Men doat on Mathematics; others on Chemistry; others on Logic, &c. and accordingly tinge and infect whatever they apply to, with Mathematics, Chemistry, Logic, &c. whereas the true Philofopher should not be warped to any particular Branch of Science; but remain equally affected to them all; as they may all afford their Affiftance in promoting Philofophy. But in the prefent State of Men and Things, fome fubtile Capacities purfue the minute Differences of their Subject, and make no End of splitting and dividing; as in Anatomy, &c. till the mechanical Structure, or Organization, of the Parts, is loft: and others, on the contrary, confider only the Wholes, without examining the Parts. Some fondly admire the Ancients, as Ariftotle, Plato, &c. and others fome favourite modern Philofopher. But unlefs the Mind be thoroughly convinced of the Folly and Abfurdity of fuch a Procedure; and be brought, by Art and Habit, to a quite contrary Temper; true Philofophy cannot be effectually promoted for the Sciences formed by diftemper'd Minds will partake of the Diftempers; and accordingly appear trifling, grofs, partial, half-faced, distorted, fantastical, &c.

Words.

39. (3.) The third Way wherein the Mind becomes perverted, is by Falfe Notions the Abufe, or improper Ufe of Words; for the philofophical Words, arising from in all Languages, are commonly falfe, or inadequate, Marks, or Signs, of Things; and by no means convey just and perfect Notions. So that Men are continually impofed upon, even againft their Wills, by a wrong Impofition of Words; which are generally coined by the Vulgar; or if by Philofophers, it is without taking the requifite Pains and Care to form Notions duly, from Things; and then give fuitable Names to thofe Notions. And hence the Reasonings, the Discourses, and even the Writings of Men, are often ftrangely confufed, or but feldom perfectly intelligible; and propagate imperfect Notions, which Men take by Confent, without enquiring whether they are juft, or how they were formed. But, in order to improve Philofophy, it is of great Importance to have Words fuitably adapted, and kept invariably to denote perfect Notions; fo as to express or convey fuch Notions without Delufion, or Impofition. But no Language of this kind can be made, till a Set of fuch Notions fhall be duly formed, from Things; which depends Dddd 2

upon

&ion.

upon the Ufe of Induction. And as this Language, and thefe Notions, are hitherto, in great measure, wanting; the Mind thus remains unprovided of one very great Help for the Improvement of Philofophy.

The Refult of 40. (4.) The Mind is, again, ftrangely perverted, by fabulous Theothe third Series, and romantic Philofophies; which are extremely numerous, and ftill continue to increase. The Third Section divides them into three general Kinds; viz. Sophiftical, Empirical, and Superftitious. Sophiftical PhiSophiftical lofophies are those formed upon common, or hafty Obfervations, and ExPhilofophies, periments; by a fubfequent Operation of the Mind. Thus Aristotle's what. Philofophy was formed upon common Obfervations, wrought up by his Falfe Notions Logic; fo as to become sophistical, and corrupted: for common Obarifing from fervations, and obvious Experiments, are not of themselves, fit to build fantastic Thea ferviceable Philofophy upon; as they by no means fhew all the secret Motions of Nature; and the Laws by which Things are govern'd. Nor is the common Logic an Engine at all fuited to deal with Experiments, Obfervations, and Nature.

ories.

what.

Empirical 41. Empirical Philofophies are thofe formed upon only a few ExperiPhilofophies, ments, tho' made with great Exactnefs; as Dr. Gilbert's Philofophy is formed upon his magnetical Experiments; and the Philofophy of the Chemifts upon a few repeated Experiments of the Furnace, &c. But to form a general Philofophy upon a few Experiments, muft needs appear a childish Attempt, to those who confider the Variety and Extent of Nature; and the treacherous, faulty, or rafh Propenfity of the Mind, in reafoning from them.

Superftitious

what.

42. Superftitious Philofophies are thofe where Matters of Faith and RePhilofophies, ligion are worked up with thofe of Reason and Sense; which makes fantastical Philofophies, and heretical Religions. Thus the Philofophy of Pythagoras was clogged with grofs Superftition; and that of Plato with one more dangerous: and thus, of later Date, a Variety of Theories have been given of the Earth, from the first Book of Genefis ; which has had the Fate to be differently explained, and worked up into oppofite Systems, according to the different Fancies of Men; or the prevailing Philofophies of the Times. And thus it appears, that fearce any one has had Thoughts of deriving a pure and perfect Philofophy from Nature, that should be a true Model of the World, without any more Mixture of Logic, Mathematics, Chemistry, Magnetics, &c. than may be found in Nature.

The Mind a

Notions.

43. In the next Place are fhewn fome particular Ways which the bufes itself, by Mind has of abufing itfelf, by forming wrong Notions of the Things forming falfe that are feen and confider'd. Thus upon feeing the Changes wrought in Bodies by the mechanic Arts, in the way of Combination and Refolution, Men are apt to imagine that Nature makes ufe of the fame Expedients in compounding and feparating Bodies; whence feem to have fprung the delufory and imperfect Notions of the four common Elements; as if all Bodies were compounded of, and refolved into thefe: hence thofe called

the

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