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IS no wonder, excellent King, that when Heraclitus the obfcure, Political had publish'd a certain Book, not now extant, many took it Rules drawn for a Difcourfe of Nature, and others for a Treatife of Politicks: from Phyfi

cal Obferva

For there is a great affinity between the Rules of Nature, and tions, among

the true Rules of Policy; the one being no more than an Order in the Government the Perfians. of the World, and the other an Order in the Government of a State. Whence the Kings of Perfia were educated, and inftructed in a Science that went. by a name of great reverence, tho now degenerated, and taken in an ill fense: For the Perfian Magick, which was the fecret Literature of their Kings, was an application of the contemplations and obfervations of Nature, to a political fenfe; thus making the fundamental Laws of Nature, an Original, firft Model, or Pattern, for Government &

2. In purfuance of this method, the Perfian Inftructors fet before their Illuftrated by Kings, the Examples of the celestial Bodies; the Sun, the Moon, &c. which Examples have great glory and veneration, but no reft; being in a perpetual office drawn from the Celeftial of motion, for cherishing the inferior bodies in their refpective turns and Bodies, courfe: Thus likewife expreffing the true nature of the motions of Government; which, tho they ought to be swift and rapid, in refpect of difpatch and occafions, yet are to be conftant and regular, without wavering or confufion.


3. Their Inftructors alfo reprefented to them, that the Heavens are not The railing enrich'd by the Earth and the Seas; nor keep a dead flock, or untouch'd of Vapour and treasure of what they attract from below: But whatever moisture they returning levy, and take from both thofe Elements in Vapour, they fpend, and return in Showers; only holding and storing them up for a time, in order to iffue and diftribute them in feafon.


4. But chiefly they exprefs'd, and explain'd to them the fundamental The general Law of Nature, whereby all things fubfift, and are preferved; viz. that all things in Nature, tho' they have their own private and particular affections and taking place


See the De Augmentis Scientiarum, Se&. III. 3. The Author makes a happy ufe of this method in his own Political Writings; and conftantly draws and illuftrates his Politicks from Philofophy, and examples of Nature. And furely fomewhat confiderable might be effected, by thus making the Government of the Univerfe, a Model for the Government of States. See the Sapientia Veterum, Se&t. III. The Author fhews great Addrefs in his feveral Applications to King James the First: A Prince whofe Temper and Difpofition he thoroughly understood. See SUPPLEMENT V. ad finem.

of particular.

Sudden Changes usually attended with


appetites, which they follow in smaller matters, when free from more general and common Refpects; yet, when there is caufe for fuftaining the more GENERAL, forfake their own particulars, and confpire to uphold the Publick. Thus we fee Iron in a fmall quantity will afcend, and approach the Loadstone, by a particular fympathy: But if the Iron be in any large quantity, it drops its appetite of amity to the Loadftone, and, like a true Patriot, cleaves to the Earth; which is the Region of maffy bodies. So Water, and other matters, fall towards the centre of the Earth, which is their Region or Country; and yet nothing is more ufual in Water-works and Engines, than for the Water, rather than fuffer any difunion in Nature, to afcend; and forfaking the love of its own Region or Country, apply itfelf to the Body next adjoining.

An attempt to revive the Perfian Ma-J

5. There are numerous Examples of this kind. Your Majefty fingled out one in your gracious Speech of Thanks to your Council, when princely acknowledging their vigilancy and merits, you were pleas'd to note, that it was a Succefs and Event above the course of Nature, to have so great a change brought about with fo great quiet: becaufe fudden mutations as well in a State as in Nature, rarely happen without violence and perturbation : Whence again I conclude there is a congruity between the Principles of Nature and Policy. And, left your own Inftance fhou'd feem to contradict the affertion, I offer your Majefty a type, or example in Nature, much refembling this event in your State; viz. Earthquakes, which often produce great terror and furprize, but no real mifchief; the Earth trembling for a moment, and suddenly establishing itself in a perfect quiet again.

6.This Knowledge therefore of making the Government of the World a Mirror for the Government of a State, being almoft loft, by reafon, perhaps, of the gick, in the difficulty for one man to compass both Philofophies &; I have thought proInftance of per to make fome little Effay to revive it, in treating of one particular, uniting wherewith I humbly prefent your Majefty: For as 'tis a Form of Difcourfe Kingdoms. anciently used to Kings; what King could it more properly be laid before, than a King ftudious of joining contemplative and active Virtue together? 7. Your Majefty is the firft King, who had the honour of being the Corner-Stone to unite thefe two mighty and warlike Nations of England and Scotland, under one fovereignty and monarchy. It does not appear by the Records or Memoirs of any true Hiftory; and fcarce by any fabulous Narration, or Tradition, that ever this Inland of Great Britain was from any antiquity united under one King before this day. And yet there are no Mountains nor Ridges of Hills; no Seas or great Rivers; no diverfity of Tongue or Language, that has invited, or provoked, this ancient feparation or divorce. The Lot of Spain was to have the feveral kingdoms of that Continent, except Portugal, united in a late age; and now in our age that of Portugal alfo: Which was the laft that held out from being incorporated with the

And parti cularly applied to the Union of England and Scotland.


This is spoke with regard to the King's first coming in. See SUPPLEMENTII. For it is very rare that Politicians are good Natural Philofophers; tho doubtless many excellent Rules and Examples of Government are easily derivable from Phyfical Obfer


h Viz, the Confideration of the Union betwixt England and Scotland; fo that the following Doctrine chiefly regards this particular Union; without taking notice of the other Points of Government; fuch as Conqueft, Laws, Liberties, Civil Rites, Taxes, Trade, Religion, &c. which might perhaps be advantageously treated in the fame manner; by copy.. ing Nature, or the Wifdom difplay'd in the Government of the World and its Parts.

reft. It has likewife been the Lot of France, much about the fame time, to have re-annex'd to that Crown the feveral Dutchies and Portions which were in former times diffever'd. The Lot of this Ifland is the last, referved for your Majefty's times, by the special providence and favour of GOD, who has brought you to this happy conjunction with great confent of hearts, in the ftrength of your years, and the maturity of your experience. It remains, therefore, that I fet before your Majesty the Grounds of Nature, in the union and commixture of Bodies; and the correspondence they have with the Grounds of Policy, in the conjunction of States and Kingdoms.

8. First then, the Pofition that Force is corroborated by Union; being one That Force of the common notions of the mind, needs no great induction or illuftra- is ftrengthened by tion. (1.) We find the Sun in Leo caufes more vehement heats than when union. in Cancer; tho his Rays are more perpendicular in the latter Sign: The Exemplified reafon whereof, in great measure, has been truly afcribed to the conjunction by the Sun and cor-radiation of the Sun with four Stars of the first magnitude; viz. in Leo. Sirius, Canicula, Cor Leonis, and Cauda Leonis. (2.) So the Moon, likewise, The Moon. whilft in Leo; is by ancient tradition faid to be at the heart; not for any affinity which that Place of the Heavens can have with that part of the human Body; but because the Moon is then, thro' her conjunction and near approach to the aforefaid fix'd Stars, in greatest strength and influ- The durabi ence; and thence operates upon that part in inferior bodies, which is prin- lity of Licipal, and most vital. (3.) Thus again, Waters and Liquors, in fmall quors in large quan- quantity. tity, eafily putrefy and corrupt; but in larger quantities fubfift long; And the litfrom the strength they receive by union. (4.) So in Earthquakes, the more tle prejudice general ones do little hurt, by reafon of the united weight they offer to from general fubvert; but limited and particular Earthquakes have often overturned Earthquakes.

whole Towns and Cities.

9. The force of Union therefore is evident: But the manner of Union may Union by require a fuller illustration. It will not at prefent be pertinent to treat of victory exemUnion by Victory, when one body merely fubdues another, and converts the plified in natural operafame into its own nature; extinguishing and expelling the parts it cannot tions. overcome: As when the fire converts wood into fire; purging away the smoke and the afhes, as matters unapt to inflame: Or when the body of a living creature converts and affimilates food and nourishment, purging off and expelling what it cannot convert. For these representations answer in matters of Policy to Union of Countries by conqueft; where the conquering State extinguishes, extirpates, and expells any part of the State conquered, which it finds fo contrary, as not to be alter'd or converted. And therefore, leaving violent Unions, we will confider only fuch as are natural.

and Mixture.

10. It is an excellent Difference which the best Obfervers of Nature The Differmake between Compofition and Mixture, or putting together and mingling: ence bewixt The one being but a conjunction of bodies in place; the other of quality and Compofition confent: The one, the mother of Sedition and Alteration; the other of Peace and Continuance; the one rather a Confufion than an Union; the other properly an Union. Therefore we fee (1.) that thofe Bodies call'd imperfect Mixts, Examples continue not; but are foon diffolved. For example, Snow and Ice, which of imperfect


The due Profecution of this Difference, in its phyfical Caufes, might import natural Philofophy, no lefs than civil Policy.



are Compofitions of Air and Water, eafily fever and diffolve; the water clofing together, and excluding the Air. (2.) So the three bodies celebrated by the Alchemifts, as the three Principles of Things; viz. Earth, Water, and Oil; or Salt, Mercury and Sulphur, if united only by compofition, or putting together, we fee how weakly and rudely they incorporate: For Water and Earth make but an imperfect Slime; and tho forced together by agitation, yet upon a little ftanding, the Earth fubfides to the bottom. (3.) So when Water and Oil, are by agitation brought to an Unguent; yet after a little standing, the Oil will float a-top: For these imOf perfect perfect Mixtures continue no longer than they are forced; and ftill in the end, the worthieft gets uppermoft. (4.) But the cafe is otherwise in perfect Mixtures. Thus the three bodies of Earth, Water, and Oil, when join'd in a Vegetable or Mineral, are fo united, as that without great fubtilty of art, and force of extraction, they cannot be feparated and reduced to the fame fimple bodies again. Whence the difference between Compofition and Mixture is clearly this; that Compofition is the joining, or putting together of Bodies without a new FORM; and Mixture the joining, or putting together of Bodies, under a new FORM. For the new FORM is the common Link, without which the old ones will be at firife and difcord k.


The Doctrine applied to civil Policy;

11. To reflect this Light of Nature upon Matters of State: Two different kinds of Policy have been practifed for uniting and conjoining of States and Kingdoms; the one is to retain the ancient FORM fill fevered, and only conjoin'd in Sovereignty; the other to fuperinduce a new FORM, agreeable and convenient to the entire State. The former of these has been the more ufual, and is the cafieft; but the latter the more happy. For whoever attentively revolves the Hiftories of all Nations, and forms a true judgment And illuftra- upon them, will conclude that no States, befides the Roman, were a good commixture. And this being the beft State in Hiftory, and the best Example to our prefent point, we will chiefly infift upon it. In the Antiquities of Rome, Virgil brings in Jupiter, by way of Oracle or Prediction, fpeaking of the mixture of the Trojans and the Italians, where Jupiter makes a kind of partition or distribution; viz. that Italy fhou'd give the Language and the Laws; Troy a Mixture of men, and fome religious Rites; and both people fhou'd meet in the fole name of Latins 1.

ted in the

Roman State.

12. Soon after the foundation of the City of Rome, the Romans and Sabines mingled upon equal terms: Wherein the interchange went so even, that, as Livy notes, the one Nation gave name to the place, the other to the people. For Rome continued the name, but the people were call'd Quirites; which was the Sabine word, deriv'd from Cures, the country of Tatius.

13. But

* Whoever wou'd profecute this Perfian Magick in other parts of Government, fhou'd imitate the Author in thus keeping a steady Eye both upon Nature and Art; or Phyficks and Politicks, at the fame time: A thing whereof there are numerous inftances in his Writings; more particularly in the Sapientia Veterum. See SUPPLEMENT VII. Sect. III. 1 Sermonem Aufonii patrium morefq; tenebunt : Utq; eft nomen erit; commixti corpore tantum, Subfident Teucri; morem, ritufq; facrorum Adjiciam; faciamq; omnes, uno ore, Latinos. Hinc genus Aufonie miftum, quod fanguine furget,

Supra homines, fupra ire Deos pietate videbis. Æn. Lib. XII. . 834, &c.


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