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INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT.
[From the National Intelligencer, of Tuesday, March 6, 1821.]
The inauguration of the President of the United | evinced by my re-election to this high trust, bas exStates, whose second term of service commenced cited in my bosom. The approbation which it an. yesterday, took place, according to previous ar- nounces of my conduct, in the preceding term, affords rangement. The oath of office having been ad- me a consolation which I shall profoundly feel through ministered to the President, by Chief Justice Mar- life. The general accord with which it has been exshall, he delivered the speech which will be found pressed), adds to the great and never-ceasing obligaannexed.
tions which it imposes. To merit the continuance of The day proved very unfavorable for the at- tirement, as the solace of advancing years, will be the
this good opinion, and to carry it with me into my retendance of spectators, there having fallen during object of my most zealous and unceasing efforts. the preceding night a good deal of snow and rain; notwithstanding which, an immense crowd claims of my predecessors, whose names are so much
Having no pretension to the high and commanding thronged the doors of the Capitol. The number more conspicuously identified with our Revolution, of persons who obtained admission within the and who contributed so pre-eminently to promote its walls of the Representatives' chamber (gallery of success, I consider myself rather as the instrument course included) could not have been less than than the cause of the union which has prevailed in the two thousand.
late election. In surmounting, in favor of my humble There was not much form about this ceremony, pretensions, the difficulties which so often produce which, in truth, requires no form but the forms of division in like occurrences, it is obvious that other decency and decorum ; but the scene was not the powerful causes, indicating the great strength and less impressive. The President was placed on the stability of our Union, have essentially contributed to platform in front of the Speaker's Chair; the draw you together. That these powerful causes exChief Justice stood by his side during the
delivery that they may
produce a like accord in all questions,
ist, and that they are permanent, is my fixed opinion ; of the speech. The Associate Judges, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of touching, however remotely, the liberty, prosperity, Representatives, the Heads of Departments, and and happiness of our country, will always be the obmany of our distinguished Military and Naval ject of my most fervent prayers to the Supreme Author
of all good. Officers, were near him. Assigned to their proper
In a Government which is founded by the people, places were the members of the various Foreign who possess exclusively the sovereignty, it seems proper Legations. The seats in the interior were prin- that the person who may be placed by their suffrages cipally occupied by a numerous collection of la- in this high trust, should declare, on commencing its dies; and all around, above, and below, were duties, the principles on which he intends to conduct countless numbers of the people, of whom, without the Administration. If the person, thus elected, has discrimination, as many were admitted, after the served the preceding term, an opportunity is afforded ladies and privileged persons were seated, as the him to review its principal occurrences, and to give room could accommodate. On the entrance and such further explanation respecting them as, in his exit of the President, the music of the Marine judgment, may be useful to his constituents. The Band enlivened the scene, which was altogether events of one year have influence on those of another ; characterized by simple grandeur and splendid and, in like manner, of a preceding on the succeeding simplicity
Administration. The movements of a great nation It is well
, considering the great crowd which are connected in all their parts. If errors have been filled the avenues to the door of the Representa- committed, they ought to be corrected; if the policy is tives' chamber, and pressed onwards for admit- sound, it ought to be supported. It is by a thorough tance, that no accident occurred to mar the en
knowledge of the whole subject that our fellow-citizens
are enabled to judge correctly of the past, and to give joyment of those who had the pleasure to witness this truly Republican ceremony.
a proper direction to the future.
Just before the commencement of the last term, the
United States had concluded a war with a very power. INAUGURAL SPEECH.
ful nation, on conditions equal and honorable to both
parties. The events of that war are too recent, and Yesterday, at 12 o'clock, on taking the oath to too deeply impressed on the memory of all, to require support the Constitution of the United States, the a development from me. Our commerce had been, in following speech was delivered by James Mon- a great measure, driven from the sea ; our Atlantic ROE, President of the United States :
and inland frontiers were invaded in almost every part; Fellow-CITIZENS: I shall not attempt to describe the waste of life along our coast, and on some parts of the grateful emotions which the new and very distin- our inland frontiers, to the defence of which our gal. guished proof of the confidence of my fellow-citizens, lant and patriotic citizens were called, was immense ;
Inauguration of the President.
in addition to which, not less than one hundred and been made in these measures of defence, and that they twenty millions of dollars were added at its end to the will be completed in a few years, considering the great public debt.
extent and importance of the object, is the plan be As soon as the war had terminated, the nation, ad- zealously and steadily persevered in. monished by its events, resolved to place itself in a sit- The conduct of the Government, in what relates to uation which should be better calculated to prevent foreign Powers, is always an object of the highest imthe recurrence of a like evil, and, in case it should re- portance to the nation. Its agriculture, commerce, cur, to mitigate its calamities. With this view, after manufactures, fisheries, revenue ; in short, its peace, reducing our land force to the basis of a peace estab- may all be affected by it. Attention is, therefore, due lishment, which has been further modified since, pro- to this subject. vision was made for the construction of fortifications
At the period adverted to, the Powers of Europe, at proper points, through the whole extent of our coast, after having been engaged in long and destructive and such an augmentation of our naval force, as should
wars with each other, had concluded a peace, which be well adapted to both purposes. The laws, making happily still exists. Our peace with the Power with this provision, were passed in 1815 and 1816, and it whom we had been engaged, had also been concludhas been, since, the constant effort of the Executive ed. The war between Spain and the colonies in South to carry them into effect.
America, which had commenced many years before, The advantage of these fortifications, and of an was then the only conflict that remained unsettled. augmented naval force, in the extent contemplated, | This being a contest between different parts of the in point of economy, has been fully illustrated, by a same community, in which other Powers had not in. report of the Board of Engineers and Naval Commis- terfered, was not affected by their accommodations. sioners, lately communicated to Congress, by which This contest was considered, at an early stage, by it appears, that in an invasion by twenty thousand my predecessor, a civil war, in which the parties were men, with a correspondent naval force, in a campaign entitled to equal rights in our ports. This decision, of six months only, the whole expense of the construc- the first made by any Power, being formed on great tion of the works would be defrayed by the difference consideration of the comparative strength and resources in the sum necessary to maintain the force which of the parties, the length of time, and successful opwould be adequate to our defence with the aid of those position made by the colonies, and of all other circumworks, and that which would be incurred without stances on which it ought to depend, was in strict acthem. The reason of this difference is obvious. If cord with the law of nations. Congress has invariably fortifications are judiciously placed on our great inlets, acted on this principle, having made no change in our as distant from our cities as circumstances will pero relations with either party. Our attitude bas, theremit, they will form the only points of attack, and the fore, been that of neutrality between them, which has enemy will be detained there by a small regular force, been maintained by the Government with the strictest a sufficient time to enable our militia to collect, and impartiality. No aid has been afforded to either, nor repair to that on which the attack is made. A force has any privilege been enjoyed by the one, which has adequate to the enemy, collected at that single point, not been equally open to the other party ; and every with suitable preparation for such others as might be exertion has been made in its power, to enforce the menaced, is all that would be requisite. But, if there execution of the laws prohibiting illegal cquipments, were no fortifications, then the enemy might go where with equal rigor against both. he pleased, and, changing his position, and sailing By this equality between the parties, their public from place to place, our force must be called out and vessels have been received in our ports on the same spread in vast numbers along the whole coast, and on footing ; they have enjoyed an equal right to purchase both sides of every bay and river, as high up in each and export arms, munitions of war, and every other as it might be navigable for ships of war. By these supply-the exportation of all articles whatever being fortifications, supported by our navy, to which they permitted under laws which were passed long before would afford like support, we should present to other the commencement of the contest; our citizens have Powers an armed front from St. Croix to the Sabine, traded equally with both, and their commerce with which would protect, in the event of war, our whole each has been alike protected by the Government. coast and interior from invasion; and even in the Respecting the attitude which it may be proper for wars of other Powers, in which we were neutral, they the United States to maintain hereafter between the would be found eminently useful, as, by keeping their parties, I have no hesitation in stating it as my opin. public ships at a distance from our cities, peace and ion, that the neutrality heretofore observed should order in them would be preserved, and the Govern still be adhered to. From the change in the Government be protected from insult.
ment of Spain, and the negotiation now depending, It need scarcely be remarked, that these measures invited by the Cortes and accepted by the colonies, it have not been resorted to in a spirit of hostility to may be presumed that their differences will be settled other Powers. Such a disposition does not exist to- on the terms proposed by the colonies. Should the wards any Power. Peace and good will have been, war be continued, the United States, regarding its ocand will hereafter be, cultivated with all, aud by the currences, will always have it in their power to adopt most faithful regard to justice. They have been dic- such measures respecting it as their honor and intated by a love of peace, of economy, and an earnest terest may require. desire to save the lives of our fellow-citizens from that Shortly after the general peace, a band of adven. destruction, and our country from that devastation, turers took advantage of this conflict, and of the facil. which are inseparable from war, when it finds us un- ity which it afforded, to establish a system of buccaprepared for it. It is believed, and experience has neering in the neighboring seas, to the great annoyshown, that such a preparation is the best expedient ance of the commerce of the United States, and, as that can be resorted to, to prevent war. I add with was repesented, of that of other Powers. Of this much pleasure, that considerable progress has already spirit, and of its injurious bearing on the United
Inauguration of the President.
States, strong proofs were afforded by the establish-commerce between the United States and the British ment at Amelia Island, and the purposes to which it dominions in the West Indies, and on this continent. was made instrumental by this band in 1817, and by | The restraints imposed on that commerce by Great the occurrences which took place in other parts of Britain, and reciprocated by the United States, on a Florida, in 1818, the details of which, in both in- principle of defence, continue still in force. stances, are too well known to require to be now re- The negotiation with France for the regulation of cited. I am satisfied had a less decisive course been the commercial relations between the two countries, adopted that the worst consequences would have re- which, in the course of last Summer, had been comsulted from it. We have seen that these checks, demenced at Paris, has since been transferred to this cisive as they were, were not sufficient to crush that city, and will be pursued, on the part of the United piratical spirit. Many culprits brought within our States, in the spirit of conciliation, and with an earn.
ment due to that atrocious crime. The decisions orius: est desire that it may terminate in an arrangement
right and enlightened tribunals fall equally on all, whose Our relations with the Barbary Powers are precrimes subject them, by a fair interpretation of the served in the same state, and by the same means, that law, to its censure. It belongs to the Executive not
were employed when I came into this office. As early to suffer the executions, under these decisions, to
as 1801 it was found necessary to send a squadron transcend the great purpose for which punishment is into the Mediterranean for the protection of our comnecessary. The full benefit of example being secured, merce, and no period has intervened, a short term ex. policy, as well as humanity, equally forbids that they cepted, when it was thought advisable to withdraw it. should be carried further. I have acted on this prin: The great interest which the United States have in ciple, pardoning those who appear to have been led the Pacific, in commerce and in the fisheries, have astray by ignorance of the criminality of the acts they also made it necessary to maintain a naval force had committed, and suffering the law to take effect on there. In disposing of this force, in both instances, those only in whose favor no extenuating circum- the most effectual measures in our power have been stances could be urged.
taken, without interfering with its other duties, for the Great confidence is entertained that the treaty with suppression of the slave trade, and of piracy, in the Spain, which has been ratified by both the parties, and neighboring seas. the ratifications whereof have been exchanged, has The situation of the United States, in regard to placed the relations of the two countries on a basis of their resources, the extent of their revenue, and the permanent friendship. The provision made by it for facility with which it is raised, affords a most gratifysuch of our citizens as have claims on Spain, of the ing spectacle. The payment of nearly sixty-seven character described, will, it is presumed, be very satis- millions of dollars of the public debt, with the great factory to them; and the boundary which is estab- progress made in measures of defence, and in other lished between the territories of the parties, westward improvements of various kinds, since the late war, are of the Mississippi, beretofore in dispute, has, it is conclusive proofs of this extraordinary prosperity, es. thought, been settled on conditions just and advan- pecially when it is recollected that these expenditures tageous to both. But, to the acquisition of Florida have been defrayed, without a burden on the people, too much importance cannot be attached. It secures the direct tax and excise having been repealed soon to the United States a territory important in itself, and after the conclusion of the late war, and the revenue whose importance is much increased by its bearing on applied to these great objects having been raised in a many of the highest interests of the Union. It opens manner not to be felt. Our great resources, therefore, to several of the neighboring States a free passage to remain untouched, for any purpose which may affect the ocean, through the province ceded, by several the vital interests of the nation. For all such purrivers, having their sources high up within their lim- poses they are inexhaustible. They are more espeits. It secures us against all future annoyance from cially to be found in the virtue, patriotism, and intelpowerful Indian tribes. It gives us several excellent ligence, of our fellow-citizens, and in the devotion with harbors in the Gulf of Mexico for ships of war of the which they would yield up, by any just measure of largest size. It covers, by its position in the Gulf, the taxation, all their property, in support of the rights Mississippi and other great waters within our ex- and honor of their country. tended limits, and thereby enables the United States Under the present depression of prices, affecting all to afford complete protection to the vast and very valu- the productions of the country, and every brunch of able productions of our whole Western country, which industry, proceeding from causes explained on a forfind a market through those streams.
mer occasion, the revenue has considerably diminBy a treaty with the British Government, bearing ished; the effect of which has been to compel Congress date on the twentieth of October, one thousand eight either to abandon these great measures of defence, or hundred and eighteen, the convention regulating the to resort to loans or internal taxes to supply the deficommerce between the United States and Great Brit- ciency. On the presumption that this depression, ain, concluded on the third of July, one thousand and the deficiency in the revenue arising from it, eight hundred and fifteen, which was about expiring, would be temporary, loans were authorized for the was revived and continued for the term of ten years demands of the last and present year. Anxious to from the time of its expiration. By that treaty, also, relieve my fellow-citizens in 1817, from every burden the differences which had arisen under the Treaty of which could be dispensed with, and the state of the Ghent, respecting the right claimed by the United Treasury permitting it, I recommended the repeal of States for their citizens, to take and cure fish on the the internal taxes, knowing that such relief was then coast of His Britannic Majesty's dominions in Amer- peculiarly necessary, in consequence of the great exerica, with other differences on important interests, tions made in the late war. I made that recommenwere adjusted, to the satisfaction of both parties. No dation under a pledge that, should the public exigenagreement has yet been entered into respecting the cies require a recurrence to them at any time while I
Inauguration of the President.
remained in this trust, I would, with equal prompti- on just conditions. I see no reasonable cause to aptude, perform the duty which would then be alike in prehend variance with any Power, unless it proceed cumbent on me. By the experiment now making it from a violation of our maritime rights. In these conwill be seen, by the next session of Congress, whether tests, should they occur, and to whatever extent they the revenue shall have been so augmented as to be may be carried, we shall be neutral; but as a neutral adequate to all these necessary purposes. Should the Power we have rights which it is our duty to maindeficiency still continue, and especially should it be tain. For light injuries it will be incumbent on us to probable that it would be permanent, the course to be seek redress in a spirit of amity, in full confidence pursued appears to me to be obvious. I am satisfied that, injuring none, none would knowingly injure us. that, under certain circumstances, loans may be re. For more imminent dangers we should be prepared, sorted to with great advantage. I am equally well and it should always be recollected that such preparasatisfied, as a general rule, that the demands of the tion, adapted to the circumstances, and sanctioned by current year, especially in time of peace, should be the judgment and wishes of our constituents, cannot provided for by the revenue of that year. I have never fail to have a good effect, in averting dangers of every dreaded, nor have I ever shunned, in any situation in kind. We should recollect also that the season of which I have been placed, making appeals to the vir- peace is best adapted to these preparations. tue and patriotism of my fellow-citizens, well knowing
If we turn our attention, fellow-citizens, more imthat they could never be made in vain, especially in mediately to the internal concerns of our country, and times of great emergency, or for purposes of high more especially to those on which its future welfare national importance. Independently of the exigency depends, we have every reason to anticipate the hapof the case, many considerations of great weight urge piest results. It is now rather more than forty-four a policy baving in view a provision of revenue to meet, years since we declared our independence, and thirty, to a certain extent, the demands of the nation, with
seven since it was acknowledged. The talents and out relying altogether on the precarious resource of virtues which were displayed in that great struggle foreign commerce. I am satisfied that internal duties
were a sure presage of all that has since followed. A and excises, with corresponding imposts on foreign people who were able to surmount in their infant articles of the same kind, would, without imposing state such great perils, would be more competent as any serious burdens on the people, enhance the price they rose into manhood to repel any which they might of produce, promote our manufactures, and augment meet in their progress. Their physical strength would the revenue, at the same time that they made it more
be more adequate to foreign danger, and the practice secure and permanent.
of self-government, aided by the light of experience, The care of the Indian tribes within our limits has could not fail to produce an effect equally salutary on long been an essential part of our system, but, unfor all those questions connected with the internal organitunately, it has not been executed in a manner to ac- zation. These favorable anticipations have been realcomplish all the objects intended by it. We have ized. In our whole system, National and State, we treaied them as independent nations without their have shunned all the defects which unceasingly preyed having any substantial pretension to that rank. The on the vitals and destroyed the ancient republics. In distinction has flattered their pride, retarded their im- them there were distinct orders, a nobility and a peoprovement, and, in many instances, paved the way to ple, or the people governed in one assembly. Thus, in their destruction. The progress of our scttlements the one instance there was a perpetual conflict between westward, supported as they are by a dense popula- the orders in society for the ascendancy, in which the tion, has constantly driven them back, with almost the victory of either terminated in the overthrow of the total sacrifice of the lands which they have been com. Government and the ruin of the State. In the other, pelled to abandon. They have claims on the mag. in which the people governed in a body, and whose nanimity, and, I may add, on the justice of this nation, dominions seldom exceeded the dimensions of a county which we must all feel. We should become their real in one of our States, a tumultuous and disorderly benefactors, we should perform the office of their Great movement permitted only a transitory existence. In Father, the endearing title which they emphatically this great nation there is but one order, that of the give to the Chief Magistrate of our Union. Their people, whose power, by a peculiarly happy improvesovereignty over vast territories should cease, in lieu of ment of the representative principle, is transferred which the right of soil should be secured to cach indi. from them without impairing in the slightest degree vidual, and his posterity, in competent portions, and their sovereignty, to bodies of their own creation, and for the territory thus ceded by each tribe some reason. to persons elected by themselves, in the full extent neable equivalent should be granted, to be vested in per- cessary for all the purposes of free, enlightened, and manent funds for the support of civil government over efficient government. The whole system is elective, them, and for the education of their children, for their the complete sovereignty being in the people, and every instruction in the arts of husbandry, and to provide officer in every department deriving his authority sustenance for them until they could provide it for from and being responsible to them for his conduct. themselves, My earnest hope is, that Congress will digest some plan, founded on these principles, with Perfection in our organization could not have been
Our career has corresponded with this great outline. such improvements as their wisdom may suggest, and
expected in the outset, either in the National or State carry it into effect as soon as it may be practicable.
Governments, or in tracing the line between their Europe is again unsettled, and the prospect of war respective powers. But no serious conflict has arisen, increasing. Should the flame light up in any quarter, nor any contest but such as are managed by arguhow far it may extend it is impossible to foresee. It ment, and by a fair appeal to the good sense of the is our peculiar felicity to be altogether unconnected people; and many of the defects which experience with the causes which produce this menacing aspect had clearly demonstrated, in both Governments, have elsewhere. With every Power we are in perfect amity, been remedied. By steadily pursuing this course, in and it is our interest to remain so, if it be practicable this spirit, there is every reason to believe that our Inauguration of the President.
system will soon attain the highest degree of perfec- fellow-citizens, comprise within our limits the dimen. tion of which human institutions are capable, and that sions and faculties of a great Power, under a Governthe movement, in all its branches, will exhibit such a ment possessing all the energies of any Government degree of order and harmony, as to command the ad- ever known to the old world, with an utter incapacity miration and respect of the civilized world.
to oppress the people. Our physical attainments have not been less emi- Entering, with these views, the office which I have nent. Twenty-five years ago the river Mississippi just solemnly sworn to execute with fidelity, and to was shut up, and our Western brethren had no outlet | the utmost of my ability, I derive great satisfaction for their commerce. What has been the progress from a knowledge that I shall be assisted in the ser. since that time? The river has not only become the eral departments by the very enlightened and upright property of the United States from its source to the citizens from whom I have received so much aid in ocean, with all its tributary streams, (with the excep- the preceding term. With full confidence in the contion of the upper part of the Red river only,) but Lou- tinuance of that candor, and generous indulgence, isiana, with a fair and liberal boundary on the western from my fellow-citizens at large, which I have hereto. side, and the Floridas on the eastern, have been ceded fore experienced, and, with a firm reliance on the proto us. The United States now enjoy the complete tection of Almighty God, I shall forthwith commence and uninterrupted sovereignty over the whole territory the duties of the high trust to which you have called from St. Croix to the Sabine. New States, settled from among ourselves in this, and in other parts, have been admitted into our Union, in equal participation
Daniel D. Tompkins took the Constitutional in the national sovereignty with the original states. oath on entering his second term of service in the Our population has augmented in an astonishing de- office of Vice President of the United States, at gree, and extended in every direction.
his own residence, on Saturday, the third instant.