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President's Annual Message.


cases. The object of that law having been merely to countervail the inequalities which existed to the disadvantage of the United States, in their commercial intercourse with France, it is submitted, also, to the consideration of Congress, whether, in the spirit of amity and conciliation which it is no less the inclination than the policy of the United States to preserve, in their intercourse with other Powers, it may not be proper to extend relief to the individuals interested in those cases, by exempting from the operation of the law all those vessels which have entered our ports without having had the means of previously knowing the existence of the additional duty.

Catholic Majesty should then ratify the treaty, this France before its existence was known, have entered Government would accept the ratification, so far as the ports of the United States, and been subject to its to submit to the decision of the Senate, the question, operation, without that previous notice which the genwhether such ratification should be received in ex-eral spirit of our laws gives to individuals in similar change for that of the United States, heretofore given By letters from the Minister of the United States to the Secretary of State, it appears that a communication, in conformity with his instructions, had been made to tha Government of Spain, and that the Cortes had the subject under consideration. The result of the deliberations of that body, which is daily expected, will be made known to Congress as soon as it is received. The friendly sentiment which was expressed on the part of the United States, in the Message of the 9th of May last, is still entertained for Spain. Among the causes of regret, however, which are inseparable from the delay attending this transaction, it is proper to state that satisfactory information has been received, that measures have been recently adopted, by designing persons, to convert certain parts of the Province of Florida into depots for the reception of foreign goods, from whence to smuggle them into the United States. By opening a port within the limits of Florida, immediately on our boundary, where there was no settlement, the object could not be misunderstood. An early accommodation of differences will, it is hoped, prevent all such fraudulent and pernicious practices, and place the relations of the two countries on a very amicable and permanent basis.

The commercial relations between the United States and the British colonies in the West Indies, and on this continent, have undergone no change; the British Government still preferring to leave that commerce under the restriction heretofore imposed on it, on each side. It is satisfactory to recollect that the restraints resorted to by the United States were defensive only, intended to prevent a monopoly, under British regulations, in favor of Great Britain; as it likewise is to know that the experiment is advancing in a spirit of amity between the parties.

The question depending between the United States and Great Britain, respecting the construction of the first article of the Treaty of Ghent, has been referred, by both Governments, to the decision of the Emperor of Russia, who has accepted the umpirage.

An attempt has been made with the Government of France, to regulate, by treaty, the commerce between the two countries, on the principle of reciprocity and equality. By the last communication from the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at Paris, to whom full power had been given, we learn that the negotiation had been commenced there; but, serious difficulties having occurred, the French Government had resolved to transfer it to the United States, for which purpose the Minister Plenipotentiary of France had been ordered to repair to this city, and whose arrival might soon be expected. It is hoped that this important interest may be arranged on just conditions, and in a manner equally satisfactory to both parties. It is submitted to Congress to decide, until such arrangement is made, how far it may be proper, on the principle of the act of the last session, which augmented the tonnage duty on French vessels, to adopt other measures for carrying more completely into effect the policy of that act.

The act referred to, which imposed new tonnage on French vessels, having been in force from and after the first day of July, it has happened that several vessels of that nation which had been despatched from

The contest between Spain and the Colonies, according to the most authentic information, is maintained by the latter with improved success. The unfortunate divisions which were known to exist some time since, at Buenos Ayres, it is understood, still prevail. In no part of South America has Spain made any impression on the colonies, while, in many parts, and particularly in Venezuela and New Granada, the colonies have gained strength and acquired reputation, both for the management of the war, in which they have been successful, and for the order of the internal administration. The late change in the Government of Spain, by the re-establishment of the constitution of 1812, is an event which promises to be favorable to the Revolution. Under the authority of the Cortes, the Congress of Angostura was invited to open a negotiation for the settlement of differences between the parties, to which it was replied, that they would willingly open the negotiation, provided the acknowledgment of their independence was made its basis, but not otherwise. Of further proceedings between them we are uninformed. No facts are known to this Government, to warrant the belief, that any of the Powers of Europe will take part in the contest; whence, it may be inferred, considering all circumstances, which must have weight in producing the result, that an adjustment will finally take place, on the basis proposed by the colonies. To promote that result, by friendly counsels, with other Powers, including Spain herself, has been the uniform policy of this Government.

In looking to the internal concerns of our country, you will, I am persuaded, derive much satisfaction from a view of the several objects to which, in the discharge of your official duties, your attention will be drawn. Among these, none holds a more important place than the public revenue, from the direct operation of the power, by which it is raised, on the people, and by its influence in giving effect to every other power of the Government. The revenue depends on the resources of the country, and the facility by which the amount required is raised, is a strong proof of the extent of the resources, and the efficiency of the Government. A few prominent facts will place this great interest in a just light before you. On the 30th of September, 1815, the funded and floating debt of the United States was estimated at one hundred and nineteen millions six hundred and thirty-five thousand five hundred and fifty-eight dollars. It to this sum be added the amount of five per cent. stock subscribed to the Bank of the United States, the amount of Mississippi stock, and of the stock which was issued subsequently to that date, the balances ascertained to be due to certain

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States, for military services, and to individuals, for supplies furnished, and services rendered during the late war, the public debt may be estimated as amounting, at that date, and as afterwards liquidated, to one hundred and fifty-eight millions seven hundred and thirteen thousand forty-nine dollars. On the 30th of September, 1820, it amounted to ninety-one millions nine hundred and ninety-three thousand eight hundred and eighty-three dollars, having been reduced in that interval, by payments, sixty-six millions eight hundred and seventy-nine thousand one hundred and sixty-five dollars. During this term, the expenses of the Government of the United States were likewise defrayed, in every branch of the civil, military, and naval establishments; the public edifices in this city have been rebuilt, with considerable additions; extensive fortifications have been commenced, and are in a train of execution; permanent arsenals and magazines have been erected in various parts of the Union; our Navy has been considerably augmented, and the ordnance, munitions of war, and stores, of the Army and Navy, which were much exhausted during the war, have been replenished.

By the discharge of so large a proportion of the public debt, and the execution of such extensive and important operations, in so short a time, a just estimate may be formed of the great extent of our national reThe demonstration is the more complete and gratifying, when it is recollected that the direct tax and excise were repealed soon after the termination of the late war, and that the revenue applied to these purposes has been derived almost wholly from other



The receipts into the Treasury, from every source, to the 30th of September last, have amounted to sixteen millions seven hundred and ninety-four thousand one hundred and seven dollars and sixty-six cents; whilst the public expenditures, to the same period, amounted to sixteen millions eight hundred and seventy-one thousand five hundred and thirty-four dollars and seventy-two cents; leaving in the Treasury, on that day, a sum estimated at one million nine hundred and fifty thousand dollars. For the probable receipts of the following year, I refer you to the statement which will be transmitted from the Treasury.

The sum of three millions of dollars, authorized to be raised by loan, by an act of the last session of Congress, has been obtained upon terms advantageous to the Government, indicating, not only an increased confidence in the faith of the nation, but the existence of a large amount of capital seeking that mode of investment, at a rate of interest not exceeding five per centum per annum.

It is proper to add, that there is now due to the Treasury, for the sale of public lands, twenty-two millions nine hundred and ninety-six thousand five hundred and forty-five dollars. In bringing this subject to view, I consider it my duty to submit to Congress, whether it may not be advisable to extend to the purchasers of these lands, in consideration of the unfavorable change which has occurred since the sales, a reasonable indulgence. It is known that the purchases were made when the price of every article had risen to its greatest height, and that the instalments are becoming due at a period of great depression. It is presumed that some plan may be devised, by the wisdom of Congress, compatible with the public interest, which would afford great relief to these purchasers.

Considerable progress has been made, during the


present season, in examining the coast and its various bays and other inlets; in the collection of materials, and in the construction of fortifications for the defence of the Union, at several of the positions at which it has been decided to erect such works. At Mobile Point and Dauphin Island, and at the Rigolets, leading to Lake Pontchartrain, materials to a considerable amount have been collected and all the necessary preparations made for the commencement of the works. At Old Point Comfort, at the mouth of James river, and at the Rip-Rap, on the opposite shore, in the Chesapeake Bay, materials to a vast amount have been collected; and at the Old Point some progress has been made in the construction of the fortification, which is on a very extensive scale. The work at Fort Washington, on this river, will be completed early in the next Spring; and that on the Pea Patch, in the Delaware, in the course of the next season. Fort Diamond, at the Narrows, in the harbor of New York, will be finished this year. The works at Boston, New York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charleston, and Niagara, have been in part repaired; and the coast of North Carolina, extending south to Cape Fear, has been examined, as have likewise other parts of the coast eastward of Boston. Great exertions have been made to push forward these works with the utmost despatch possible; but, when their extent is considered, with the important purposes for which they are intended, the defence of the whole coast, and in consequence of the whole interior, and that they are to last for ages, it will be manifest that a well-digested plan, founded on military principles, connecting the whole together, combining security with economy, could not be prepared without repeated examinations of the most exposed and difficult parts, and that it would also take considerable time to collect the materials at the several points where they would be required. From all the light that has been shed on this subject, I am satisfied that every favorable anticipation which has been formed of this great undertaking will be verified, and that when completed it will afford very great, if not complete, protection to our Atlantic frontier in the event of another war; a protection sufficient to counterbalance in a single campaign with an enemy powerful at sea the expense of all these works, without taking into the estimate the saving of the lives of so many of our citizens, the protection of our towns and other property, or the tendency of such works to prevent war.

Our military positions have been maintained at Belle Point, on the Arkansas, at Council Bluffs, on the Missouri, at St. Peter's, on the Mississippi, and at Green Bay, on the Upper lakes. Commodious barracks have already been erected at most of these posts, with such works as were necessary for their defence. Progress has also been made in opening communications between them, and in raising supplies at each for the support of the troops by their own labor, particularly those most remote.

With the Indians peace has been preserved, and a progress made in carrying into effect the act of Congress, making an appropriation for their civilization, with the prospect of favorable results. As connected equally with both these objects, our trade with those tribes is thought to merit the attention of Congress. In their original state, game is their sustenance and war their occupation: and if they find no employment from civilized Powers, they destroy each other. Left to themselves, their extirpation is inevitable. By a judicious regulation of our trade with them, we supply

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their wants, administer to their comforts, and gradually, as the game retires, draw them to us. By maintaining posts far in the interior, we acquire a more thorough and direct control over them; without which it

is confidently believed that a complete change in their manners can never be accomplished. By such posts, aided by a proper regulation of our trade with them, and a judicious civil administration over them, to be provided for by law, we shall it is presumed be enabled not only to protect our own settlements from their savage incursions, and preserve peace among the several tribes, but accomplish also the great purpose of

their civilization.

Considerable progress has also been made in the construction of ships of war, some of which have been launched in the course of the present year.


Mr. DICKERSON submitted the following motion for consideration:

Resolved, That a committee of three members be

appointed, who, with three members of the House of Representatives, to be appointed by that House, shall have the direction of the money appropriated to the purchase of books and maps for the use of the two Houses of Congress.

On motion, by Mr. ROBERTS,

Resolved, That the Senate will, on Monday next, at twelve o'clock, proceed to the appointment of the Standing Committees.

FRIDAY, November 17.

JAMES LANMAN, from the State of Connecticut, arrived yesterday, and attended this day. Mr. SANFORD Submitted the following motions for consideration:

Resolved, That so much of the Message of the President of the United States as concerns our relations with Spain and with France, be referred to the Committee of Foreign Relations.

Our peace with the Powers on the coast of Barbary has been preserved, but we owe it altogether to the presence of our squadron in the Mediterranean. It has been found equally necessary to employ some of our vessels for the protection of our commerce in the Indian sea, the Pacific, and along the Atlantic coast. The interests which we have depending in those quarters, which have been much improved of late, are of great extent, and of high importance to the nation, as well as to the parties concerned, and would undoubt-ident of the United States as relates to Finance, be Resolved, That so much of the Message of the Presedly suffer if such protection was not extended to referred to the Committee of Finance. them. In execution of the law of the last session, for the suppression of the slave trade, some of our public ships have also been employed on the coast of Africa, where several captures have already been made of vessels engaged in that disgraceful traffic.

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THURSDAY, November 16.

ident of the United States as relates to the debt due Resolved, That so much of the Message of the Presfor the sale of public lands, be referred to the Com

mittee on Public Lands.

Resolved, That so much of the Message of the President of the United States as relates to the Indian tribes, be referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs.

tained leave to bring in a bill to alter the terms of Mr. WALKER, of Alabama, asked and and obthe district court in Alabama, and the bill was twice read by unanimous consent, and referred to a select committee to consider and report thereon;

Mr. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, submitted the fol- and Messrs. WALKER, of Alabama, BURRILL, and lowing motion for consideration:

Resolved, That it is expedient to make provision, by law, to authorize any person who has purchased public lands, and not made full payment for the same, to relinquish to the United States so much thereof as may not be paid for, and retain such portion of the original purchase as may amount to the sums of money actually paid, at the price for which the land was purchased. Mr. WALKER, of Alabama, gave notice that, tomorrow, he should ask leave to bring in a bill to provide for altering the times of holding the dis

trict courts in the State of Alabama.

Mr. BURRILL submitted the following motion

for consideration:

KING, of Alabama, were appointed the committee. The Senate resumed the consideration of the motion of the 16th instant, respecting the compensation of the members and delegates of Congress, and the further consideration thereof was postponed until next Monday week.

The Senate resumed the consideration of the

resolution for the appointment of a joint committee on the arrangements for the Library of Congress, and having agreed thereto, Messrs. DICKERSON, DANA, and HUNTER, were appointed the


informed the Senate that the House concur in the A message from the House of Representatives resolution of the Senate for the appointment of Chaplains, and have appointed the Rev. J. N. CAMPBELL, Chaplain on their part.

and, on counting the ballots, it appeared that the Rev. WILLIAM RYLAND was duly elected.

Resolved, That the act, entitled "An act allowing compensation to the members of the Senate, members of the House of Representatives of the United States, and to the delegates of the Territories, and repealing On motion by Mr. WILSON, the Senate proall other laws on the subject," passed at the first ses-ceeded to the election of a Chaplain on their part; sion of the fifteenth Congress, ought to be so altered and amended that the compensation to the members and delegates aforesaid, shall hereafter be six dollars for each day's attendance, and six dollars for every twenty miles travel, instead of the compensation now allowed by said act, and that it be referred to a committee to prepare and report a bill for altering and amending said act accordingly.

The PRESIDENT communicated a letter from the Commissioner of the General Land Office, transmitting copies of the reports of the Land Commissioners at Jackson Courthouse, and a copy of a letter, dated 17th August, 1820, which accompanied them; which were read.

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The PRESIDENT also communicated a report of the Secretary of the Treasury, made in obedience to a resolution of the Senate of the 3d April, 1820, directing him to "cause to be prepared, and laid before the Senate, at the commencement of the next session of Congress, a statement of money annually appropriated, and paid, since the Declaration of Independence, for purchasing from the Indians, surveying, and selling the public lands, showing, as near as may be, the quantities of land which have been purchased, the number of acres which have been surveyed, the number sold, and the number which remain unsold; the amount of sales, the amount of forfeitures, the sums paid by purchasers, and the sumns due from purchasers and from receivers in each land district;" and the report was read.


sold for more than one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, the excess shall be paid to the person surrendering the certificate, provided such excess shall never be greater than the amount actually paid on such lands before such surrender.

Resolved, That it is expedient to permit such purchasers of the public lands as may elect that mode, to extinguish their debt, complete their titles, and demand and receive patents, by paying, within the peday of riod of one year from and after the next, into their respective land offices, five-eighths of including interest, and computing the moneys already the original price at which their lands were purchased, paid as part of the said final payment of five-eighths.

Resolved, That it is expedient, in addition to the privilege contemplated in the preceding resolution, to permit such purchasers of the public lands as may elect that mode, at any time within the said period of The PRESIDENT also communicated a report of one year frem and after theday of next, to the Secretary of the Treasury, made in obedience forfeit and abandon to the United States such fracto a resolution of the Senate, directing him to tions, quarter sections, and half quarter sections, as "cause to be prepared, and laid before the Senate, they may deem fit; and to transfer and apply the at the commencement of the next session of moneys already paid on the tract or tracts so forfeited Congress, a statement of the money which has to the payment for such other fraction, quarter secbeen annually appropriated and paid, since the tion, or half quarter section as they may choose to reyear seventeen hundred and seventy-five, for sur-tain; and in cases where the purchaser has bought veying the seacoast, bays, inlets, harbors, and shoals, and for erecting, and keeping in repair, lighthouses, beacons, buoys, and for the purchase of ground for lighthouses, distinguishing the places where they have been erected, and the sums annually expended for keeping and supplying the same;" and the report was read. Adjourned to Monday.

MONDAY, November 20.

JOHN ELLIOTT, and also, FREEMAN WALKER, from the State of Georgia, severally arrived, on the 17th instant, and attended this day.

Mr. WALKER, of Alabama, from the committee to whom was referred the bill to alter the terms of the district court in Alabama, reported the same without amendment, and it was considered as in Committee of the Whole, and no amendment having been proposed thereto, it was reported to the House; and ordered to be engrossed and read a third time.

Mr. WALKER, of Alabama, submitted the following motions for consideration:

Resolved, That it is expedient to provide for the relief of purchasers of the public lands, by dividing the sums now severally unpaid, exclusive of interest, into equal instalments; each instalment bearing interest only from the time at which it shall be made payable.

Resolved, That it is expedient to permit such purchasers of the public lands as may elect that mode, to surrender, within months from and after the

day of next, their certificates, which shall be cancelled, and the lands shall be taken to have reverted and become forfeited to the United States, and shall be advertised, and sold for cash at public auction, to the highest bidder, in the same manner as other public lands. They shall not be sold for less than one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, which sum shall go to the use of the United States, in addition to the sums already paid; but if said lands should be so re

only one quarter section, he shall be permitted to divide it, and make his election between its halvessuch division being made by a north and south line according to law.

The PRESIDENT communicated a letter from the Secretary of State of the United States, requesting an additional supply of documents, printed by order of the Senate; and the letter was read, and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary.

The Senate resumed the consideration of Mr. SANFORD'S motions of the 17th instant, for referring to various committees the Message of the President of the United States; and agreed thereto.


The Senate then, pursuant to the order of the day, proceeded to the appointment, by ballot, of the standing committees, which resulted in the distribution of the members, as follows:

On the Committee of Foreign Relations-Messrs. BARBOUR, MACON, BROWN, HUNTER, and King of New York.

On Finance Messrs. SANFORD, MACON, DANA, EATON, and HOLMES of Maine.

On Commerce and Manufactures-Messrs. DICKERSON, RUGGLES, BURRILL, HORSEY, and SANFORD.

On Military Affairs-Messrs. WILLIAMS of Tennessee, TRIMBLE, TAYLOR, ELLIOTT, and JOHNSON of Kentucky.

On the Militia-Messrs. NOBLE, TICHENOR, STOKES, LANMAN, and CHANDler.

On Naval Affairs-Messrs. PLEASANTS, PARROTT, WILLIAMS of Mississippi, WALKER of Alabama, and WALKER of Georgia.

On the Public Lands-Messrs. THOMAS, TAYLOR, LOWRIE, EATON, and VAN DYKE.

On Indian Affairs-Messrs. HOLMES of Mississippi, JOHNSON of Kentucky, JOHNSON of Louisiana, KING of Alabama, and LOWRIE.

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TUESDAY, November 21.

Mr. WILLIAMS, of Tennessee, presented the memorial of William Kelly, on behalf of himself and divers others, claimants of land in the Territory of Arkansas, under Elisha and William Winter, deceased; and the memorial was read, and referred to the Committee on Public Lands.

Mr. HOLMES, of Maine, presented the memorial of the delegates from the commercial and agricultural sections of the State of Maine, met in convention at Portland, protesting against the proposed tariff; and the memorial was read, and referred to the Committee on Commerce and Manufactures.

The PRESIDENT communicated the memorial of Matthew Lyon, of Eddyville, Kentucky, praying compensation for certain losses and sufferings under the act commonly called the Sedition law; and the memorial was read, and referred to a select committee; and Messrs. BARBOUR, JOHNSON of Kentucky, and BURRILL, were appointed the committee.

Mr. PLEASANTS presented the memorial of the merchants and other inhabitants of the town of Petersburg, in the State of Virginia, in opposition to the proposed tariff; and the memorial was read, and referred to the Committee on Commerce and Manufactures.

Mr. HOLMES, of Mississippi, presented the petition of Clarissa Scott, widow of the late Colonel William Scott, of the State of Mississippi, praying the confirmation of her title to a certain tract of land, as stated in the petition; which was read, and referred to the Committee on Public Lands.

Mr. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, presented the petition of Rufus Easton, for himself and heirs of James Bruff, praying the confirmation of their title to a certain tract of land, as stated in the petition; which was read, and referred to the same committee.

The bill to alter the terms of the district court in Alabama was read a third time, and passed.

Mr. DICKERSON, after a few remarks reiterating his desire for the passage of the measure, and his continued confidence in its importance and utility, gave notice that he should, on to-morrow, ask leave to introduce a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution, in relation to the appointment of Electors of President and Vice


President of the United States, and members of the House of Representatives, [which was introduced by Mr. D., and passed the Senate at the last session; and was introduced yesterday in the House of Representatives by Mr. SMITH, of North Carolina.]

WEDNESDAY, November 22.

Mr. NOBLE presented the petition of sundry citizens of the Western States, purchasers of public lands, praying that a law may be passed enabling them to apply the payments already made, to such portions of their entries as those payments will cover, at two dollars an acre, agreeably to the law under which the entries were made, relinquishing the residue to the United States. And also allowing those purchasers who have purchased but one tract, the privilege of retaining it entire, with a reasonable extension of credit without interest, or otherwise relinquishing a part of it; and the petition was read, and referred to the Committee on Public Lands.

Mr. THOMAS presented two memorials of the Legislature of the State of Missouri, praying of Congress some legislative provisions for the relief of indigent actual settlers on the public lands, particularly widows and orphans; and the memorials were severally read, and respectively referred to the same committee.

Mr. DICKERSON obtained leave to introduce a resolution, proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, as it respects the election of Representatives in Congress, and the choice of Electors of President and Vice President of the United States; and the resolution was read, and passed to the second reading.

Mr. EATON obtained leave to introduce a bill for the relief of Robert Purdy; and the bill was read, and passed to the second reading.

The Senate resumed the consideration of the motions of Mr. WALKER of the 20th instant, in relation to purchasers of the public lands; and they were referred to the Committee on Public Lands.

The Senate resumed the consideration of the motion of Mr. JOHNSON of the 16th instant, in relation to the same subject; and it was referred to the same committee.

THURSDAY, November 23.

Mr. NOBLE submitted the following motion for consideration:

Resolved, That the Committee on Public Lands be instructed to inquire into the expediency of permitting such purchasers of the public lands, prior to the 1st of July, 1820, to demand and receive patents, who have paid into their respective land offices the first, second, and third instalments, on each tract purchased.

Mr. THOMAS Submitted the following motion for consideration:

Resolved, That the Committee on Public Lands be instructed to inquire into the expediency of providing, by law, for granting to actual settlers on the public lands the right of pre-emption in becoming the purchasers of lands, including their improvements.

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