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PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES

OF

THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES,

AT THE SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS, BEGUN AT THE CITY OF WASHINGTON, MONDAY, NOVEMBER 13, 1820.

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President's Annual Message.

NOVEMBER, 1820.

been shaken, and the long and destructive wars in which all were engaged, with their sudden transition to a state of peace, presenting, in the first instance, unusual encouragement to our commerce, and withdrawing it in the second, even within its wonted limit, could not fail to be sensibly felt here. The station, too, which we had to support through this long conflict, compelled as we were finally to become a party to it with a principal Power, and to make great exertions, suffer heavy losses, and to contract considerable debts, disturbing the ordinary course of affairs, by augmenting, to a vast amount, the circulating medium, and thereby elevating, at one time, the price of every article above a just standard, and depressing it at anobelow it, had likewise its due effect.

to make to them.

Mr. KING, of Alabama, reported, from the joint committee, that they had waited on the President of the United States, and that the President informed the committee that he would make a communication to the two Houses forthwith.

It is manifest that the pressures of which we complain have proceeded, in a great measure, from these causes. When, then, we take into view the prospergreat circumstances which constitute the felicity of a ous and happy condition of our country, in all the his rights: the Union blessed with plenty, and rapidly nation-every individual in the full enjoyment of all rising to greatness, under a national Government, which operates with complete effect in every part, without being felt in any, except by the ample protection which it affords, and under State governments which perform their equal share, according to a wise distribution of power between them, in promoting the public hap

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.

The following Message was received from the piness-it is impossible to behold so gratifying, so gloPRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Fellow-citizens of the Senate

rious a spectacle, without being penetrated with the most profound and grateful acknowledgments to the Supreme Author of all good for such manifold and inestimable blessings. Deeply impressed with these sentiments, I cannot regard the pressures to which I have adverted otherwise than in the light of mild and instructive admonitions; warning us of dangers to be shunned in future; teaching us lessons of economy, corresponding with the simplicity and purity of our institutions, and best adapted to their support; evincing the connexion and dependence which the various parts of our happy Union have on each other, thereby augmenting daily our social incorporation, and adding, by its strong ties, new strength and vigor to the political; opening a wider range, and with new encouragement, to the industry and enterprise of our fellowcitizens at home and abroad; and more especially by the multiplied proofs which it has accumulated of the great perfection of our most excellent system of government, the powerful instrument, in the hands of our all-merciful Creator, in securing to us these blessings.

and of the House of Representatives : In communicating to you a just view of public affairs, at the commencement of your present labors, I do it with great satisfaction; because, taking all circumstances into consideration which claim attention, I see much cause to rejoice in the felicity of our situation. In making this remark, I do not wish to be understood to imply that an unvaried prosperity is to be seen in every interest of this great community. In the progress of a nation, inhabiting a territory of such vast extent and great variety of climate, every portion of which is engaged in foreign commerce, and liable to be affected, in some degree, by the changes which occur in the condition and regulations of foreign countries, it would be strange if the produce of our soil and the industry and enterprise of our fellow-citizens received at all times, and in every quarter, an uniform and equal encouragement. This would be more than we would have a right to expect, under circumstances the most favorable. Pressures on certain interests, it is admitted, has been felt; but allowing to these their greatest extent, they detract but little from the force of the remarks already made. In forming a just mate of our present situation, it is proper to look at the whole, in the outline, as well as in the detail. A free, virtuous, and enlightened people know well the great principles and causes on which their happiness depends; and even those who suffer most, occasionally, in their transitory concerns, find great relief under their sufferings, from the blessings which they otherwise enjoy, and in the consoling and animating hope which they administer. From whence do these pressures come? Not from a Government which is founded by, administered for, and supported by the people. We trace them to the peculiar character of the epoch in which we live, and to the extraordinary occurrences which have signalized it. The convulsions with which several of the Powers of Europe have

SENATE.

gress, to exert their influence to reduce the compensation of members of Congress to six dollars per day; and the resolution was read.

On motion by Mr. WALKER, of Alabama, the Senate adjourned to one o'clock in the afternoon. One o'clock in the afternoon.

A message from the House of Representatives informed the Senate that a quorum of the House of Representatives is assembled, and have elected JOHN W. TAYLOR, one of the Representatives from the State of New York, their Speaker, in the place of Henry Clay, resigned, and are ready to proceed to business; and that they have appointed a committee on their part to join the committee appoint-ther ed on the part of the Senate, to wait on the President of the United States, and inform him that a quorum of the two Houses is assembled, and ready to receive any communications he may be pleased

Happy as our situation is, it does not exempt us from solicitude and care for the future. On the contrary, as the blessings which we enjoy are great, proesti-portionably great should be our vigilance, zeal, and activity, to preserve them. Foreign wars may again expose us to new wrongs, which would impose on us new duties, for which we ought to be prepared. The state of Europe is unsettled, and how long peace may be preserved is altogether uncertain; in addition to which, we have interests of our own to adjust, which will require particular attention. A correct view of our relations with each Power will enable you to form a just idea of existing difficulties, and of the measures of precaution best adapted to them.

Respecting our relations with Spain, nothing explicit can now be communicated. On the adjournment of Congress in May last, the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, at Madrid, was instructed to inform the Government of Spain that, if His

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