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inhabitants are good graziers. However, the chief riches of this part of the country consist in the celebrated quarries of Carrara narble. Manufacturing and Agricultural Industry. In the duchy of Massa and its vicinity, agriculture is cultivated to the extreme point of which it is susceptible. Not a handful of soil remains uncultivated, and the laborious hand of the needy agriculturist allows neither truce or repose to the fertile glebe. Notwithstanding this, the duchy of Massa does not produce grain enough to nourish its inhabitants four months of the year. The laborious peasantry of Massa are sober, patient, and indefatigable. From morn to eve they work like beasts of burden; yet, in spite of their laboriousness, they are ill clothed, ill fed, and ill housed, leading, certainly, no joyous life. It seems, at first, surprising that this needy rural population should exist in the most fertile parts of the soil. But the surprise ceases when we contemplate the limited extent of the Massese territory, and its superabun. dant inhabitants. Whenever in a purely agricultural country the just equilibrium between production and consumption is destroyed, penury neces. sarily results. And the reason is plain. A loaf which will sustain two or three, cannot be made to support ten. This self-evident truth seems entirely overlooked by the old economists. Persuaded that the public wealth would increase with equal rapidity as the population, they turned all their attention to the means of increasing that population, never reflecting that, especially in the salubrious and fertile provinces of central Italy, land would much sooner fail the people than people the land. Pre-occupied with the present, they neither thought nor cared about the future. Hence arose dotations for the encouragement of marriage, premi. ums by public associations to fathers of large families; the abolition of majorities, the breaking up of large holdings, and their consequent division into ever decreasing portions. Their peculiar system of tenancy assists the tendency to multiply families. Introduced from Tuscany into the duchy of Massa, it has produced all the results which are so visible. The population is denser than it ought to be. All the holdings are copyhold; i. e., holding from a seigneur, or lord of the manor. Few are free. Property in land is literally so reduced into fragments that an owner is often found included in the class of the miserable poor. This class is also the more extended, as the inhabitants, hoping everything from the soil, confine their labor to it, seldom resorting to other industry. The duchy of Massa is, consequently, tributary to the foreigner for all that contributes to the conveniences of life, and these it obtains from the neighboring Livor. no. Its traffic is hence limited and passive. Indeed, with the exception of the sculpture of marble, the local industry has produced not a single article of exchange, so that, were it not for the resource of block marble, trade would fail for want of equivalents. Marine. The coast, though extensive, has no port. The most frequented places are Avenga and San Giuseppe. The first is nearest to Carrara, and is the place of shipment for the marble. The largest vessel does not exceed fifty tons. The marbles are carried to Livorno or Genoa, where they are transhipped in other vessels there waiting. The state of Modena has no war-marine. The commercial marine is limited to a very few vessels of various denominations. There are five of 360 tons burthen, with a crew of thirty men. This petty marine is engaged in fishing and in the coasting trade, plying between Viareggio, the mouth of the Arno, and Livorno. Occasionally a voyage is made to the Tiber, to Sicily, or to the parts opposite Genoa and Nice. No single instance has occurred of an Austrian vessel being shipwrecked on this coast Commerce by Sea. A state with so small a population, deprived altogether of artificers, can have no great means of commerce. Indeed the importations, consisting of grain, colonial produce, and manufactured goods, have no other demand than the limited local consumption. The greatest part of this merchandise comes from Livorno, a little from Geneva.-Of exportation, block and worked marble form the chief bulk; then oranges, lemons, garlick and onions.

Block marble,............... 1,300,000 lira. Oranges and lemons,...... 8,000 lira. Worked marble,............ 130,000 “ Garlick and onions,........ 40,000 “

Commerce by Land. Grain, wine, and other small matters, are brought from Tuscany. Oxen come principally from Genoreseto, and Parmegiano, affording an active and lucrative traffic. Fattened beasts obtain twenty to thirty dollars per head, and are brought to Livorno for the food of the inhabitants, and the provisioning of the marine. The annual import of cattle is valued at 225,000 lira, and the annual export, at 180,000.

General observations. When we consider the limited extent of the coast, and the absence of accessible ports, we must allow that the duchy of Modena, from its geographical position, seems destined to occupy the lowest place among the maritime states of Italy. It is to be further observed that the nerve of the population is to be found on the plains of Lombardy, separated from the sea by the Appenines. Although, therefore, the provinces of the coast are washed by the Mediterranean, the trans-Appenine provinces are forced to have recourse to the ports of the Adriatic for its supplies from beyond sea. Modena is thus rendered tributary to the neighboring emporium of Venice, nor can it ever alter this course of trade, which ever follows the shortest and cheapest route. Livorno can only be made the place whence to supply the Modenese, in the event of a railroad being made across the Pontremoli mountains, as was proposed formerly, or across the Pitoja mountains, as is now proposed; and terminating in Lombardy. But the ports of the Adriatic can be also rendered more accessible by the railroads which are about to start in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom.

We may thus conclude that the maritime commerce of Modena, circumscribed in the province of Massa, seems susceptible of no great increase ; while the commerce by land, according to all probability, will remain dependent on the bordering Lombardo-Venetian provinces.

DUCHY OF LUCCA.

Population. There is no state in Italy which, in proportion, is so densely peopled as Lucca. On a superficies of 320 square miles, it contains 139,000 inhabitants. The clergy, including friars, monks, and nuns, 2,130; the military, 750; engaged in civil employments, 1,270; attached to industry and commerce, 6,300; attached to the marine, 550; proprietors, 40,000; attached to agriculture, 88,000; total, 139,000. The most striking part of this statement is, that nearly the mass of the people, almost every third individual, is a proprietor. The dwindling down of the estates has here, as elsewhere, produced its inevitable result, an undue increase of the population, and both individual and collective wealth is, consequently, rather diminished than increased. The great families have lost their possessions. But those possessions, at first divided, and subsequently subdivided indefinitely, whom do they now profit? This question I cannot now stop to discuss. I have stated the fact solely because it proves moderation to be good in all cases. I am of opinion that the principle of constant and successive division of properties is injurious to the development of all industry, inasmuch as it impedes the increase of capital so necessary in our time. Where this is wanting, all great enterprises are impossible; and if England had the American and French law of succession, she would never have attained the eminent commercial and political post she occupies in the world at present. This, however, is not the place to treat of this question, whatever interest attaches to it; and leaving this short digression, I resume the examination of my subject. Productions. Beside the cereal productions, which do not equal the consumption, the two principal productions of the duchy of Lucca are oil and silk. Lucca oil is considered the best in all Italy, and is sought after in all the markets of Europe and America. The mulberry is carefully and successfully cultivated in the plains. The mountains are covered with forests of chesnuts, which, in great measure, serve for the food of the indigent classes. Agricultural and Manufacturing Industry. The Serchio is to Lucca what the Nile is to Egypt, in rendering the soil fertile. Owing to an extensive and well understood system of irrigation, the fields, after an ample harvest, yield a second crop. As respects agricultural industry, the duchy of Lucca is no way inferior, even to the Massese districts, which are held to be cultivated like a garden. The peasants of Lucca are not only indefatigable laborers, but are also ingenious artificers, who, when not employed with the plough or the spade, resort to sedentary employments. During the hours of rest from out-door labor, the women spin, and the men weave. The old industrial traditions are not wholly lost in the country parts. It is owing to this, that Lucca has a population somewhat in a better condition than Massa, as the latter territory has no other resource than what springs from the immediate cultivation of the fields. Thus, in the capital as in the country parts, there are various manufactories, and silk spinneries, where some 2,500 operatives are employed. The woollen manufacture is also cultivated with success, employing about 900 individuals. Beside the tissues of silk and wool, there are fustians and other coarse stuffs in linen, hemp, and cotton, for internal consumption ; other manufactories, as woollen caps, paper, hats, and glass, as well as copper foundries. This is, though on a small scale, a germ which, with greater or less solicitude, and in more propitious times, will develop itself. Marine. With 6,000 inhabitants, Viareggia is the only port of Lucca, and this is only accessible to the small barks which ply the coasting trade. They carry, principally, wood, building materials, fruit, vegetables, and like articles. Wessels of more than one hundred tons are obliged to ride at large, which is very injurious to the port. Although the city has a safe and commodious anchorage, yet there are great obstacles to its obtaining any maritime and commercial importance. The smallness of the state, and its limited resources, together with the existence, in its immediate vi. cinity, of two large emporia, like Livorno and Genoa, are the two great obstacles to its increase. Lucca has no war-marine. Its merchant marine of all sizes numbers 190 vessels, with a tonnage of 21,000, and a crew numbering 460 indi.

viduals. The number of vessels which entered and left the port of Viareggia (including foreign vessels,) for the last year, is reckoned at 120. No Austrian vessel has ever been known, voluntarily, or by stress of weather, to have approached the Lucchese shores.

Maritime Commerce. The maritime traffic of Lucca may be divided into direct and indirect, as it comes through Viareggio or Livorno. The direct commerce is the smallest. The exportations are of oil, fruit, corn, vegetables, wood for burning, brooms, and other small articles. The importations by sea, are salt fish, colonial produce, coal, wine, and a small quantity of manufactured articles.

Land Commerce. Lucchese commerce is centered in Livorno. Very little merchandise is brought by way of Viareggio, between which city and the capital, the mountain of Chiesa interposes itself. It is far cheaper and quicker for the merchants to obtain their supplies from the Tuscan emporium. Hence, the maritime commerce of Lucca takes the character of a land commerce from Livorno. The importations consist, principally, of colonial produce, salt and other provisions, manufactured goods, hardware, and other articles of foreign origin. The exportations consist of oil, to the value of 800,000 lira, silk goods, value about 200,000, caps, and other linen and cotton fabrics, value about 100,000. The oils are principally sought after from the North. The silks and caps are greatly in demand in the Levant, and are carried to Tunis and Algiers. The rest, as it passes through Livorno, is mixed up with the commercial operations of that port.

General Observations. Oil, its production and sale, has ever been the great resource of Lucca. There has been no great variation in its production. The industry engaged in silk, as well as that in wool, has greatly increased. The caps of the Donati fabric, enjoy a great reputation through all the Levant, so much so, that the manufacture cannot supply all the demand that comes from Beyrout and Tunis. The connection between Algiers and the whole coast of Africa and Lucca, is greatly extending itself. The manufacturing industry of Lucca is, therefore, in a state of progress. It is, nevertheless, susceptible of still greater development. Running waters abound in the territory of Lucca, affording constant water-power, which is of inappreciable advantage, and which the inhabitants will, in time, learn to turn to due account. A railway is in course of construction between Lucca and Pisa, by means of which Livorno will become the only outlet of Lucca, to the total exclusion of Viareggio. These, and other circumstances, will enable the manufactures of Lucca to make great progress. And this is also inferred from the natural disposition of the inhabitants, their hereditary habits, the great abundance of running waters, the small remuneration for labor, and from the surplus population which cannot find sufficient employment for it in agriculture. It is hence that the periodical emigrations take place to Tuscany, Corsica, Sardinia, and Algiers; emigrations that would cease the moment that sufficient employment was created at home.

Grand DUCHY OF TUSCANY.

Population. From an official document which has fallen into my possession, I find the population of Tuscany, in 1803, was, in the cities, 211,695; in the country parts, 847,236; total, 1,058,931, distributed in various employments, as follows: agriculture, 921,111 ; commerce and manufactures, 81,660; public employments, 30,000; military, 4,000; church, 22,160; total, 1,058,931. In 1841, according to the census then taken by authority, the population amounted to 1,489,980, being an increase since 1803, of 431,949. The present distribution into classes is not known, but the best probable estimate is as follows: agriculture, 1,263,007; commerce and manufactures, 150,000; public employments, 40,000; church, 16,373; military, 7,000; fisheries and marine, 13,600; total, 1,489,980; of which the Florentine provinces number 699,422; Pisanese provinces, including Livorno, 342,733; other provinces, 447,825; total, 1,489,980. From this estimate it appears that the number of individuals engaged in commerce and industry, has increased in the greatest proportion. Commerce and Industry. The last thirty to forty years have entirely changed the nature of Tuscan commerce. It was formerly entirely one of transit; now it is essentially one of consumption. Livorno used to be one perpetual fair for the interchange of oriental and western products. This has now altogether ceased. Let us return to the year 1803, to insti. tute a comparison. In that year, the importations amounted to 14,910,135 lira, and the exportations to 14,041,579 lira. The importations were of silk cloth, flax, rope, cotton, gall-nuts, dyewoods, drugs, medicines, metals, wax, glass, wines, liquors, linen cloth, and hardware. The exports were of oil, grain, wine, fresh and dried fruits, salt meat, building timber, coal, tartar, silk cloth, straw and felt hats, sulphur, iron, and alabaster. Fortytwo years ago, foreign grain hardly appears in the list of imports. Now it is the chief import. On an average of years, there arrive one million of sacks, which, at the medium price of ten lira per sack, amounts to 10,000,000 lira. This is an addition of a new and important branch of commerce since 1802. Since then, the exports have been deprived of two rich articles of commerce, straw hats, and works in alabaster, but have been enriched by several new articles of value, namely, salt of borax, pitcoal, copper, litharge, statuary marble, paper, potash, &c. We do not know the amount of the exports from Tuscany, but may estimate it at about three times the value of the exports of 1803. They are greatly on the increase. When Tuscany shall have extended and matured its undertakings in works of metallurgy and mineralogy, she will not a little have improved her economical condition. The balance of commerce will preponderate in her favor. The products which she has to sell, will surpass in value those she will have to buy. This change for the better is neither imaginary nor improbable. The greater growth of grain along the coast will diminish the imports of foreign grain. Her industry, favored by local circumstances, is making healthy progress. The time seems not remote, when Tuscany, from her extended coast, her islands, and her numerous ports, will become essentially a maritime and commercial state. To question this truth, were to confess ignorance of her geographical position. To get to the sea was the cause of the bitter wars that the Republic of Florence sustained and waged, and which ended in the ruin of Pisa. The Medicean sovereigns maintained a naval force beyond what was neces. sary. Few soldiers, but many sailors, was the maxim of the Grand Duke, Peter Leopold. That esteemed prince lavished his treasures to create a war-marine, and to extend the merchant service. His many undertakings for such purposes, have ever been reckoned worthy of all praise and of imitation. It is not grateful to think that his projects with respect to the

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