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Names.
Length-miles. Capital.

Cost. 3. Worcester,

$2,900,000 $3,000,000 00 Norwich,

66

2,150,000 2,170,491 77 Western,..

156
3,400,000

7,999,555 56 Connecticut River, .......

36
1,000,000

511,472 99 Hartford...

25
300,000

300,000 00 Berkshire,.....

21
250,000

250,000 00 West Stockbridge,

39,600

39,600 00 6. Providence.......

41

1,960,000 1,964,677 16 Stoughton,...

7
85,600

88,814 14 Taunton,......

11
250,000

250,000 00 New Bedford,..

21
400,000

453,623 29 7. Old Colony,......

37
800,000

889,730 00 Middleborough,..

300,000

317,805 39 Total,...........

710 822,202,700 $26,712,123 57 This statement shows that a capital of $22,202,700 is already invested in over 700 miles of railroads in Massachusetts, on which there has been espended $26,712,123 57. It is estimated that railroads are now constructing or projected, which will be nearly of as great length, and require as great an amount of capital, as those already built.

The following statement exhibits a view of the business done on these roads for 1845, showing the number of miles run by the different trains on the roads, the gross income and expenditures, and the rate of dividends made :

Miles travelled. Income. Espenditures. Div. 1. Eastern,

Names.

218,583 $350,149 55 $116,840 00 8 2. Maine,

194,946 287,063 10 154,099 95 7 3. Lowell,

175,537 356,067 67 179,042 13 8 Nashua,

43,065 112,680 89 48,009 94 15 4. Fitchburg, (a)....

167,816 203,996 36 78,333 76 8 Charlestown,

14,800 26,814 04 16,276 77 5. Worcester,

253,706 487,455 53 249,729 50 Norwich.......

173,230 204,308 45 134,229 03 3 Western,....

530,201 813,480 15 370,621 25 Connecticut River, (b).

15,268 13,521 06 8,001 26 Hartford,...

14,559 Berkshire,

29,359 West Stockbridge,

4,410 2,311 20 447 52 4 6. Providence,

175,203 350,628 97 197,827 11 7 Stoughton,

4,232 7,810 00 2,904 76 aunton,

27,988 116,536 99 100,889 95 8 New Bedford.........

48,040 78,211 12 29,353 76 7 7. Old Colony, (a).

2,550 Middleborough, (b).......... 17,800 15,796 72 8,205 83 Total...........:

2,111,293 $3,426,831 80 $1,694,812 52 In the above statements the roads marked (a) were not completed so as to be open during the whole year. Those marked (6) are now construct. ing, and but a small part only of them was open at all. If all had been in full operation during the whole year, the amount would have been in. creased in each particular. As they were, however, those whose business is specified above, show a gross amount of income of $3,426,831 80, and expenditures of $1,694,812 52. This is independent of those roads out of the state with which these roads connect. The several trains travelled 2,111,293 miles, a distance nearly equal to going twice round the world, every week!

Public Valuation, Taxes, ETC. Information on these matters cannot

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Real estate.

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1820,...

361

1829......

fail to be interesting, and much labor has been expended by Mr. Shattuck to present it so as to be clearly understood.

City VALUATION AND Taxes. Table VIII, contains the valuation of the real and personal property of the city, the taxes assessed, and the rate in each $100 of the valuation, since 1800.

TABLE VIII.—PROGRESSIVE WEALTH.
City Valuation of the Real and Personal Estate; the Polls; the Tax assessed ; and

rate per cent, for different years.
Years.
Personal estate. Total valuation. Polls.

Tax. On $100. 1800,...... $6,901,000 $8,194,700 $15,095,700 4,543 $83,428 75 1810,...... 10,177,200 8,272,300 18,450,500 7,764 144,486 72 39 1814,...... 16,557,000 13,859,400 30,416,400 6,636 131,330 00 40 1815,...... 18,265,600 14,647,400 32,913,000 6,457 157,794 00 45 1816, 21,059,800 15,448,000 36,507,800 7,755 157,663 70 40 1817,...... 21,643,600 16,373,400 38,017.000 7,497 163,313 50 40 1818, 22,321,800 16,879,400 39,201,200 7,699 172,592 04 41 1819..... 22,795,800 16,583,400 39,379,200 8,030 169,859 10 40

21,687,000 16,602,200 38,289,200 7,810 165,228 30 40 1821, 22,122,000 18,671,600 40,793,600 8,646 174,968 32 391 1822, 23,364,400 18,775,800 42,140,200 8,880 167,583 37 1823, 25,367,000 19,529,800 44,896,800 9,855 172,423 60 35 1824, 27,303,800 22,540,000 49,843,800 10,807 228,181 65 42] 1825,

30,992,000 21,450,600 54,442,600 11,660 201,039 10 401 1826, 34,203,000 25,246,200 59,449,200 12,602 226,975 20 35 1827

36,061,400 29,797,000 65,858.800 12,442 242,946 40 35 1828, 35,908,000 25,615,200 61,523,200 12,535 235,115 77 351

36,963,800 24,104,200 61,068,000 13,495 261,461 10 39} 1830, 36,960,000 22,626,000 59,586,000 13,096 260,967 30 403 1831, 37,675,000 23,023,200 60,698,200 13,618 260,184 89 394 1832, 39,145,200 28,369,200 67,514,400 14,184 298,085 84 1833, 40,966,400 29,510,800 70,477,200 14,899 321,876 60

421 1834,

43,140,600 31,665,200 74,805,800 15,137 374,292 76 47 1835, 47,552,800 31,749,800 79,302,600 16,188 408,899 61 48] 1836, 53,373,000 34,895,000 88,245,000 16,719 444,656 65 47} 1837, 56,311,600 33,272,200 89,583,800 17,182 473,692 00 50 1838,

57,372,400 32,859,200 90,231,600 15,615 465,557 34 49

58,577,800 33,248,600 91,826,400 16,561 543,660 66 1840,

60,424,200 34,157,400 94,581,600 17,696 546,742 80 55 1841, 61,963,000 36,043,600 98,006,600 18,915 616,412 10 60 1842,

65,499,900 41,223,800 105,723,700 19,636 637,779 09 57 1843, 67,673,400 42,372,600 110,056,000 20,063 712,379 70

62 1844,

72,048,000 46,402,300 118,450,300 22,339 744,210 30 60 1845...... 81,991,400 53,957,300 135,948,700 24,287 811,338 09 57

NOTE. In 1812 the tax was first assessed upon the full valuation. For many years previous to that, the valuation was entered on the assessors' records at half its real value, and the taxes assessed on that amount. To present the facts uniformly in this inble, the valuation has been doubled, and the rate of taxation halved, in the years before 1842.

The following deductions are made from this table, showing, between specific periods, the increase of the valuation and taxes, compared with each other, and with the increase of the population :Years.

Valuation.
Increase.
Taxes.

Increase 1800, $15,095,700

$83,428 75 1810,

18,450,500 $3,354,800 144,486 72 $61,057 97 1820, 38,289,200 19,838,700 165,228 30

20,741 58 1830,

59,586,000 21,296,800 260,967 30 95,739 00 1840,

94,581,600 34,995,600 546,742 80 285,775 50 1845,

135,918.700 41,367,100 811,333 19 264,595 39 The next statement presents the increase per cent of the population,

1839,

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1810 to 1820....... 1820 10 1830.......

Estates.

Valuation.

raluation, and the taxes, and the number of dollars of the valuation and
tares to each inhabitant.
INCREASE PER CENT.

TO EACH INTIABITANT.
Year.
Population. Valuation. Taxes.

Year. Valnation. Taxes, 1800 to 1810........ 35.48 22.22 73.18

1810, $546 08 $4 27 28.15 55.62 14.35

1820, 884 31 3 81 41.78 107.52 57.94

1830, 970 58 4 25 1830 to 1840, 38.45 58.73 109.50

1840, 1,012 72 6 43 1840 to 1845.....' 31.54 43.37 48.39

1845, 1,188 71 han 08 These deductions show that the valuation and taxes increase in a greater ratio than the population.

The great increase in the valuation of the property of Boston has led to the inquiry, how far particular estates have been affected? There is a general rise in the intrinsic value of real estate, but, in some places and sections, this rise is greater than in others. For the purpose of illustration and comparison, three estates were selected in different parts of the city, so situated as not to be specially affected in regard to their valuation, by any local improvement in their immediate neighborhood; and the val. nation and taxes assessed upon them at three different periods ascertained; and the following results were obtained :

Taxes. 1836. 1840. 1845.

1835. 1840. 1845. 1, $5,000 $6,600 $6,600 $24 25 $36 30 $36 30 2, 5,000 5,600 6,200

24 25 30 80 35 34 3, 4,400 4,400 6,000 21 34 24 30 34 20 This shows that the same property was more highly valued, and paid a higher tax, in 1845 than in 1835, notwithstanding there is a vast increase in the real value of certain sections, and a vast amount of new property created ; and it has been supposed that this “marking up” the property will partially account for the increase of the aggregate valuation of the city.

A classification of the individual tax-payers according to the amount of tar they pay, affords a striking illustration of the progressive wealth of the

and for this purpose the following statement was prepared by Mr. Shattuck, showing the number of tax bills, and the number of each class, at six different periods, at intervals of five years each :

1820. 1825. 1830. 1835. 1810. 1845. Poll tax alone,.......

1,852 4,523

5,777 7,546 8,700 13,105 Under 25 dollars,

4,314 5,201

5,602 6,267 6,812 9,196 $25 to 100,

1,212 1,068 1,453 1,782 2,329 2,869
281 243

390

435 555 839 $200 to 300, 50 89 127 174 218

314 $300 to 400,

116
33
90 107

162
$100 to 500,
6 15

66 110 8500 to 750, 4 16 32 50 61

137 $750 to 1,000,

1
7 19 24 34

43 $1,000 to 1,500,

5
2
4 15 19

50 $1,500 to 2,000,

3
4 5
4 13

11 $2,000 to 2,500,

1
1
1
5

5 $2,500 to 3,000,

1
2

3 83,000 to 3,500,

city;

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Classes of bills.

$100 to 200...............

56

29

33

2 $3,500 to 4,000,

3 $4,000 to 4,500, $4,500 to 5,000,

Over 5,000.........

Total, ...........

7,745 11,203 13,499 16,428 18,923

26,848

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66

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Year.

Debt.

1825,..

1829,..

According to this statement those who paid a poll tax, only,
In 1820,

were 1,852, or 22 per cent.
In 1830,..

5,777, or 42 In 1840,

8,700, or 45 In 1845,

13,105, or 48 City Debt. By a standing ordinance, the proceeds of bonds and mort. gages held by the city of Boston, the sales of public lands, the balance in the treasury at the close of the year, and a special appropriation of 3 cent of the debt, the same not being less than $50,000, is applied by the city to the payment of the principal of the debt. The interest has always been paid by taxes, or by the ordinary receipts of the city. The following statement exhibits the amount of the city debt, its increase or decrease, and the appropriations to pay the principal and the annual interest, for each year, ending May 1st, since it was first commenced, in 1823.

Increase or decrease. An. interest. Spec'l appr. 1823,

$103,550 00—First city debt. 1824,

207,050 00 $93,500 00 inc.

305,873 00 98,823 85 “ 1826,

364,800 32 58,926 47 “ 1827,

1,011,775 00 646,974 68 " 1828,

949,350 00 62,425 00 dec.

911,850 00 37,500 00“ 1830,

891,930 75

19,919 25 “ 1831,

880,830 75 11,600 00 • 1832,

817,123 93 63,206 72 1833,

940,358 28 33,234 35 inc. 1834,

1,078.088 28 138,730 00“ 1835, 1,147,398 97 69,310 69 "

$58,804 19 $15,000 1836,

1,264,400 00 117,001 03" 63,195 50 15,000 1837,

1,497,200 00 232,800 00 " 77,355 50 15,000 1838,

1,491,400 00 5,800 00 dec. 76,456 50 15,000 1839,

1,596,600 00 105,200 00 inc. 81,522 50 15,000 1840,

1,698,232 56 101,632 56“ 86,588 95 45,000 1841,

1,663,800 00 34,432 56 dec. 84,187 00 45,000 1842,

1,594,700 00
69,100 00

80,717 00 50,000
1843,
1,518,700 00 76,00000"

77,677 00

50,000 1844, 1,423,800 00 95,900 00“ 72,174 50

50,000 1,163,266 62 260,533 38 " 58,435 50 50,000 From May 1st, 1845, to January 1st, 1846, this debt was further reduced $105,249 96, leaving it at that time, $1,058,016 66. There was then on hand, pledged to its reduction, cash $120,894 68, and bonds and mortgages $378,143 79, making the nett debt $558,978 19.

CITY PROPERTY. The value of the property owned by the city, disposable and undisposable, may be estimated as in the subjoined statement; such as is marked (p) is productive, the remainder is unproductive. Common-45 acres, 1,960,200 feet, at $4 00,........

$7,840,800 “ The Cradle of Liberty"-Faneuil Hall, (p).

200,000 Washington Square,.

392,040 City Hall, Court Square,.

200,000 Court-House,..

200,000 Office of Register of Deeds and Probate,.

50,000 City Building, (p).........

35,000 Faneuil Hall Market, (p)........

500,000 Old State-House, State-street, (p)..

100,000 Leverett-street Jail and land attached,.

90,000 Public Institutions, South Boston,..

400,000 School-houses,...

616,217 14 Engine-houses and fire apparatus,..

50,000

1

1845,...........

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103 Reservoirs, (36 built in 1845, costing $15,000,)..........
1,000,000 feet land below Charles-street, at $1 50 per foot,
3,000,000 « land on the Neck, at 40 per foot,.
1,500,000 “ Marsh Land at 25 per foot,........
27,000 “ land, near the City Stables,

8,940 “ Flats, near foot of Chestnut-street,...
City Wharf, and stores on the same, (p)..
Deer Island, (p)................
600 feet on Ann-street, (p)..

$50,000 1,500,000 1,200,000 375,000 100,000

1,000 600,000 10,000 2,500

State tax.

£ 8.

8. d.

$14,512,557 The city has also about 92,000 feet, or 17 miles, of common sewers, of which 43,659 feet were built from 1837 to 1845.

STATE Valuation. Mr. Shattuck gives, in his appendix, a table containing the valuation affixed upon Boston by the Legislature at different periods, which has formed the basis of the state tax. As this is a matter of considerable interest, he examined the ancient valuation of the city, and ascertained its proportion of the whole state tax. Some facts on this subject are presented in this connection. The state tax, and the amount and relative proportion paid by Boston, appear thus :Years.

Boston paid. Ratio per cent. 1658,

1,000 0
216 000

21.6
1669,

1,205 3
202 17 0

16.7
1675,..

1,299 0
206 00 0

15.9
1724,
14,000 0 2,568 03 0

18.0
1728,
8,000 0 1,480 000

18.5
1734–42......

17.3
1742–48,

75,000 0 13,500 000 18.0
1764,
50,000 0 5,646 09 2

11.3
1774,

10,312 0
951 00 0

9.2
1784,
200,000 0 11,345 000

5.6 This statement affords a curious illustration of the relative wealth of the city. If the state and city valuation in Mr. Shattuck's appendix be examined, there will appear considerable difference in the respective years. Comparing these valuations, and the valuations of the whole state, some important deductions are derived.

The aggregate population, polls and valuation of the whole state, ap

pear thus :

1821,...

Years.
Population, Polls.

Valuation.
1791,..

365,734 84,333 $2,620,974 85 1801,..

422,640 93,305 4,218,137 66 1811,

461,462 115,972 5,878,590 09

523,092 122,715 9,218,018 89 1831,

610,014 150,591 208,360,407 54 1840,

737,326 185,908 299,878,329 60 The subjoined statement shows the proportion of this valuation fixed upon Boston, and the relation it has sustained to the whole state in regard to population, polls, valuation, and the state tax, at the period specified.

IN EACR 100 OF THE WHOLE STATE, BOSTON KAD Years. Valuation of Boston. Population.

Polls. Valuation. Tax. 1791........... $351,243 22 5.

4.3 13.4

9.7 1801, 805,666 76 5.8 4.9 19.

12.5 1811,

1,287,417 60 7.2 8.6 21.9 13.7 1821.. 3,585,568 00 8.2 7,7 38.8

33.1 1831,

80,000,000 00 10. 9.3 38.3 32.9 1840...................

109,304,218 50 11.5 9.9 36.4 33.9 VOL. XV.NO. I.

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