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It may also be called to mind that the combined region under immediate review does not include all of " the western country" embraced by the census of 1840. Every principle applicable to the sections named applies also to the western parts of New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, on which we find recorded on the census tables of 1840Western New York,.......

1,683,068 Pennsylvania,....

815,289 Virginia,

147,514

Amount,......
Add......

2,645,871 5,302,918

Total, 1840, on " western country,”.

7,948,789 Those parts of New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, if combined, embrace a length from northeast to southwest of 700 miles, and a mean breadth of at least 100 miles area, 70,000 square miles; which, if added to 526,000, yields an entire superficies of 596,000, or, for all general purposes, we may say 600,000 square miles, and in like manner assume 8,000,000 of inhabitants; not yielding a distributive population of 14 to the square mile,

Without attempting to compare “the great West," or rather the part of it under review, to the most dense part of the Atlantic border, let us see what would be its aggregate population if equal to that of Pennsylvania in 1840. Pennsylvania, with a superficies of about 47,000 square miles, had in 1840 within a fraction of 1,174,000 inhabitants--a like proportion on 600,000 square miles would approach 15,000,000-an amount yielding only 25 to the square mile.

We might continue these comparative views, and give far stronger illustrations of the subject; but we pause, and will close this paper with the foilowing:

If a line is drawn from the Gulf of Mexico, along the western borders of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri, and from the northwestern angle of the latter, up the Missouri river to the Mandan villages, and thence due north to latitude 49°, the space left between such a line and the Atlantic ocean comprises to a small comparative fraction of 1,300,000 square miles. We have already seen that the Atlantic slope contains 300,000 square miles, which, if deducted from the whole extent, as above, leaves 1,000,000 of square miles between the Appalachian mountains and the central line we have traced. This great central region, by the census of 1840, had a distributive population differing little from eight to the square mile.

75

For the moment, we leave reflections and anticipations to the reader.

Debt.

REVENUE, DEBTS, AND POWER OF EUROPEAN NATIONS.
In England, the number of inhabitants is 28,000,000, on 90,950 square miles, or 368
per square mile ; in France, the population is 34,700,000, on 154,000 square miles, or 225
per square mile ; in Austria, there are 37,500,000 inhabitants, on 204,000 square miles,
or 184 per square mile ; in Prussia, the population is 15,500,000, on 80,450 square miles,
or 181 per square mile; in Russia in Europe, the population is 50,500,000, scattered on
the enormous quantity of 2,000,000 square miles, being but 2 persons to each square
mile. At nearly the same period, the public debt and revenue of each of these powers
were as follows:-

Revenue.
England, ....

£53,400,000 £813,800,000
France........

38,480,000 156,000,000 Austria,......

20,880,000

68,000,000 Prussia,

8,320,000

25,800,000 Russia,........

17,360,000 61,500,000 Thus England is indebted to the extent of thirteen times its revenue, while France and Russia owe but four times their respective revenues : Austria and Prussia little more than thrice. The relative number of troops kept up in time of peace by each nation, holds about the same proportion--the number of soldiers in the whole British empire being 410,000; in France, 363,000 ; in Austria, 424,000; in Prussia, 131,000; and in Russia, 1,000,000.

4

9

NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE.

DEPARTMENT OF HYDROGRAPHY, HAVANA. This department, under date of September 9th, 1846, gives notice to those captains of vessels, and all others who use the general directions as given by this establishment, on their map of the Atlantic Ocean, published in 1837.

It is necessary to add to this map a sounding, or " necessity of look out," which was discovered at 3 o'clock of the evening of the 23d of May, in good order, and for its purpose available weather, by Don Gabriel Parez, Captain of the Spanish merchantman Leontina, in latitude North 38° 27' and longitude West from Cadiz 31° 39' 37" by observation, made immediately after the discovery of the break on the hidden rock, and which is worthy of confidence, as proven by the rate of the chronometer, tested at the Island of Graicosa, (Terceras,) and nevertheless doubted that this dangerous spot is that which was marked as being in the same latitude, but a little more to the Westward, under the name of Vigia Chantereau, or Roof of Princess Isabel, in 1721 and 1728, and being the same which it previously has, perhaps from carelessness in defining its actual position, on the part of navigators, being misplaced.

MADRID, July 4th, 1846.-After the receipt of the previous note, official information has been had, that on the 10th to 11th of May, in the same year, the Spanish trading ship Amphitrite, passing from Havana to Cadiz, discovered a surf-break at a cable's length, which was situated in 35° 50' North latitude, and 59° 46' 38" West longitude from Cadiz.

REVOLVING LIGHT ON STONE KEY. The following is a copy of a letter from the United States Consul at Cardenas, dated Cardenas, Sept. 8, 1846 :

This night, for the first time, will be lighted the Revolving Light on “ Stone Key," (Cayo de Piedras) recently erected by private enterprise. The elevation is said to be 100 feet Spanish, equal to 92 feet English, above the water. “Stone Key," by the chart of this Bay, is about three Spanish marine miles N. E. by N. from " Puerta de Ycaco;" “Cayo Mona” is about 24 miles N. E. of “Stone Key," and this last is about 12 or 13 marine miles N. N. E. from this town. It is probable the light may be seen some twenty miles, or more, in clear and unfoggy atmosphere.

The proprietors have the privilege of charging two dollars to all foreign vessels, or vessels coming from sea, and one dollar to each coasting vessel arriving at Cardenas, Matanzas, or Sagua, for eight years; after which, should it have repaid the costs and reasonable profits, the lighthouse is to belong to the government.

Vessels leaving the Bahama Banks may run boldly for the light, and having made it, they will know precisely their position, and may run for a port, and often escape an impending. “ Norther” or gale setting on the coast. Navigators to these ports will fully un. derstand this advantage in the winter season.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. NICHOLS, U. S. C. for Cardenas.

NEW SOUTH SHOAL. We learn from the Boston Advertiser, that information has been received in that city, that " a new and dangerous shoal has been discovered by the Hydrographic party conducting the coast survey in the neighborhood of Nantucket. This shoal lies about six miles S. three-quarters W. (by compass,) from the known south shoal, is about 1.9 (one and nine-tenths) miles in extent in an E. and W. direction, and quite narrow from north to south. The least water on it is eight feet. A sketch, showing the relative positions of the two shoals, the soundings in their vicinity, the character of the bottom, and the force and direction of the currents, will be issued from the office of the coast survey, in : short time.” The exact location of these shoals has been a subject of dispute for many years, and we trust that the question is now about to be definitely settled.

GULL STREAM.
A small Knoll having recently grown up on the North Bar in the track of shipping na.
vigating between the Gull Knoll and the Brake Sand, notice thereof is hereby given, and
that a Black Buoy, marked “ North Bar,” will be laid on the shoalest part of the said
Knoll, in two fathoms at low water spring tides, with the following marks and compass
bearings, viz. :-
St. Clement's Church, Sandwich, its breadth open to the Northward of
Woodnessbro' Church.......

W. 1 s.
St. Lawrence Mill, just open to the Northward of Mount Albion Trees N. W. IN
North Brake Buoy....

N. W.
North Foreland Lighthouse....

N. & W.
Gull Buoy.......

N. E. by E. Goodwin Light Vessel....

E. by S. S. Gull Stream Light Vessel...

S. W. 1 s.

.

LONGITUDE OF BRAZOS SANTIAGO. Captain Morgan of the Brig Jefferson, reports to the New Orleans Picayune, that in all his books and charts of that coast, Brazos Island is laid down 25 miles too far to the westward. In several observations during his stay at the Brazos, he ascertained the true latitude and longitude to be lat. 26° 06' N., long. 97° 05' W. He also further states, that during his passage to and from Brazos, he found that the currents were governed entirely by the wind. Strong southeast winds, the current run 13 to 2 knots north; strong north winds, current 2 knots south. We learn that in a new chart published by Blunt, the longitude is laid down at 97° 10'.

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THE DEVIL'S ROCKS, WESTERN ISLANDS.
The following has been transmitted to Lloyd's, Extract of the log of the brig Packet,
William Squire, R. N., Commander, on her voyage from Mauritius to London :-

SUNDAY, August 23, 1846.-"At 1° 30'A. M. saw the Devil's Rocks bearing W.S. W., distance half a cable's length the rocks appearing in three distinct ridges, from 80 to 100 feet in length, and about 10 feet in breadth; the Eastern and Western ridge formed like a cock's comb; the whole surrounded by large bodies of kelp or sea weed; the shoal water appearing to extend about two miles from the coast; the latitude or longitude in the chart appearing quite correct. MEMORANDUM—These rocks are in the direct channel course from the Western Islands."

NEW LIGHT, ISLAND OF HONDURAS. On the 17th of July, 1846, three lights in the shape of a triangle were exhibited at Manger Kaye, in lat. 17° 36' N., lon. 87° 67' W., which were seen from twelve to sixteen miles distant, in a very squally night. The light is so placed that by bringing the two lower lights (which are 75 feet above the level of the sea) into one, a vessel may shape her course at a distance of six miles from the Kaye for English Kaye. The top light of Manger Kaye is 95 feet above the level of the sea.

NEW LIGHTHOUSE, SOUTH POINT OF GOTLAND. A stone lighthouse, 58 feet high, is erected on the South Point of Gotland, about a mile N. E. of Hoburg. It shows a revolving light, visible at intervals of l} minutes, and lasts half a minute. It stands about 170 feet above the level of the sea, and is seen from E. by N. through S. to N. by E. magnetic bearings, at about sixteen sea miles from the deck. It will be lighted on the 30th September, and be subject to the same regulations as the other Swedish Lights, as to being lighted and extinguished.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.

WESTERN RAILROADS AND CANALS.

BY JESSE W. SCOTT, ESQ., OF OHIO. There are more movements in the West towards the construction of these great instruments of commerce, than at any time since the collapse of 1837. The West, since that time, has gathered up new means, and the East is losing its dread of Western invest. ments. Three striking evidences of the renewed confidence in Western enterprises, at the East and in Europe, have been recently exhibited. The first was shown in the action of the Indiana bondholders in taking the Wabash and Erie Canal in part payment of their bonds, with the obligation to complete it to the Ohio river. The second is the loan of $3,000,000 of English capital, to enable the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company to carry their great work to Pittsburgh, and ultimately to Cleveland ; and last, in the pur. chase, by the bond-holders of Michigan, of the Central Railroad, to be extended westward to Lake Michigan.

These are strong evidences of returning confidence in Western enterprises ; and are, probably, but the precursors of far more extensive investments in Western railroads. The taking up the stock of the Buffalo and Mississippi Railroad Company, and pushing through a railroad on that most promising of all the unoccupied railroad routes in the United States, only waits a favorable turn in the money market. Estimates are now being completed for the construction of that portion between Toledo and Chicago,

From Buffalo to Chicago, will exhibit more characteristics of a great trunk road than any other in the United States. More great works made and being made along the south shore of Lake Erie, terminate on the shore of that lake than any other three hundred mile line in the United States. The connecting of these by a great trunk railroad will be of immense advantage to these works and to the owners of the railroad. The south shore of Lake Michigan, every one must see, will also concentrate canals and railroads to 'a great extent. There is—there can be no line in the United States, of the same length, capable of concentrating so vast an amount of travel and trade as that between Buffalo and Chicago. Concentrated on the American shore of Lake Erie, there are now completed and in operation, of canal and railroad lines, more than two thousand miles.

RAILROADS.
Boston to Buffalo,.....

500
Sandusky and Mansfield,....

50 Sandusky and Cincinnati, *

225 Toledo, Monroe, and Hillsdale,.

100

Total,......

875

CANALS.

363

130

Albany to Buffalo,
Pittsburgh to Erie,.
Ohio-from Cleveland to Portsmouth, Athens, Merion, and Pitts-

burgh....
Toledo to Covington,
Toledo to Cincinnati,

500 300 247

Completed and in operation,

1,540

875

Add railroads,...

2,315

* To be finished next spring.

)

Of the Canals, 70 miles from Toledo to Junction is a common trunk, and is counted twice.

Such is the extent of works brought to Lake Erie for the benefit of its commerce.

There are now being made, in extension of these works, 160 miles of canal;-from Covington to Evansville, Indiana. The New York and Erie Railroad—say 400 miles. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad—say to Cleveland, 450 miles. The Cleveland and Cincinnati Railroad—say 250 miles. In all, 1,100 miles of railroad, and 760 miles of canal.

ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET COMPANY.

We have been requested to publish in this Magazine the following particulars of the route traversed by passengers between England and the west coasts of South America, as conveying important information to the American public. This statement is furnished by E. Chapel, Esq., Secretary of the “Royal Mail Steam Packet Company,” 55 Moorgatestreet, London. South AMPTON TO CHAGRES.

The Steam Ships of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company leave Southampton on the 17th of every month, and proceed (via Jamaica) to Chagres, where they arrive on the 20th or 21st of the following month, the passage occupying about 34 days.

Fares.—Half Fore Cabin, £50; Whole do., £55; Whole After Cabin, £60; which includes board, bedding and linen, steward's fees, and all other charges, except for wines, spirits, malt liquors, and mineral waters,

At Chagres the steamers stop about half a day to land passengers proceeding over land to Panama, where the steamers of the Pacific Steam Packet Company embark them for conveyance to the different ports southward as far as Valparaiso.

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On the 25th or 26th of each month, the return steamer starts from Chagres with the mails and passengers that have arrived from the Pacific, and proceeds (via Jamaica, Havana, and Bermuda) to Southampton, where she is due on the 7th of each month, the passage occupying about 40 days.

Fares.—Half Fore Cabin, £45; Whole do., £50; Whole After Cabin, £55; which includes board, bedding and linen, steward's fees, and all other charges, except for wines, spirits, malt liquors, and mineral waters.

chagreS TO THE UNITED STATES.

By the last-mentioned steamer, which leaves Chagres on the 25th or 26th of each month, passengers from the Pacific, for the United States, will reach Havana on the 7th or 8th of the following month, after a passage of 12 days. Fare, 80 dollars; which includes board, bedding and linen, steward's fees, and all other charges, except wines, spirits, malt liquors, and mineral waters.

An American Steamer leaves Havana, monthly, for New Orleans; and there are monthly Sailing Packets, from Havana, to New York; also many Trading Vessels to the ports of the United States generally, the passage fares by which are moderate. Mr. Perry, Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at Panama, has (with the consent of Her Majesty's Government) been appointed agent for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company at that place; and every information relative to the passage by the Company's Wessels may be obtained from that gentleman, who will likewise receive specie, bullion, jewellery, &c., give printed receipts as bills of lading for the same, and provide for their transmission (the usual risks excepted) to the Bank of England. The form of receipts for specie, &c., proposed to be issued by the Company, has been submitted to several of the leading insurance offices in London, and they have expressed their willingness to insure specie, etc., transmitted from Panama to the Bank of England, under the conditions therein contained, and at the usual rates. The charge established upon freights of specie and bullion, which includes the expenses of transit across the Isthmus, and all other charges, from delivery to the Company's Agent at Panama till delivered at the Bank of England, is 13 per cent; upon pearls, emeralds, and all other precious stones, unset, (being exempt from duty,) 24 per cent on their value, also deliverable at the Bank of England: and upon jewellery subject to duty, 24 per cent on its value, deliverable at Southampton. Treasure can only be received securely packed in wooden cases.

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