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with the extent of the progress of the nation in the useful arts, and with the measure of that domestic industry—the occupation—which furnishes alike the means of subsistence, and the safeguard against vice, in numerous cases the offspring of idleness. It appeared as if the merchandise which had been accumulated in the storehouses of the city, had been drawn from their shelves, and had been deposited in one common receptacle, where it could be examined at a single view, and thus furnish to the spectator, at one glance, the most accurate information concerning the material progress of the country. We hope that the American Institute, which has been organized upon like principles with those which have been founded for similar purposes in other parts of the Union, will continue to prosper, and accomplish the salutary objects for which it was originally established.
PRODUCTION OF COAL IN THE DIFFERENT STATES OF EUROPE.
After iron, there is certainly no produce of the mineral kingdom which exercises a greater influence upon our commercial relations than coal.
The following is a statistical sketch of the produce of that article in the different countries of Europe :
ENGLAND.—England possesses the richest veins of coal, both as regards quality and quantity ; they form a line from southwest to northeast. In Northumberland and Durham, from the Tweed to the Tees, coal abounds; at Whitehaven, in the hills of Cumberland, in Yorkshire, and in Lancashire. The most abundant mines are in Wales. The consumption of coal in England and in exportation, is so great that it has often been asked, is the mines would not be exhausted 2 but, according to calculations made, in proportion to the present consumption, they could not be exhausted under 1500 years— the yearly consumption in Great Britain is 20,000,000 to 21,000,000 of tons. The exportation increased in the following proportions: In 1830, 505,421 tons; in 1832, 588,450 tons; in 1834, 621,256 tons; in 1836, 1,401,000 tons; in 1838, 1,413,800 tons; in 1840, 1,621,300 tons; in 1842, 2,120,000 tons; and in 1844, 2,410,000 tons. The number of miners exceeds 500,000. English coal is to be had in every part of the civilized world; there are deposits at Rio Janeiro, at Odessa, at Archangel, and at Constantinople. FRANCE.-France does not produce enough coal for her own consumption, and is obliged to import. She possesses 250 mines, of which 182 are worked, and which rendered in 1844, 72,000,000 cwts, of coal, to the value of 21,000,000 francs (£840,000.) The produce is increasing, as in 1815, they only rendered 17,000,000 cwts.; 40,000 men are employed in the mines and traffic belonging to them. In 1842, the importation of coal into France, amounted to 16,718,328 cwts. * France imports her coal from Belgium, England, and the Prussian provinces on the Rhine. SPAIN.—Spain draws but slight profit from her abundant mines; the principal mine is the Sierra Morena; the produce is not known. They import but little. In some of the principal Spanish ports, there are depots of English coal for the steamers. Portugal.—In Portugal there are depots at Figuieres, at Coimbra, and near Oporto. ITALY.—The principal mines of Italy, which produce annually from 140,000 to 150,000 cwts., are in the Savoy, and near Genoa. The others scattered over the peninsula, are of little value, and there are depots of English coal in the principal ports. BELGIUM.–Belgium possesses immense mineral riches; in this country, production increases. In 1831, the produce amounted to 22,800,000 cwts, and in 1844, it reached 84,232,420. In 1844, the exportation umounted to 1,050,000 tons, a value of about 6,000,000 florins, (£600,000.) Holland.—Holland has no coal mines. There is a single mine in the country of Limberg. They import all their coal from England, Belgium, and the Prussian provinces, Switzerland.—Switzerland, though rich in metals, has very little coal, and imports a quantity from England. The only mine of any value in this country, is at Hochefeld; in 1843, it produced 514,969 cwts. Norway.—Norway has no coal mines. Russia-In Russia, the production of coal does not exceed 800,000 pouds. It seems that between the Don and the Dnieper, and in Siberia, there are rich coal mines, and the government are now taking measures to turn them to account. DENMARK.—Denmark has one insignificant mine at Bornholm, and imports nearly all her coal from England.
AUSTRIA.-Austria is rich in coal mines, but the produce is not in proportion with the number of her mines. The annual produce of coal in Austria is at least 12,000,000 cwts., in 1843, it did not exceed 9,000,000. Of this amount, Bohemia produces about one-half ; Moravia, 2,000,000 ; Austria, 1,500,000; Styria, 1,000,000; Carinthia, and the districts of Ogragno, a little more than 500,000; Hungary, 600,000; the coast lands, (Husten-land,) 60,000; Galicia, 3,000; Lombardy, a very small quantity.
Coal mines exist in nearly every province of the monarchy. In Bohemia there are veins of this mineral along the river Beraun, in the north of the districts of Klattan, Písen, and Rakovits, to the neighborhood of Prague. There are coal mines in the Erzge. birge, in the valleys of the Eger and the Biela, and at the foot of Riesengeberg, from Sehatzlar to Landskron.
The principal mines of Moravia are in the district of Brunr, near Rossitz and Oflovon, and the coal near the mouth of the Oder, is of a superior quality. In the Archduchy there are mines near Wiener, Neustadt, Klingenfurt, Gubach and Gloggnitz; in Styria, near Leoben and Fohnsdorf; in Carinthia, in the valley of the Lavan, and in the neighborhood of Prevali; in Dalmatia ; in Lombardy, in the districts of Oome and Pavia; in Tyrol, near Haring, and in Hungary, in the Carpathian mountains.
In 1844, Austria exported 773,065 cwts., of which 702,262 cwts. were sent from Bo. hemia by the Elbe to Saxony; 25,433 cwts, to Turkey; 23,210 cwts. to southern Germany, and 20,542 cwts, to Prussia.
Prussia.—Prussia possesses 540 coal mines, giving employment to 25,000 workmen. The produce, in 1844, amounted to 53,000,000 cwts., or a value of 4,500,000 dollars, (£675,000.; In 1841, Prussia imported 3,864,944 cwts., principally from England. Her exportation was 6,903,473 to Holland, France, and Poland.
Bavaria.- In Bavaria, the produce is not what it might be ; there are 40 extensive coal mines, principally in her Rhenish provinces—the produce is about 1,200,000 cwts.
Saxony.-In Saxony the mines are worked with zeal--the produce amounts to about 4,000,000 cwts.
There are extensive mines near the forest of Thuringen.
Hanover.-In the kingdom of Hanover there are coal mines which occupy more than 1,000 workmen.
Wurtemberg is poor in this respect. The Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nas. sau, the Grand Duchies of Mecklembourg and Olembourg do not possess coal mines. In the electorate of Hesse there are some valuable mines, producing annually about 900,000 cwts.
Generally speaking, the production of coal in Europe is susceptible of being greatly developed, especially in some parts of the Austrinn dominions. It is true, that during the last few years, much has been done, but there is still much more to do.
The produce of coal in Europe amounts annually, on a rough calculation, to 120,000,000 florins, or £12,000,000 sterling.
THE LEAD TRADE OF THE WEST, IN 1845. By a recent number of the St. Louis Price Current, we derive some important information respecting the mining of lead in the West. It appears that the production of this article is increasing ; the shipments from the Galena mines, alone, during the past year, amounting to 778,461 pigs—being an increase of 156,560 pigs over the previous year. The production of the lower mines has been in an equal ratio, the total produce being estimated at 150,000 pigs. The actual demand hus, moreover, kept pace with the increased production; and the stock on hand at the close of the year was only 34,500 pigs, which has nearly all changed hands, and was shipped on the opening of navigation. During the past year, it opened at $3 15 a $3 20, and closed at $400 a $4 12), per cwt. In the latter part of May the market became depressed, and rates receded to $2 95 a $2 98, but soon recovered; and, with occasional slight checks, continued to obtain an upward tendency until they reached present rates--say $400 a $4 124 per cwt., with but a few pigs on sale. The total reccipts from the Galena mines, for five years, are as follows:1811,.......
463,404 | 1844........
..............pigs 621,900 1842, 473,599 1815,
C 0 M M E R C I AL STATISTICS.
SHIPPING OF CHARLESTON, S. C.
It will be seen by reference to former numbers of the Merchants' Magazine, that we have published a complete list of the shipping owned in the ports of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. In the last named cities, the accounts were made out at our request, through the kindness and under the direction of the collectors of customs for those ports; and in the port of New York by a clerk in the custom-house. It was our intention to procure similar statements of the shipping of all our maritime ports; but a variety of circumstances, which it is not necessary to mention in this place, have prevented, for the present, the fulfilment of this design. It will, however, be prosecuted in the progress of our journal. It will not, perhaps, be considered out of place here, to remark that we have no local or sectional views to promote ; and that our design is, as it ever has been, to render the Merchants' Magazine national in its objects and its aims; and to diffuse, as far as practicable, a knowledge of the commerce and resources of every region of country comprised in the confederacy of the United States of North America; and as commerce legitimately possesses a universality as wide as the world, we shall continue to gather from every considerable nation abroad, whatever is calculated to promote the views and extend the information of merchants, and, indeed, all professions studying the current history of the times. This train of remark has been suggested by an article in the “Charleston (S. C.) News,” on the means of increasing the commercial prosperity of that city, which we here annex, in connection with a list of vessels owned in, and sailing from Charleston, in 1836, '37, and '38, as compared with 1845 and '46. “As it is our purpose to show that the certain means of increasing the prosperity of Charleston is the possession of shipping, connected with the foreign import trade, so we cannot illustrate the subject better than by presenting a comparative view of the vessels owned and sailing from this port, with the duties on importations of 1836, '37, and '38. This will prove that our capacity for this purpose wants only development and a field for action. We would premise that packet ships, sailing at regular periods from this port and ports in Europe, will attract the foreign trade, while the irregularity which has characterized the period of departure of those vessels which had been employed in the direct intercourse between Charleston and European ports, has presented an insuperable impediment to the continuance and stability of this intercourse. Let our importing merchants be assured of receiving their goods at nearly regular periods, and Charleston will gain many advantages as a port of importation. No one presumes to contend that our city can ever present so advantageous a market in which to make purchases of assorted stocks as New York, but between the entire engrossment of the importing business and its total absence there is a wide interval. There are many descriptions of merchandise that the country dealer would prefer to receive direct, through well known responsible houses in Charleston, than through auctions and jobbers in New York. This has been verified in numerous cases. Let us then endeavor, by giving an impulse to this enterprise, to attempt that which is certainly practicable.
vessels owned IN AND sailing FROM charleston, IN 1836.
Ships—Martha, Harriet and Jessie, Belvidere, Thos. Bennett, Victoria, Florian.—6. Brigs–Alpha, Washington Barge, Catharine, Elm, John C. Calhoun, Hunter, Arabian.—7. Schooners—Sarah Ann, Lovely Keziah, Hope, Waccamaw, Jas. Hamilton.—5.
vessels owned IN AND sailing FROM charleston, IN 1837.
Ships—Medora, Manchester, Victoria, Ocean, Harriet and Jessie, Benj. Morgan, Belvidere, Florian–9, Brigs—Globe, Alpha, Catharine, Elm, Hunter, Charleston, Pegasus, Howell, J. C. Calhoun.—9. Schooners—R. Habersham, Lovely Keziah, Walter E. Hyer, Abigail, Columbia, Financier—6.
vessels owned in AND sailing From charleston, IN 1838.
Ships—Harriet and Jessie, Medora, Thomas Bennett, Benj. Morgan, Liverpool, Victoria, Chicora, Oseola, Belvidere, Commerce, Florian, Helen, Manchester, Congaree.—14. Brigs—J. C. Calhoun, Catharine, Hunter, Elm, Homer, Alpha, Howell, Washington Barge, Lancet, Globe, Charleston, Daniel Webster, Arabian, Delaware, Chili, Armadillo.—16. Schooners—Financier, Abigail, Jim Crow, South Carolina, Maria.-5.
The number of vessels owned in and sailing from Charleston, from July 1, 1845, to July 1, 1846, was as follows. The contrast here is striking.
Ships—Harriet and Jessie, James Calder, Thos. Bennett, Gen. Parkhill, Warsaw, Belvidere—6. Brigs—Adela, Magnolia, Arabian, Tower.—4. Schooners—Esquimaux, F. A. Brown, John Hancock, Stranger, Zephyr, T. C. Mitchell, Merchant, Isabella.-8.
The duties on direct importations into Charleston, during the year 1836,
amounted to................................................................. --- $696,518 In 1837,......... -- 475,758 In 1898,.................................................................... --- 591,474 From July 1, 1845, to July 1, 1846, they amounted to only.................. 228,227
“This shows the intimate connection of the direct foreign trade with the number of vessels owned in Charleston As the former increased, so did the latter; as the one decreased, so did the other.
“Now, in relation to the means of obtaining a sufficient aggregate of capital, let us suppose from 20 to 25 ships to cost $500,000, what is to preclude separate subscriptions to a stock, to be raised on shares for the purpose? If Charleston, with no difficulty, has formed by associated capital, a fund of nearly $100,000 to build a steamship, would there be any insuperable difficulty in increasing the aggregate five or six-fold? We imagine not. This is a favorite mode of forming a fund for the construction and equipment of vessels, large and small, in the Eastern cities. What is practicable in that quarter of the Union is attainable in this. The advantage of this plan for the ownership of vessels is, that it diffuses through several classes of the community, the interests which become concentrated in one or a few hands, under a more limited proprietorship. This view of the subject admits of being extended, which will be attempted in a future article.”
VIRGINIA INSPECTIONS AND EXPORTS OF TOBACCO.
We publish below a circular from Charles F. Osborne, Esq., enclosing a tabular statement of the tobacco exports and inspections of Virginia, and of the foreign markets to which it was shipped. Richmond, October 8th, 1846. To THE EDItoR of The MERCHANTs' MAGAZINE AND coxsmeRoi AL REVIEw.
The following table exhibits the comparative receipts, exports and stocks of Virginia tobacco, for the past ten years. In the present, as in our former tables, we take no note of shipments coastwise, it being impracticable to obtain these with accuracy.
We estimate the number of hids, of stemmed tobacco shipped this year at 5,500 hlids., the whole of which were made from tobacco the growth of Virginia, excepting, perhaps, about 50 hlhds., made from Western tobacco. No Western tobacco in the leaf has been exported from hence the past season.
Of the stock on hand, about 2,500 hlids, are now in progress of shipment to France, on account of the contractors with that government; the remaining 17,560 hhds., is mainly composed of low and inferior leaf of the crops of 1841, 1842 and 1843, and held by speculators. The planters hold scarcely any, and the manufacturers are believed to be bare of stock. We quote lugs $1 to $1 75; common leaf, $2 50 to $4; middling do., $4 50 to $550; good, $6 to $7 per 100 lbs., with a fair demand. There is no fine tobacco on the market.
The crop now matured and maturing, is represented to be large, although injury has been sustained by it, from the want of care in its cultivation and management, in consequence of the unparalleled sickness which has for some months past prevailed throughout the country; nevertheless, we think the crop will be of good quality, and more than an average in quantity. It is, however, probable that the receipts at the inspections will not expose the quantity made; for at present prices, the lugs and low leaf cannot be brought to market—the price which these command not paying, in many situations, the cost of transportation.
The opinion here advanced respecting the crop of tobacco in Virginia, applies with more accuracy, and in all respects, to the crop of the Western States of this Union.
The total receipt at New Orleans for the year, is 72,896 hhds., of which 15,000 hhds. were stemmed tobacco, and our anticipations are, that a like quantity may be expected the year to come.
CHARLES F. OSBORNE.
A STATEMENT, Showing the quantity of Tobacco inspected in Virginia, from 1836 to 1846 ; the quan.
tity exported, and the foreign markets to which it was shipped; the stock left on hand on 1st October of each year; likewise, the quantity of stems shipped during the same period, and the foreign markets to which they were shipped.
1836.... 15,243 3,397 710 5.166 800 1,636 977 840 1,455
29,722 3,186 45.445 14.024 9,555 2,026 378 2.387 1,221 1,970 2,5121,924 536 60 724 18.991 4,332 36,201 10,475 1838,...12,321 1,170 4,743 616 1.908 319 128 925 734 20.82 2,036 14,845 12.397 1839,...13,330 2.463 738 1,115 236 2,317 1,236 919 329 57
18,729 4,031 28,502 4.896 1840,
1,061 5,268 1,158 8763,89 1,177 2,028 136 1,621 27,195 2,189 58,18613,829 1841,... 16.563 2,029 2.785 7,395 1,504 3.843 2,497 2,013 2,026 218 1,672 34,4426,074 56 141 8,719 1812... 10,653 4,005 2.818 556 3,747 4,573 2,294 7,637 395 1,820 1,513 32.765 3.945152,150 11,100 1843,... 11,424 3,406 5,400 4,098 3013 1,5436.975 3214,814 i 512 136 36,236 2,000 56,778 13,420
6.961 10,251 1,075 605 5 168 2,9333,810 689 1,817 1.061, 63 20,494 2,687 45,836 14.363 6,525
4,542 1,422 2.622 1,842 560 1,019 2,354 17,704 3.18251,113 24,050 1846,... 11,045 35,130 750 11,623 1,0532 2,458.2,092 222 1,698
1844,... 1845, ...
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AT CINCINNATI, IN 1845–46. The following statement of the imports and exports of leading articles at Cincinnati, for the years ending August 31, 1846 and 1845, is derived from the Cincinnati Price Current :
1845-46. 1844-45. Cheese .........casks 450
641 Bacon... hhds. 19,247 12,980 Cheese.........boxes 43,525 43,627 | Bacon.... .tierces 2,777 3,576 Flour
...........bbls. 206,082 151,147 Pork.. ...bbls. 127,009 102,310 Lard...
29,317 24,103 Whiskey.............. 107,204 106,392 Lard .............kegs 143,375
171,698 The Price Current says, that the foregoing list of imports does not include anything that was not brought to this market by river, canal, or railroad; and the exports only include the shipments to southern ports. The shipments to the eastern markets, by way of the Miami Canal, as well as by Pittsburgh, have been much larger than in any previous year. In addition to this, both flats and steamboats have frequently left for New