« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
(an annual demand of about one-twelfth of the quantity needed for making a railway, engines, and carriages,) we shall find ourselves in possession of means for making iron much beyond what have at any previous time existed, and very greatly beyond any probable demand to arise from other and existing channels of employment at home, or from foreign countries. The price will consequently fall, and we shall then find that this metal will again be employed in uses from which it may have been excluded by the previous high price. From improvements in the processes of manufacture, the market may even fall to a lower point than has hitherto been witnessed, and new uses may, in consequence, be discovered where to apply this metal. All this, however, must be a work of time; and it seems but too probable that, in the meanwhile, our iron-masters will have to undergo a somewhat lengthened season of adversity, for the enduring of which they are, in a measure, prepared by former experience.”
THE DISCOVERY OF DIAMOND MINES IN THE PROVINCE OF BAHIA. the DiAMOND mines of sincura.
The Journal des Debats furnishes some interesting facts in relation to the recently discovered diamond mine of Sincura, in the province of Bahia. As the interest of the matter deepens with the details, and the certainty that they are authentic; and in view of the commercial, historical, and picturesque, we deem it of sufficient importance to put our readers in possession of the full particulars as we find them in the French journal.
“For some months past,” says the correspondent of the Journal des Debats, “the communications and commercial relations with the province of Bahia have assumed extraordinary activity. A great number of inhabitants, speculators, adventurers, and even proprietors of sugar-houses, have emigrated with their slaves into that province—the site of a diamond-mine, the produce of which is incredible. It was discovered, in October of last year, by a slave, who, in the space of twenty days, had picked up 700 carats of diamonds, and taken them for sale to a considerable distance. Arrested and imprisoned, he still obstinately refused to disclose their source ; whereupon his escape was connived at, and some intelligent Indians were put upon his trail. They followed him for several days, and surprised him at last, rooting for diamonds, not far from Caxoiera in the province of Bahia. Researches were then made over a large space, parallel with a chain of mountains called Sincura—which have since given their name to the mines—and along the banks of the river Paraguassu, which falls into the gulf of Bahia.
“The first individuals who established themselves at the mine of Sincura were mostly convicts and murderers; and their presence was marked by burnings and assassination. The difficulty of procuring sustenance in the country, and the danger incurred by those who came thither to exchange diamonds against the paper money of Brazil, prevented the respectable merchants from engaging in this commerce. But as the population, nevertheless, gradually increased, police regulations were adopted by the new colonists; and the working of the mine began then on an extended scale. The population, which, in the previous August, numbered only eight thousand souls, distributed amongst three townships, was, at the close of July last, upwards of thirty thousand, and is continually increasing. The villages now inhabited and worked are seven in number—Paraguassu, Combucas, Chique-Chique, Causu-Boa, Andrahy, Nage, and Lancoes. The latter of these, twenty leagues distant from Paraguassu, contains alone 3,000 houses and 20,000 inhabitants. The central point of the diamond commerce is Paraguassu; which, though populous, has yet only twelve small houses of masonry. Nearly all the miners come hither on Saturday and Sunday, to sell the stones which they have collected during the week—taking back, in exchange, various articles of consumption, arms, and ready-made clothing, which come from Bahia at great cost. The diamonds found at Paraguassu are for the most part of a dun color, and very irregular conformation. Those of Lancoes are white, or light green, and nearly transparent as they come from the mine. They are pctagonal, and the most prized of any. It is often necessary to penetrate to a depth of three or four yards, ere coming at the diamond stratum. Diamonds are gathered, too, in the stony ravines at the bottom of the Paraguassu itself, and of its tributary streams,
“The price of the diamonds of this mine varies at Bahia from 250 to 500 milreis (670 to 1,340 francs) the octave, according to their size or water. The octave is 17. carats; but the carat of Brazil is 74 per cent below the French carat—which makes the Brazilian carat from 67 to 134 francs. The actual course of exchange at Bahia is 365 reis for a franc.
“The two English packets of May and June last took home about 5% millions worth (£220,000) of diamonds from this mine; and since then, during the months of June and July, it has produced nearly 1,450 carats per day. It is estimated to have yielded, in the ten months during which it has been worked, nearly 400,000 Portuguese carats, (about +732,000 in value,) three-fifths of which has taken the road of England, another fifth has gone to France and Hamburgh, and the remaining fifth waits for purchasers at Rio Janeiro and Bahia. “All the lapidaries in Europe could not cut even one-half the stones produced by the mine of Sincura; a reduction in value is therefore looked for, and the traffic gives rise to very hazardous speculations. “Brazil, whose privilege it is to furnish the diamonds of commerce, produced annually, before the discovery of this mine, no more than six or seven kilogrammes—which cost more than a million of francs in the working. Hitherto the diamonds found at Sincura are all of small size. It is known that there are but few in the world which weigh more than 20 grammes. The largest is that of Agra—weighing 133; that of the Rajah of Matan, at Borneo, weighs 78—that of the Mogul Emperor, 63—and that of France, called the Regent, 28 grammes, 89 centi-grammes; but this latter is of fine form, and in all respects quite perfect. It weighed before cutting, 87 grammes, and took the work of two years. “The mine of Sincura presents the aspect of an independent colony in the heart of the mother country. Hitherto, the government has taken no steps for assuming the direction of this trade, which promises to be so abundant a source of wealth to the province of Bahia; and they will probably have, now, to sanction the regulations which the inhabitants have laid down for their own security in the working of this vast mine—that spreads already over a superficies of more than thirty leagues.”
IMPROVEMENTS IN ALKALI. MANUFACTURE.
Mr. Bell, of the Alkali Works, South Shields, says the London Morning Journal, has obtained a patent for condensing the muriatic acid evolved in the manufacture of sulphate of soda, and for condensing the acid fumes or vapors which arise in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. For the first method, the patentee employs several pipes or tubes placed vertically—say four—about twenty feet high and six feet in diameter. These cylinders are filled with coke in pieces about the size of a walnut, and water is allowed to flow in small streams through the coke. They are so arranged that the acid vapors will ascend through one and descend through the next, alternately; and with these is combined a pe.culiar means of obtaining a draft through the condensers. This is done by making the flue from the last terminate in a cone, and applying a jet of steam just below the orifice. To prevent any escape of a deleterious vapor into the atmosphere, a close cistern is placed around the condensers, having one or more partitions descending from the top, and dipping a few inches in water. The second part of the invention consists in employing similar condensers for collecting the fumes in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. In this case water is not allowed to descend through the coke, but a jet of steam is admitted into the first condenser, as also into the sulphur chamber. The patentee states that he obtains a much greater produce of acid from the condensers than from the sulphuric acid chamber in the same time; and can thus add more burners to the chamber, and he has obtained acid by using the condensers only.
WORSTED MOSAIC MANUFACTURE.
The pleasing effect of mosaic, and the delicate perception of the nuances of colors required in the artists who fabricate it, are well known. The various colors and shades employed in a mosaic landscape or portrait, are many thousands in number, and the artist must be able to discriminate among them, and to assign to each its due place in the composition. The minute pieces of glass or stone used for this purpose, have a consistency and firmness that render their successful manifestation easily conceivable. We felt more difficulty in conceiving the means by which a new description of ornamental manufacture, which lately fell under our notice, and which we cannot more fitly designate than by the name of worsted mosaic, was produced. To fix and compress such a yielding and elastic material, so as to keep the threads dyed with finely differenced shades in their proper places in the pattern, seemed impossible. Yet there it was before us, rich scroll work, and glowing wreaths of flowers, formed by an aggregation of worsted threads on
the same principle of mosaic. The process is this: the colored design being placed be fore the workman, and a great number of worsted threads of various dyes, cut to equal lengths, assorted beside him, the threads are arranged horizontally in a frame, so that their ends, when shorn, shall reproduce the pattern. When a narrow stripe as broad as the pattern has been completed, mechanical pressure is applied till the "pile" becomes as dense as the finest Turkey carpet. Caoutchouc cloth, with the caoutchouc reduced to a semi-liquid state, is applied to one end of the pile as soon as it has been brought to the requisite density. Avother layer of the worsted mosaic is then super-imposed and fixed by the same process. When the pattern is completed, a uniform surface is given to it by the ordinary operation of shearing. The texture is delicately soft, and the colors at once gorgeous and lasting. With the aid of ingenious pupils from the school of design, accustomed to form new combinations of color from the study of natural objects, we believe that this new manufacture might be made to surpass the richest Turkey carpets. We have seen specimens which, after seven years' " wear and tear,” retained their original color and elastic softness. The process has been patented by the inventor, Mr. Taylor, of Lochwinnoch, Scotland.
MANUFACTURES OF CONNECTICUT IN 1845. COTTON.- The number of cotton mills in the State is 137; value of cotton goods of all kinds manufactured, $3,023,326 ; capital invested, $3,312,450; hands employed, 5,362.
WOOLLEN.-Number of woolien mills, 123; value of woollen goods of all kinds manu. factured, $3,280,575 ; capital invested, $1,786,640; hands employed, 2,149.
Paper.-Number of paper mills, 37; value of paper manufactured, $1,186,302 ; capi. tal invested, $684,700; hands employed, 659.
SEWING SILK.--Value of sewing silk manufactured, $173,382; capital invested, $121,001; hands employed, 272.
LEATHER.--Number of tanneries, 187; number of hides tanned, &c., 535,036; value of leather manufactured, $735,827 ; capital employed, $532,070 ; hands employed, 518.
Carret.-Number of carpet factories, 6; value of carpets manufactured, $597,028 ; capital invested, $584,000 ; hands employed, 946.
CLOCK FACTORIES.—-Number of clock factories, 32; value of clocks manufactured, (Bristol not included) $771,115; capital invested, $369,000 ; hands employed, 656.
COACH AND WAGON.-Number of coach and wagon factories, 323 ; value of manufacture, $1,222,091 ; capital invested, $670,981; hands employed, 1,506.
BOOTS AND SHOES. — Value of boots and shoes manufactured, $1,741,920; value of hats, caps, and mutis manufactured, $931,806; value of saddles, harnesses, and trunks, $547,990; value of tin ware, $487,810; value of pins, $170,000.
MACHINERY.„Val. of machinery manufactured, $363,860; capital employed, $196,380 ; hands employed, 436.
BRITISH EXPORT OF COTTON MANUFACTURES. The following is an account of the total quantities and declared value of cotton manufactures, entered by the yard, exported from the United Kingdom in each year, from 1814 to 1845, both inclusive Years.
Decl'd value. 1814.. 192,340,825 £16,480,750 1830...... 444,578,498 1815. 252,884,029 18,158,172 1831.. 421,385,303 1816. 189,263,731 12,309,079 1832.. 461,045,503 1817. 236,987,669 13,475,534 1833.. 496,352,096 1818. 255,331,695 15,708,183 1834, 555,705,809 1819. 202,514,682 11,714,507 1835. 557,515,701 1820. 250,956,541 13,209,000
637,067,627 1821.. 266,195,901 13,192,904 1837.. 531,373,603 1822.. 304,479,691 13,853,954 1838.. 690,077,622 1823, 301,816,254 12,980,644 1839... 731,450,123 1894.,
344,651,183 14,448,255 1840..... 790,631,997 1825 336,466,098 14,233,010 1841... 751,125,624 1826.. 267,000,534 9,866,623 1842... 734,998,809 1827. 365,492,804 12,948,035 1843.. 918,640,295
15,168,464 1828. 363,328,431 12,183,249 1814...... 1,046,670,823 1829.. 402,517,197 12,516,247 1845...... 1,091,686,069
12,163,513 11,500,630 12,151,060 14,127,352 15,181,143 17,183,168 12,727,989 15,551,733 16,378,445 16,302,220 14,985,810 12,887,220
STATISTICS OF THE TOBACCO TRADE. TOBACCO is, of all articles, one that will bear a heavy tax, without materially injuring the trade, because it is not a necessary, and is a luxury, used in quantities so small, that how great soever may be the tax, it enters but slightly into the expense of the individual. The government of Great Britain was not slow to avail itself of the capacity of tobacco to yield a revenue. In 1821 the duty was 4s. sterling, or 96 cents per lb.; the first cost of which, in the United States, was about 4 cents. The duty was, therefore, near twentyfour hundred per cent. Such a premium on smuggling would not fail to excite the cupidity of the adventurer, and the duty was of necessity reduced to 38. sterling, or 72 cents the lb.; at this rate it has continued ever since. The enormous charge has, of course, led to numberless frauds in the adulteration of the article as manufactured in England, as well as the introduction of it into the country. Parliamentary investigation has shown that the tobacco sold for use in England is adulterated ten to twelve per cent, with sugar of milk, brown paper soaked in sarsaparilla, rhubarb leaves, &c. The number of frauds detected in, and arrests for smuggling tobacco, are greater than in all other articles. Almost the whole expense of the English coast-guard, amounting to $2,500,000 per annum, is now incurred for the prevention of smuggling in tobacco. Notwithstanding this state of affairs in England, and the oppressive regies that exist on the continent, the tobacco trade of the United States has progressed as follows:EXPORT OF TOBACCO FROM THE UNITED STATES, FROM 1821 to 1845, INCLUSIVEValue of snuff
Value tobacco exported. manufactured. Huds.
bhd. 1821, $5,798,945 $149,083 66,858 $5,648,962
$84 49 1822,
Total value of
6,380,020 157,192 83,169 6,222,838 74 82 1823,
6,437,627 154,955 99,609 6,282,272 63 46 1824,
5,059,355 203,789 77,883 4.855,566 62 34 1825,
6,287,976 172,353 75,984 6,115,623 80 48 1826,
5,557,342 210,134 64,098 5,347,208 83 42 1827,
6,816,147 239,024 100,025 6,577,123 65 75
Average, 7 yrs., $6,084,073 1828,...... $5,480,707 1829,
$183,788 $210,747 202,306 246,747 292,475 295,771 288,973 328,409
$73 53 $54 73 64 60 66 65 56 40 56 18 69 29 74 96
Average, 7 yrs., $5,849,749 1835,....
Average, 7 yrs., $9,698,641
Total, 21 yrs., $151,177,346
Tot. value of Val, of snuff
Valne Years. tobac. exp'd. manufac'd.
$10,066,245 $525,490 158,710 $9,540,755 $60 11 1843, 4,929,298 278,319 94,454 4,650,979
49 23 1814,
8,933,855 536,600 163,942 8,397,255 5150 1815,......
8,008,317 538,498 147,168 7,469,819 50 75 The following table, showing the destination of United States tobacco, will indicate the influcnee which the English market has upon the demand :
EXPORTS OF HHDS, OP LEAF TOBACCO FROM THE UNITED STATES. Yenrs. England. France. Hanse Towns. Holland. Ilsly. Other places.
Total. 1836,... 36.822 7,853 22,246 19,148 618 22,775 109,142
20,733 9,110 28,863 22,739 239 18,558 100,232 1835,... 24,312 15,511 25,571 17,558 1,452 19,189 100,593 1839,... 30,068 9,574 14,303 12,273 897 11,980 70,995 1840,... 26,255 15,640 25,619 29,534 2,631 19,775 119,484 1841,... 41,681 17,586 36,517 26,203 1,222 24,619 147,8:28 1842,... 36,086 15,938 42,614 36,079 1,811 26,152 158,710 1813,... 21,029 11,406 24,504 19.519
865 17,227 93,454 1844,... 38,584 21,748 40,602 28,814 1,459 31,835 163,042 1845,...
36,111 18,271 46,460 29,027 5,133 22,166 147,168 The great increase of the trade to the Hanse Towns has, of late years, been owing to the great extension of the interior trade of Germany consequent upon the Zollverein. The destination of manufactured tobacco has been as follows:
EXPORTS OF LBS. OF MANUFACTURED TOBACCO FROM THE UNITED STATES.
England Brit. AmeriYears. Hanse Towos, Holland. and colonies. oan colonies. France. Other places. 1833,.... 136,816 169,682 710,660 1,259,856 628 1,512,758 3,790,310 183 1,.... 76,794 17,394 671,923 1,576,6-18 60,000 1,553,820 3,956,579 183),.... 233,795
755,553 1,312,924 21,654 1,458,628 3,817,854 1836,..., 11,459
217,099 1,196,082 1,650 1,820,387 3,256,675 1837,..., 77,818
828,525 1,262,310 18,571 1,428,337 3,615,591 1837,..., 280,123 34.603 1,694,571 1,608,908 51,388 1,338,554 5,008,047 183.),.... 276,801 136,973 1,454,996 1,266,716
545,352 4,214,943 18.10,.... 526,236 43,467 2,497,664 1,831,536 7,550 1,880,713 6,797,165 1841,... 237,124 31,364 2,825,737 1,769,935 59,982 2,559,602 7,503,644 1812,.... 231,419 89,784 1,144,539 1,442,337 137,450 1,385,632 4,434,214 1843,.... 48,218 55,714 990,083 1,047,718 107,832 1,154,657 3,401,252 1811,.... 362,042 30,215 1,631,055 2,026,884 33,463 1,960,189 6,046,678 1845,.... 143,064 40,319 1,741,699 1,857,872 55,992 1,475,997 5,312,971
If, now, we compare the quantities of leaf exported from the United States in each year, with the quantities imported into England, from official reports, we shall observe a remarkable discrepancy between the exports from here and the receipts there. Export from United States. Ecgland.
Export. Consumption. hhds. lbs.
lbs. 1811, 41,681 50,016,200 43,935,151 10,890,171
36,681 43,303,200 39,526,968 9,130,210 22,013,146 1813,
21,086 25,231,800 43,755,735 8,702,769 22,891,517 1814,
33,029 45,300,800 33,813,614 7,840,377 1815,..... 26,584 33,333,200 10,717,001 6,518,001
198,109,200 171,748,469 43,081,537 The hogshead is calculated at 1,200 lbs., and it is observable that the total imports into Great Britain are reported at twenty-seven millions of pounds less than the export from the United States thither. A great deal of the tobacco which is entered in bond, is exported to the continent and returned in other packages, as herrings and other commodities. This is a regular trade, and the charge js 28. per pound, by which 1s. is saved. In the above table, the fiscal year 1841, of the United States, commenced October, 1840; and