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that of Great Britain, December, 1840. The United States' year, 1843, is for nine
months only, and the year 1845 ends June 30. The English figures for 1845 are for nine
months only, ending September 30. The number of months are, consequently, the same
for both countries; the English returns closing three months later, when all the tobacco
reported left the United States had arrived out. The result would indicate a smuggling
of seventeen per cent. The English trade is expressed in the following figures for the
year 1841:-
Import into England,..

..lbs. 41,845,991



Imported from the United States, ........ 42,132,969
all other countries,..


43,935,151 Entered for consumption,....

21,871,438 Export to Germany,

684,103 Holland,....

1,251,151 Belgium,.....

882,416 Spain,...

2,512,565 West Coast of Africa..

978,430 All other ports,.....

4,581,415 Total,.....

10,890,171 The facilities afforded to the trade of England by the warehouses enable her to carry on this large traffic in United States tobacco, with the continent and elsewhere, which ought to be done by American vessels. Our usury laws, and the absence of warehousing privileges, have hitherto driven the trade into English hands. The great evils and losses which attend the exorbitant English duties on the article, have been so perseveringly and ably laid before Parliament at the present session, that there is now every chance of a great reduction in the duty—a result which cannot but enhance the English consumption to some extent, and by so doing, improve the price of the whole production.

We here subjoin a circular embodying much valuable information touching the tobacco trade on the continent of Europe, which will be useful to those engaged in it, not only for present, but for future reference.

“ Bremen, January, 1846. " It is a known fact, that the supplies, particularly of Virginia and Kentucky tobacco, on the continent, during the last five years, having so vastly exceeded all past experience, while the actual consumption may have somewhat increased, but not near in proportion to the excess of supplies, that a very large proportion of the same has passed into the hands of speculators, who are merely awaiting a favorable moment again to appear in the market as sellers. In any question on the subject of the futurity of the tobacco trade, the stocks in Europe form a most conspicuous part; to answer which, in a satisfactory manner, however, we must have other means than those given by statements which are regularly published every month, and at the close of the year. These statements for our purpose are quite sufficient as regards England, where a perfect control is kept, and where those quantities which have not passed into the hands of manufacturers or export. ers are easily ascertained to a nicety, but they are almost good for nothing in the seaport towns of this continent, since the duties being small, the importer is the uncontrolled master of his goods, which in many instances have not changed their storing place, though they may have been sold to speculators several years ago, and at that time were put down as sold in the usual statements, and deducted from the amount of stock. Gen. erally speaking, it appears that the production of Maryland and Ohio tobacco, which in our market, go collectively under the denomination Maryland, has not materially increased beyond the consumption, and that, though now and then speculative purchaseg have been made of the same, they are of no great importance in the transactions of the continental markets. We may iherefore limit our remarks to Virginia and Kentucky tobacco.

* As regards the United Kingdom of Great Britain, where hardly any Maryland tobacco is imported, it may be sufficient to state that the deliveries of Virginia and Kentucky tobacco, during the last year, amount to 14,133 hhds., and that the stocks on 31st December, which, for five years, from 1836 to 1840, averaged 25,833 hhds., have during the last three years exceeded that cypher by about double ; on 31st December last, consisting of 49,213 hhds.

“ As a basis for ascertaining the actual stock on this continent, the annual consumption of Virginia and Kentucky tobacco in these parts should be known, and we may take the average sales of seven years, from 1834 to 1840, because within that period, no speculation, which since then, has performed a prominent part in the trade, has been entered into, which was not realized again within a limited time, and we therefore consider this basis a very safe one for our purpose. It may justly be inferred, however, that the consumption of the United States tobacco since 1840, must have materially increased in consequence of the depressed value of the article and the increase of the population ; but those of our traders who are sooner enabled to form a judgnient upon this subject, will make no great allowance for the same, because the use of segars annually infringes upon that of smoking tobacco, and because the manufacturers adhere to their system of selling an article containing only part of American tobacco, since experience has taught them that it is easier to keep their customers at a certain price for an inferior article, than otherwise reducing its quality, to which measure an enhancement of the value of United States tobacco might compel them. In order, however, not to flatter our statement, we are going to put down a very liberal allowance, say of 15 per cent, for increase of consumption, and then come at the following result:

Virginia. Keptaeby. Average sales of 7 years, 1834 to 1840.........

7,159 For consumption, add 15 per cent increase

1,073 961

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Present annual consumption .....



41,160 36,850

Or for five years since 1841........
While during that period, say from 1840 to 1845, both inclusive, sales

in our market, Holland, and Antwerp, according to the foregoing
statement, amounted to.

57,769 84,141


Showing an excess for the latter period of..............
Which, therefore, we might consider as a disposable stock in the hands

of speculators, and to which must be added the stock in importers'
hands, concerning which the statements may be well depended
upon, and which, on 31st December last, consisted of............

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56,062 7,370

Forning a total of..............

28,328 Against an annual average consumption of....

8,232 “ Making any reasonable allowance for possible errors in the above statement, so much is provided that the stock now on hand in Europe is fully sufficient for the largest consumption of several years to come, and that upon the ground of actual wants of the article, generally speaking, prospects for adventures are highly unfavorable, while it is probable, that in some instances profits may be realized where purchases may have been made on the other side, with particular attention to the momentary wants of the cont. nental markets. At all events, no dependence should any more be placed upon speculators on this side, because in the course of years they have become accustomed to the very lowest extreme of rates, and have become fully sensible to the fallaciousness of al guess-work upon the failure of crops in the United States. We therefore consider a possibility of a radical cure of the present state of the tobacco trade only arising from a decrease of the production, which can only, however, be expected when the planter in Virginia and the western country of the United States finds better employment for his laborers and lands.

“Our tobacco market has been in a drooping condition, ever since last fall, and thus far has experienced very little animation, leaving prices quite nominal.”





STOCKS, 31ST DEC., 1845. Bremen. Holland. Antw'p. Total. Bremen. Hol'd. Autw'p. Total. Bremen. Hol'd. Antw'p. Total. 1841 19,649 16,041 1,217 36,907 18.341 17,119 1,217 30,677 2,369 7.107

9.475 1842 20,108 18,042 1,191 39,339 18,352 17,059 850 36,264 4,123 8,449 341 12.913 1843 18,483 11,887 445 30.815 15,001 15,924 605 31,533 7,602 4,412 181 12,195 1844 16,178 20,347 351 37,876 18,338 19,618 532 36,488 6,242 5,341

11,533 1815 24,890 25,198 1,066 51,154 25,210 19,199 800 45,209 5,922 11,324 266 17,512 Total 100,106 91,713 4.270 196,071 95,245 88,919 4,004 188,168 26,258 36,632 788 63,678 Average 20,021 18,343 854 39,218 19,049 17,784 801 37,634 5,252

7,326 158 12,736

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Total 22,001 26,545 20,116 68,062 20,131 19,456 18,182 57,769 10,960 28,438 9,351
Average 4,400 5,309 4,023 13,732 4,036 3,891 3,636 11,554 2,192 5,688 1,870


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9,199 15,435 10,759 35,393

Total 43,579 20,466 29,986 93,504 40,697 16,392 97,561 84,841
Average 8,750 4,093 5,857 18,701 8,139 3,318 5,512 16,968

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Average 4,964 807


5,871 5,028 926 100 6,055 927 193 10 1,130 AVERAGE OF SEVEN YEARS-1834 to 1840. Bremen, Holland. Antwerp.

Total. Bremen. Holland. Antw'p. Total. Maryland Tobacco.. 10,279 15.593

32,641 5,950 8,336 214 13,600 Virginia 1,947 2,455 2,759 7,159 362 1,204

2,193 Kentucky

984 2.118 6,409 663

300 493 1,456
4,155 1,515


5,943 1,597 732 26 2,355



(FROM THE BOMBAY TIMES.] We have so often before expressed our opinions that the cotton trade of Western India was undergoing a rapid extinction, that we have hesitated boring our readers with the subject again. A correspondent, however, has handed us the following comparative statement of the exports during the first six months of the last four years, which places the decline in so serious a point of view, that we do not hesitate again calling attention to a question of so vital importance to the whole presidency :SUIPMENTS OF COTTON FROM BOMBAY, FROM 1ST JANUARY TO 30TH JUNE, FROM 1843 to 1846. China & Singa pore.


165,033 133,965 299,058

120,149 178,326 298,475 1845,


47,931 182,755 1846,


28,618 146,894


Great Britain.

But one conclusion can be drawn from this that our cotton exports to England must soon be an entire blank; while, looking even at those to China, our prospects are not much more encouraging. During the last three years, so far from the deliveries of Bombay cotton at Canton having increased, they exhibit a gradual decline; showing, we can. not but fear, that cheap British manufactures, produced from cheap American cotton, are destroying our trade, even there, in a raw material.

In all, 1843,

231,510 bales. 1844,

229,123 1845,

183,719 The condition of the trade, then, is one of decline; and, like every trade similarly situated, nearly every one engaged in it is in a state of distress. The ryots are imporerished, and overburdened with debt; the banians have made large advances to the ryots, and cannot get them repaid ; the dealer, who buys from the banians, has been selling his cotton in Bombay at a loss; while the exporter knows, to his cost, that the chances are many against his making a profit upon shipments to England, and but few in his favor upon those tu China or Singapore.

We are now, from time to time, remarking upon the decline of our cotton trade; and, unless something is done soon, it requires no prophetic vision to foresee that, in the course of a few years more, we shall have to write of it as a thing that has ceased to exist. A reduction in the government land tax alone can save it; and we would entreat the con. sideration of the authorities to this matter, upon which the welfare of so many depends.

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1, 1797......

CHRONOLOGY OF THE TARIFFS OF THE UNITED STATES. We give below a chronological table of the different tariffs passed by the Congress of the United States, showing the date of passage, character, time of taking effect, and the number of years they were in operation.

Years in Date of passage.


Took effect.

operation. July 4, 1789...... general.........

August 1, 1789, 1 August 10, 1790. increase..

Dec'r 1, 1790,

2 March 3, 1791. spirit duties increase.......... June 1, 1791, May 2, 1792...... general increase....

July 1, 1792, 2 June 5, 1794..


1, 1794, 3 January 29, 1795...... partial

March 31, 1795, March 3, 1797...... general


3 May 13, 1800,.....

July 1, 1800,...

4 March 26, 1804...... Mediterranean fund.

July 1, 1804,... March 27, 1804...... general increase..

July 1, 1804,

8 July 1, 1812...... double duties..

July 1, 1812, April 27, 1816...... continued.

1, 1816, April 20, 1818...... general...

July 1, 1818, April 22, 1824......


1, 1824, April 19, 1828......

Sept'r 1, 1828. May 20, 1830......

reduce tea, coffee, salt,.... January 1, 1831, July 14, 1832 general.

March 1, 1832, March 2, 1833...... compromise 1-10.

January 1, 1834, reduce 2-10

January 1, 1836, 3-10

January 1, 1838, 4-10

January 1, 1840,...... Sept'r 11, 1841...... 20 per cent on free goods... Sept'r 30, 1841,

1 7-10...

January 1, 1842, 10-10.

July 1, 1842, August 30, 1842...... general advance.

Sept'r 1, 1842,


Septr 1, 1842, July 31, 1846...... general......

Dec'r 1, 1846,......


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TOWNSEND'S WARMING APPARATUS FOR RAILROAD CARS. We publish below an accurate engraved illustration of an invention of Mr. Tappan Townsend, of Albany, for warming railroad cars. By this simple but efficient contrivance, the heat is equalized throughout the car, obviating the necessity of a stove, and the consequent unpleasant and unhealthy presence of over-heated air, with all its deleterious effects upon the passengers.

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Through the furnace of the locomotive are passed two cast-iron pipes, which, presenting enlarged orifices in front as seen at A, pass, and if necessary repass, and pass again through the furnace in the midst of the fuel as seen at B, and thence communicate backwards with the reservoir situated in the platform C, upon which the fireman stands. From VOL. XV.-NO, VI.


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