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thence the heated air is conducted, by means of an elastic and flexible hose D, into continuous air chambers E, which are let into the sleepers of each car, and from these the warm air is received into the cars by register G, in such quantity as is required to render the atmosphere comfortable and pleasant. The elastic and flexible hose are constructed from such materials as to render them durable. These are connected to the cars by bevelled metallic pipes F, with flanges, and are attached to both ends of the hose, which are kept in place by the strength of the spiral spring f. Fig. 4 represents an enlarged view of the hose and end of the air chamber E, with a portion of the register G, with a part of a complete hose D, fully connected to the air chamber at F, and f represents the spiral coil of wire within. Each car is furnished with two registers to accommodate the running of the cars either backwards or forwards. Cap screws, H, are screwed on to the orifices in the ends of the air chambers, in summer, and also on the two orifices in the end of the chamber in the last car of a train in winter, to prevent the escape of the warm air. a in the above cut represents the furnace and pipes in the locomotive, b the tender, c the baggage car, and d a passenger car.


" Palmam qui meruit ferat.”—Dr. JORTIN. I find in the English Gentleman's Magazine for June, 1845, vol. 23, page 659, the following singular announcement; and as erroneous, as it is singular :-

“A cenotaph monument has been erected in Passage Church-yard, near Cork, to the memory of Captain Roberts, the commander of the President steamer," with the following inscription :

«• This stone commemorates in the church-yard of his native parish the merits and premature death of the first officer under whose command a steam veesel ever crossed the Atlantic ocean— undaunted bravery exhibited in the suppression of the slave trade in the African seas, enterprise and consummate skill in the details of his profession, recommend. ed him for that arduous service.

“ Lieutenant Richard Roberts, R. N., in accomplishing it, not only surpassed the wild. est visions of former days, but even the warmest anticipations of the present.

“ * He gave to science triumphs she had not dared to hope, and created an epoch for ever memorable in the history of his country, and of navigation.

«• The thousands that shall follow in this track, must not forget who it was that taught the world to traverse with such marvellous rapidity the highway of the ocean, and who, in connecting in a voyage for a few days the eastern and western hemispheres, has for ever linked his name with the greatest achievements of navigation, since Columbus first revealed Europe and America io each other.

“Göd, having permitted him this distinction, was pleased to decree that the rearer of this great enterprise should be also its martyr. Lieutenant Roberts perished with all on board his ship the President, when, on her return voyage from America to England, she was lost, in the month of March, A. D. 1841.

“* As the gallant seaman under whose guidance was accomplished an undertaking the result of which centuries will not exhaust, it is for his country, for the world, to remember him. His widow, who erects this melancholy memorial, may be forgiven, if to her these claims are lost in the recollections of that devotedness of attachment, that uprightness and kindness of spirit, which, alas ! for three brief years formed the light and joy of her existence.""

As far as this memorial hands down to posterity the good private qualities of the much. lamented and ill-fated commander, it may be very appropriate. But it is due to the fame of these United States, to historic truth, to science, and to navigation, that the following facts be duly recorded-facts, which, doubtless, his disconsolate widow was not acquainted with.

The first steam-ship which crossed the Atlantic Ocean was built in this city, in April, 1819; she was named the Savannah, and to that city she sailed under the command of

Captain Moses Rogers. On May 11th, she was visited by the then President James Monroe and his suite. She started about the end of May for Liverpool. When off the Irish coast, (it is a pity she did not put into Cork harbor) she was out of fuel, both coals and wood. She made the rest of her voyage with sails, until she got more coals. From Liverpool she sailed up the Baltic to St. Petersburgh, and from thence returned to Savannah; she was afterwards sold to some of our city merchants, and was finally lost on the shores of Long Island. Her log is still in existence, I believe in the museum at the Patent office, Washington. In Mr. Rush's “Memoranda of a Residence at the Court of St. James,” (1845,) 2nd vol., page 130, will be found the following notice of her:—

“3d July, the Savannah steam-ship arrived in Liverpool the 20th of June. She is a vessel of about 200 tons burden. Her passage was 26 days, worked by steam 18 days, was detained in the Irish channel five days, until she got fresh coals. He laid in 1,500 bushels. Her engine is equal to a 70 horse power, and acts horizontally. Her wheels are of iron on the sides, and are moveable at pleasure. These particulars the captain mentioned, which I repeated in my despatch.”

If these facts, which stand out in such bold relief, were not in existence, the lamented Lieutenant Roberts would be entitled to all which is expressed on his monument, for he arrived in this harbor in the steamer Sirius in 1838, a few hours before the Great Western. But the same feat had been performed nineteen years before, by Captain Moses Rogers. w. G.

The foregoing communication is from William Goodman, Esq., the author of the “Social History of Great Britain,” a curious, interesting and instructive work.-Ed. Merchants' Magazine.


A Mr. Stansbury, of London, (England,) advocates the adoption of the following regulations for railways:— 1. Let there be attached to every engine two steam-whistles of different and easily distinguishable sounds. 2. Let one whistle be sounded when the engine is on one line of rails, and the other when on the other line of rails, invariably;-let them never be interchanged. 3. Let the appropriate whistle be sounded by every engine, day and night, along the whole route, at every mile-post, or at every half-mile post, if necessary; and, where lines unite, or cross each other, still more frequently, 4. It would follow, as a matter of course, that two trains being found to be on the same line of rails, whether moving in the same or in opposite directions, both could be immediately stopped, and a collision prevented. Mr. Stansbury contends that his plan has this very salutary advantage, “that no two trains could at any time be within a mile, or half a mile, of each other, without the conductors of both being aware of it; and, further, without their knowing whether they are on the same line of rails.” He further suggests that “the whistle when not in use might be close under lock and key, to prevent its being sounded by mistake, on the wrong line of rails;” while, “on dark nights, a lantern might be attached to each mile or half-mile post, if it should be found necessary;” also, “that there should be greater facilities for crossing from one line of rails to the other, every few miles.”


The official returns of the collectors of tolls on the New York Canals, for the fiscal year ending on the 30th of September, 1846, will be published after the Legislature of the State is in session. In the meantime we give, from the records of the Canal Department, the following statement, which exhibits the amount received for toll on each

of the canals of New York, for the fiscal year ending on the 30th of September, 1845 and 1846, and also the amount received for toll from the Railroad Companies during the same period :Canals.


1846. Erie........

$2,067,061 59 $2,461,975 71 Champlain,......

114,199 08

110,698 05 Ogwego,....

50,716 83

56,837 60 Cayliga and Seneca,....

27,384 82

27,827 73 Chemung....

19,042 20

14,407 99 Crooked Lake,

805 56

970 64 Chenango.........

22,829 35

24,216 76 Genesee Valley,....

19,103 17

22,718 60 Oneida Lake,.....

428 66

354 31 Seneca River Towing Path,..........

406 24

379 27

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Showing an increase, during the year ending Sept. 30, 1846, of.

$411,182 61


NAVIGATION THROUGH THE NEEDLES. A Most important discovery has recently been made by Commander Sherringham and the officers of the Dasher, surveying vessel, of a great error in the Admiralty charts, representing the depth of water and some dangerous sunken rocks in the Needles passage. For many years, there have appeared in the charts issued from the hydrographic office, marks of soundings near the Needles Rocks, pointing out sunken chalk rocks in the nar. row passage, with the water over them not exceeding three or four fathoms, and, in consequence, there is an order in force from the Admiralty, that no captain of a ship of the line is to make that passage, down or up the Solent, to or from the channel, through the Needles. The Dasher surveying vessel has been occupied for the last year in surveying and sounding the water over the shoals, and in the channels, bay, &c., leading from Christ Church bay to Cowes, and a week or two since came to the Needles, and minutely examined the passage between that part of the Isle of Wight and the Shingles, including Allum Bay, &c. Soundings were taken in three lines over the supposed dangerous chalk rocks, the width being quite tive hundred yards, and the leads were dropped as quick and as close as possible, first from the boat and afterwards from the Dasher, when it was ascertained that at low water there was never less than five fathoms or thirty feet water over every part, and that a line of battle ship could with ease work out to sen by that channel much quicker when the wind is from east than by having to beat up from Spithead to the Nab Light, and round by Bembridge-ledge. A full report of this important fact, with a descriptive chart, has been made by Commander Sherringham, and transmitted to the Admiralty, who will, doubtless, represent to the Trinity Board the advantages which will arise to the mercantile shipping, when it is known that vessels of great draft of water can use the Needles passage in any weather, without risk.


The following has been received from Her Majesty's consnl at Liverpool, announcing the establishment of new signals for the guidance of vessels arriving at St. Michael's. No. 1.-A red flag. All vessels at anchor must immediately make sail on account of the weather. No. 2.-A white flag. Vessels in sight can safely make the anchorage. No. 3.--A tri-colored flag red in the centre, and white round the border, Vessels must not send their boats on shore, it being very dangerous to attempt landing. The signals will be hoisted onja flag-staff at Custom-house Quay, Ponta Delgadas.

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Commissions on Sales.

Per ct.
Sugar, cotton, tobacco, lead, flour, and other products of the soil.
Domestic manufactures, and all foreign merchandise,.

5 Guarantee of sales on time,.......

2) Purchase and shipment of merchandise or produce,.

2 Sales or purchase of stocks or bullion,.

1 Collecting and remitting dividends..... Selling vessel or steamboats,.

23 Purchasing

Procuring freights,...
Collecting freights from foreign ports,

Outfits and disbursements,.
Effecting insurance,.
Adjusting and collecting insurance or other claims, without litigation.......

with litigation,..
Purchasing and remitting drafts, or receiving and paying money on which no other

commission has been charged,.....
If bills remitted are guaranteed, in addition,..

1} Bills and notes remitted for collection protested and returned,..

1 Landing, custody, and re-shipping merchandise or produce from vessels in distress, 2

bullion or specie,..... Adjusting and collecting general average,

5 Consignments of merchandise withdrawn or re-shipped per order, on account of ad

vances and responsibilities full commission,
On the surplus amount of invoices of such consignments, deducting advances and

liabilities-half commission,......
Drawing, endorsing, or negotiating foreign bills of exchange,

domestic bills of exchange,
Receiving, entering, and re-shipping merchandise to a foreign port--on amount of
invoice, .....

1 On amount of advances, charges, and liabilities on same,...

23 For drawing, accepting, negotiating or endorsing notes or drafts without funds, produce or bills of lading in hand,.

21 On cash advances in all cases,...

2 For entering and bonding merchandise for the interior-on amount of duties, freight

and charges, besides the regular charge for forwarding, Agency for steamboats-according to special contract,....

The foregoing rates to be exclusive of brokerage and charges actually incurred.
Sugar, molasses, and tobacco,... per hhd. 50cl Pork, beef, lard, tallow, whiskey, &c.,

..per bale 50
per barrel,....

6 20 Flour, grain, and other dry barrels........ 5 10 Lard, nails and shot,

..per keg 21 Provisions or bacon, .............per hhd. 25 Lead,...

..per pig 1 per tierce 12} Corn, wheat, beans, oats, and other


Pipes and hogsheads,.

50cQuarter casks and barrels......... 123 Half pipes and tierces..........




...per bag 3

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02 c.

Boxes, bales, cases, trunks, and other Soap, candles, wine, &c., per box

packages dry goods,. .10 a 50 c. Coffee, spices, salt, &c....per bag Earthen and hardware, per pkge. 25 a 50 Gunpowder, ....... Iron and castings,............per ton $1 00

06 09

...per keg


3 c.



..per bale

...per keg 2

...per cask 40 ..per tierce 20 ...per bbl. 10

per bbl.

per cask 20

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Cotton and wool,........ -per bale 20 c. Corn, wheat, oals, and other grain,

.per hhd. 50

per bag,.......... Hemp, per bale, not exc'g 300 lbs.,... 10 Coffee, spices, &c.,.....

.per bag 5 450 66 15 Sall........

3 600 «

Candles, soap, wine, fish, raisins, 800 6

25 oil, sweetmeats, segars, &c., per Moss, 6 box or basket,

2 Bagging and rope,.. 5 Do. in half boxes,..

1 Peltries,..

10 Nails,....... Hides,..

....each 11 Dry goods, as in bulk, per package 10a50 Lead,.....

.per pig

...per cask or crate 25 Iron,....

.. per tonl 00

Hardware, Bacon and provisions,...

-per hhd. 25

Do........ Pork, beef, lard, tallow, whiskey,

Do.. &e........

8 Liquids,

..per pipe or hhd. 40 Molasses and oil,..

10 Do......

per half pipe or tierce 25 Flour,.........

5 Do.....

..per qr. cask or bbl. 10 Lard,........

..per keg 21 | Claret,...... Sugar and molasses,

.per hhd. 40
Gunny bags,

..per bale 8 WEIGHT OF GRAIN PER BUSTEL. Wheat and rye,......... ........lbs. 60 Oats..........

lbs. 32 Corn..........

56 The tare on lard is as follows:- In bbls., 16 per cent; half do., 18 per cent; kegs, 20 per ceni.

FREIGHTS. When vessels are chartered, or goods shipped by the ton, and no special agreement respecting the proportion of tonnage which each particular article shall be computed at, the following regulation shall be ihe standard :

That the articles, the bulk of which shall compose a ton, to equal a ton of heavy materials, shall in weight be as follows:Coffee in casks,

1,568 lbs. ; in bags, 1,830 lbs. Cocoa

1,120 Pimento


1,100 Flour,


8 bbls. of 196 lbs. Beef, pork, tallow, pickled fish, and naval stores........ 6 bbls. Pig and bar iron, lead and other metals or ore, heavy

dye-woods, sugar, rice, honey, or other articles,..... 2,240 lbs. groes. Ship bread, in casks,.....

672 lbs., bags, 784; bulk, 896. Wines, brandy, spirits, and liquids generally, reckon

ing the full capacity of the casks, wine measure,.... 200 gallons. Grain, peas, and beans, in casks,.....

22 bushels ; in bulk, 36 bush. Salt, European ,........

36 West India,.....

31 Stone coal,........

28 Timber, planks, furs, peltry, in bales or boxes, cotton, wool, or other measurement goods,..

40 cubic feet. Dry hides,.........

1,120 lbs. When molasses is shipped by the hogshead, without any special agreement, it shall be taken at 110 gallons, estimated on the full capacity of the cask.

Freights, and commissions on them, when in sterling money, shall be settled at $4 84 per pound sterling; and other currency at the value fixed by Congress.

ANCHORAGE DUTIES AT BRAZILIAN PORTS. It has been officially made known to the Department of State, Washington, November 12, 1846, by the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, that the Brazilian government has ordered that, from the 26th of May in this year, all foreign vessels entering Brazilian ports with one-half of their cargoes, only, destined for those ports, and the other hall destined for the ports of some other na, tion, shall not be required to pay more than a mojety of the anchorage duties, provided they do not take on board new cargo for the last-mentioned ports.

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