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Total, ....... 373,242 224,410 386,382 190,921 443,328 642,606
* To June 16th. The year 1840 was one of large exports ; but it appears that the quantity sent from New York during the six and a half months ending with June 16th, has been much larger than the export for any former year. The export of corn has been larger than any, for three years together. The whole export of flour, with the destination from the United States, is seen in the following table :
BARRELS OF FLOUR EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES. Where to. '1810. 1841. 1812. 1843,
1844. 186. Swed. W. Indies......... 7,882 15,624 10,673 2,174 7,424 9,750 Danish do.......
45,148 43,397 40,143 37,667 51,723 53,903 Dutch East Indies........ 2,300 7,841 380 1,680 2,603 1,579 Dutch West Indies,......
13,157 14,932 12,086 1,426 15,972 18,224 England,
620,128 298,985 208,024 19,436 167,296 35,355 Gibraltar,
12,891 19,229 5,493 4,033 7,963 10,747 British East Indies,...... 4,565 11,357 4,550 3,272
3,430 British West Indies,... 232,329 246,465 237,472 170,577 303,394 281,228 British Am. Colonies,.... 432,356 377,808 369,048 190,322 319,022 287,597 France,...
74,416 1,340 479 3,304 3,187 French West Indies,.... 10,491 5,398 9,011 22,980 9,277 10,216 Hayti,.....
28,724 36,456 24,745 29,437 41,801 53,156 Cuba,
69,818 69,337 46,846 11,170 34,875 47,795 Spanish West Indies,... 20,966 15,566 12,392 4,506 17,222 17,465 Madeira,
3,087 5,408 331 825 1,898 1,951 Cape de Verds,
4,167 1,324 824 1,746 1,999 2,025 Texas,
9,861 6,401 3,577 17,003 21,040 4,002 Mexico, 15.826 19,602 21,490
7,879 4,699 7,264 426 1,424 8,342 Central America,....
28,707 28,796 27,857 35,462 20,303 39,399 Brazil,....
197,823 282,406 198,317 192,454 28,1818 209,845 Argentine Republic,..... 12,063 22,132 2,832 6,258 7,071 11,184 Chili............
4,452 5,574 4,863 7,189 South America,...
2,521 1,950 4,349 870 5,520 4,856 West Indies,
11,263 1,626 814 3,152 2,404 1,284 Africa,.......
2,218 3,728 2,466 1,201 3,708 4,385 Northwest Coast,........ 3,935
1,710 3,638 Other ports.....
10,000 46,557 33,895 61,623 94,878 47,338 Total barrels........ 1,893,182 1,510,613 1,283,602 841,474 1,438,574 1,195,230
Average price....... $5 37 $5 20 $6 00 $4 50 $4 75 $4 51 Notwithstanding this large trade, flour was never before so low as now. The quantities still coming forward on all the great avenues, are enormously great. It is possible that the quantity produced may, in some degree, compensate the
farmer for the low prices obtained; but the expenses are proportional to the quantity forwarded. In the long run, an abundance of good agricultural wealth of any sort, cannot be an evil. Although purchasers may sustain temporary losses from the fall in money prices occasioned by the suddenly enhanced supply, yet the springs of industry and the activity of trade must be stimulated into an animation that will redound to the general welfare. The great abundance and cheapness of food here, is a guarantee that, under the reduced duty of England, the price of bread cannot rise so high as to diminish the wages of labor materially, and consequently, not the consumption of goods. With each successive year, the interests of the two nations are bound more closely together, and the disaster that might attend a rupture between the two countries become of greater magnitude, the danger of that rupture diminishes.
The expenditure of the federal government during the summer and fall, will be large. In December last the secretary estimated the revenues and expenditures for the year ending July, 1847, as follows. Revenuen.
Expenditures. Customs, $22,500,000 Civil List,..
3,364,458 Miscellaneous...... 100,000 Fortification ........... 4,331,809
$25,518,813 In consequence of the war, the army and navy items have been increased by the sum of $23,952,904 ; which sum will be, it is estimated, somewhat reduced by the modification of the tariff, and the imposition of duties on tea and coffee, simultaneously with the establishment of the warehousing system. But the result is that the department requires to raise by loan and Treasury notes, near thirteen millions, after absorbing the balance on hand. The secretary asks for power to make the loan, either by stock or treasury-note issues according the exigencies of the case. The latter is by all means the most advisable form of loan, inasmuch as that it is not only receipt for public dues, and therefore to be promptly cancelled within the year if expenses diminish or revenues increase ; but the notes are exceedingly useful in the operations of exchange, and from fifteen to twenty millions can always be suspended in the internal operations of the country-operating rather as an increase to the currency of the country, and that of a very desirable nature, than as a diminution of capital employed in the industrial pursuits, as is the case when the government borrows money from those reservoirs which are more appropriately the sources whence commerce draws its facilities..
co MMERCIAL REGULATIONs.
LAW FOR DEALERS IN GUNPOWDER, SALTPETRE, Etc.
The following law of “the people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly,” entitled “An act in relation to the keeping of gunpowder, saltpetre, and certain other substances, in the city of New York,” was passed May 13th, 1846, approved by the governor, and is, therefore, the law of the state, now in force:–
Sec. 1. It shall not be lawful for any person or persons, except as hereinafter provided, to have or keep any quantity of gunpowder in any one house, store, building, or other place in the city of New York, to the southward of a line running through the centre of Forty-second street, from the North to the East river. Sec. 2. It shall be lawful for the mayor of the city of New York, under his official seal, to grant licenses to persons desirous to sell powder at retail in the said city of New York. The persons so licensed, may have on their premises, if actually kept there for sale, a quantity of gunpowder, not exceeding in all, twelve pounds at any one time, to be put up in tight copper or tin canisters, containing or capable of containing only one pound each. The persons solicensed shall not be protected against any of the penalties or consequences hereinafter provided for violations of the first section of this act, except while they have on some conspicuous part of the front of each of the houses or buildings in which they may be licensed to sell powder under this section, a sign on which shall be distinctly printed, in characters legible to persons passing such houses or buildings, the words “licensed to sell gunpowder.” Sec. 3. It shall be lawful for persons actually dealing in gunpowder in the city of New York, to have five quarter-casks of gunpowder, but no more, at any one time, on the walk in front of their stores during the day-time, for the purpose of packing the same, and sending the same either on board of a vessel, or to some place without the district specified in the first section of this act, but for no longer time than shall be actually necessary for the purposes aforesaid. The powder kept or had under this section, may, if covered completely and securely with a leather or canvass bag or case, be carried through the street during the day-time, to a vessel as aforesaid, or other place without the district last mentioned. If the same be put on board of any vessel within such district, such vessel shall, before sundown, haul into the stream to a distance not less than three hundred yards from any dock, wharf, pier or bulkhead, and shall not, at any time, until eight o'clock of the morning, while such powder is on board, lie within three hundred yards of any dock, wharf, pier, or bulkhead of said city. All powder had, kept, prepared or carried, under the provisions of this section, shall have distinctly and plainly printed upon the articles containing it, the word “gunpowder.” Sec. 4. The commander, owner or owners of every ship or other vessel arriving in the harbor of New York, and having more than twenty-eight pounds of gunpowder on board, shall, within forty-eight hours after the arrival, and before such ship or vessel shall approach within three hundred yards of any wharf, pier, or slip, to the southward of a line drawn through the centre of Forty-second street as aforesaid, cause the said gunpowder to be landed by means of a boat or boats, or other small craft, at any place without the said limits which may be most contiguous to any magazine for storing gunpowder, and shall cause the said gunpowder to be stored in such magazine. Sec. 5. It shall be lawful either to proceed with any such ship or vessel to sea, within forty-eight hours after her arrival, or to transship such gunpowder from one ship or vessel to another, for the purpose of immediate exportation, without landing such gunpowder, as in the last section is directed; but in neither case shall it be lawful to keep such gunpowder for a longer time than forty-eight hours in the harbor of New York, or approach with the same within three hundred yards of any wharf, pier, or slip, in the said city, to the southward of the line specified in the last section. Sec. 6. In every case of a violation of any provision of this act, where the penalty prescribed thereby for such violation is the forfeiture of any gunpowder to the said fire department, it shall be lawful for any fire-warden of the said city to seize such gunpowder in the day-time, and cause the same to be conveyed to any magazine used for the purpose of storing gunpowder. Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of every person who shall have made any such seizure, forthwith to inform the mayor or any alderman of the said city thereof; and the said mayor or alderman shall, thereupon, inquire into the facts and circumstances of such alleged violation and seizure, for which purpose he may summon any person or persons to testify before him, and he shall have power, in his discretion, to order any gunpowder so seized to be restored. Sec. 8. Whenever any inhabitant of said city shall make oath before the mayor or any alderman, or any special justice thereof, of any fact or circumstance, which, in the opinion of the said mayor, alderman, or special justice, shall afford a reasonable cause of suspicion that any gunpowder has been brought or is kept within the said city, or in the harbor thereof, contrary to any provision contained in this act, it shall be lawful for the said mayor, alderman, or special justice, to issue his warrant or warrants, under his hand and seal, to any sheriff, marshal, constable, or other fit person or persons, commanding him or them to search for such gunpowder in the day-time, wheresoever the same may be in violation of this act, and to seize and take possession of the same, if found; but no person having or acting under any such search-warrant, shall take advantage thereof to serve any civil process whatever. Sec. 9. It shall be lawful for any person or persons, who, by virtue of any such warrant, shall have seized any gunpowder, to cause the same, within twelve hours, in the day-time, after such seizure, to be conveyed to any magazine used for storing gunpowder; and unless the said mayor or any alderman of the said city, should, in the manner directed by the seventh section of this act, order the same to be restored, such gunpowder shall be detained in such magazine, until it shall be determined, by due course of law, whether the same may have become forfeited by virtue of this act. Sec. 10. All actions or suits for the recovery of any gunpowder which may have been seized and stored in any magazine by virtue of this act, or for the value thereof, or for damages sustained by the seizure or detention thereof, shall be brought against the fire department of the city of New York, and shall be commenced within three calendar months next after such seizure shall have been actually made; and in case no such action or suit shall have been commenced within such period, such gunpowder shall be deemed absolutely forfeited to the said fire department, and may be immediately delivered to the proper officers thereof for its use. No penal damages shall be received in any such action or suit; and such gunpowder may, at any time during the pendency of any such action or suit, by consent of the parties thereto, be removed from any magazine where the same may have been stored; or may be sold, and the money arising from such sale may be paid into the court where such suit or action may be pending, to abide the event thereof. Sec. 11. Nothing contained in this act, shall be construed to apply to any ship or vesselof-war in the service of the United States, or of any foreign government, while lying distant three hundred yards or upwards from the wharves, piers, or slips, of the said city. Sec. 12. If any gunpowder exceeding the quantity mentioned in the second section of this act, shall be found in the possession or custody of any person, by any fireman of the said city, during any fire or alarm of fire therein, it shall be lawful for such fireman to seize the same without any warrant, and to report such seizure without delay to the mayor or any alderman of the said city; and it shall be determined by the said mayor or alderman of the said city, in the manner directed by the seventh section of this act, whether such gunpowder shall be restored, or the same shall be conveyed to a magazine for storing gunpowder, and there detained, until it shall be decided by due course of law, whether such gunpowder be forfeited by virtue of this act. Sec. 13. No quantity of sulphur more than ten hundred weight, or of hemp or flax than twenty hundred weight, or of pitch, tar, turpentine, rosin, spirits of turpentine, varnish, linseed oil, oil of vitriol, aqua-fortis, ether, or shingles, than shall be allowed by the common council of the city of New York, shall be put, kept or stored in any one place in the said city, to the southward of a line drawn through the centre of Fourteenthstreet, unless with the permission of the said common council. Sec. 14. Every person who shall violate either of the provisions of the last section, shall, for every such offence, forfeit and pay the sum of twenty-five dollars ; and in case any person or persons shall neglect or refuse to remove any of the articles prohibited by the said section, within such time as may be allowed for that purpose by the mayor or recorder, or any alderman of the said city, he, she, or they shall, for every such neglect or refusal, pay an additional sum of twenty-five dollars. Sec. 15. Nothing herein before contained, shall be construed to prohibit any ship chandler from keeping at any time, in any enclosure in the said city, any quantity of pitch, tar, rosin or turpentine, not exceeding twenty barrels in the whole. Sec. 16. It shall not be lawful for any person or persons, to have or keep any quantity of saltpetre exceeding five hundred pounds, offered for sale by any dealer, having the same in any house, store, building or other place in the city of New York to the southward of the line mentioned in the first section of this act; and all provisions of this act in relation to the having or keeping of gunpowder, shall apply to the having or keeping of o within the limits aforesaid, except as to the provisions of the seventeenth section of this act. Sec. 17. Notwithstanding the preceding section, saltpetre may be had or kept by any dealer, in any quantity, within any fire-proof building in the city of New York, provided it be the only merchandise stored or kept within such building. Sec. 18. Any violation of the provisions of this act, except where otherwise expressly provided, shall subject the offender to a fine of five hundred dollars for each offence, to be recovered by and for the use of the fire department of the city of New York; and such offender, on conviction before the general sessions of the peace for the city and county of New York, of any violations of the provisions aforesaid, or either of them, may be imprisoned in the county jail for a term not exceeding one year. All gunpowder or saltpetre, found within the limits specified in the first section of this act, shall be forfeited to the use of the said fire department. Sec. 19. If any person or persons shall hereafter be injured at any fire occurring within the limits mentioned in the last section, by means of any explosion resulting from the violation by any other person or persons of any of the provisions of this act relating to saltpetre or gunpowder, the person or persons guilty of such violations, shall, on conviction before the general sessions aforesaid, be punished by imprisonment in the State Prison for a term not exceeding two years. If such violation occasions the death of any person or persons, the offender shall, on conviction, be deemed guilty of manslaughter in the third degree, and punished as now provided by law in relation to the crime last named. Sec. 20. The penalties and provisions of this act shall not extend to any vessel receiving gunpowder on freight, provided such vessel do not remain at any wharf of the said city, or within three hundred yards thereof, after sunset, or on any other day whilst having gunpowder on board. Sec. 21. All pecuniary penalties imposed by this act, may be sued for and recovered with costs of suit, in any court having cognizance thereof, by the proper officers of the fire department of the said city, for the use of the said fire department. Sec. 22. All actions for any forfeiture or penalty incurred under this act, shall be commenced within one year next after incurring such forfeiture or penalty. Sec. 23. All laws or parts of laws heretofore passed, inconsistent with the provisions of this act, are hereby declared to be repealed; but such repeal shall not affect any suit or prosecution already commenced, or any penalty, forfeiture or offence already incurred or committed under any such law or part of a law.
COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN FRANCE AND BELGIUM.
The Journal de Bruzelles contains a condensed statement of the commercial treaty concluded between France and Belgium. It consists of thirteen articles, and certain stipulations of some importance, referring to dyed linens, and an alteration of the duties in flaxen cloths.
The stipulations in favor of Belgium are first with reference to the duties on yarn and muslins, which, from the 10th of August, 1846, are to be imported into France on these terms :
1st. For yarns, the first 2,000,000 kilogrammes at the duties anterior to the royal ordonnance of 26th June, 1842; beyond 2,000,000, and up to 3,000,000 of kilogrammes, increased by the difference agreed in favor of Belgium between its own tariff and the general tariff; beyond 3,000,000 kilogrammes, the duties anterior to the ordonnance of 26th June, 1842.
For muslims, up to 3,000,000 of kilogrammes, the duties anterior to the ordonnance of 26th June, 1842; above that quantity, the duties of the general tariff.
The rule for the importation of flax and hemp from Belgium into France, is to be established reciprocally with the importation of the same produce of France into Belgium, and the duties on either side are not to be augmented until the expiration of the present treaty.
The Belgium government agrees also to require on all the other frontiers, except the French frontier, the same duties, with the exception of 25,000 kilos of yarns from Germany and Russia, which Belgium continues to receive at reduced duties.