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In this first list of stipulations are also those which, on the one hand, relieve the machinery of France from the surcharge levied by the law of 1816, and on the other hand, regulate that the slates of. Belgium shall only be adınitted into France on the minimum duty of the law of June 5, 1845.
There is also an article regulating the arrangements for packet-boats conveying letters and passengers into the ports of France. The concessions made by France are
1. The arrangements with respect to wines and silk tissues continue the stipulation of the 16th July, 1842
2. A decrease of 12 per cent on the salts of France sent to Belgum, instead of 7 per cent, as at present.
3. The annulling of the supplementary taxes established in Belgium, in 1843, on woollen yarns, new clothes, and fashionable manufactures from France. Woollen yarns are to pay three-fourths of the former duty, and the other articles the duties levied before 1843.
4. Annulling the supplementary duties of 9 and 64 per cent on cassimeres, and similar manufactures.
5. The continuance of the decrees of 1844 and 1845, which took from cotton tissues, of French production, the extra duties which before existed.
There are some reciprocal agreements as to the navigation of mutual rivers; and a special clause declares, “ If increase of the present Octroi duties, or other duties of the Belgian communes, shall injure the profit of France in these stipulations, the simple declaration of the French government, after one month's notice, shall be sufficient to render this treaty null and void.”
KNOLL NEAR THE WEST END OF THE PAN SAND. A knoll having grown up about three cables length to the southward and eastward of the West Pan Sand Buoy, its position has been temporarily marked by a green buoy, which will be replaced in a few days by a buoy colored red and white in chequers, and marked Pan Sand Knoll.
The depth of the water upon this knoll, does not, in one spot, exceed nine feet, at low water, spring tides ; and the said green buoy lies in ten feet, and with the following marks and compass bearings, viz:
Margate Wind Mills, their apparent width open south of Margate New Church Moncton Beacon, in line with the low west end of Upper Hale Grove, S. by E. West Pan Sand Buoy, N. N. W. Pan Sand Beacon E. I S. South Knoll Buoy S. E. I S. Note-Masters of vessels, pilots, and others, should be careful not to navigate between the above-mentioned Knoll Buoy, and the West Pan Sand Buoy.
S.E. I S.
BUOYAGE ON THE EAST COAST.
The S. W. Scroby,
The Scroby Elbow,
The West Scroby,
The Middle Scroby,
The North Scroby. All which buoys are at present colored white will be taken away and replaced by buoys colored black and white in chequers ; and a beacon buoy colored black, will be placed at the north end of the St. Nicholas Sand instead of the white beacon buoy now at that station ; the staff and ball will also be taken away from the South St. Nicholas Buoy, (red.) and the buoy chequered black and white, now upon the Barber, will be replaced by one colored wholly black.
It is hereby further notified, that the N. E. Barnard Buoy, (now white,) will be replaced by a buoy chequered black and white, and surmounted by a staff and ball; and the black buoy on Sizewell Bank will thenceforth be colored black and white in circles.
* LIGHT-HOUSE ON THE SOUTHERN PART OF BERMUDA.
A Light-House has been erected on the southern part of Bermuda, in latitude 32° 14" N., and longitude, 64° 50' West of Greenwich, on which a revolving light was exhibited the 1st of this month, and it will be exhibited every night from sunset to sunrise.
It is elevated 365 feet above the level of the sea, and in clear weather may be seen from the deck of a frigate seven or eight leagues. It is higher than the adjoining land, and in day-time will appear like a sail. It is visible all round the island, with the exception of an area of 10 degrees between S. 64° W., and S. 74 West by compass, and within this area it will be intercepted by high land.
Bermuda is always approached with more safety from the southward, and in running for it at night, or in thick weather, care should be taken not to get to the northward of 32° 8" latitude before seeing the light or the land.
In coming from the S. E., the light should not be brought to the southward of W. by S., or approached nearer than six or seven miles during the night. Coming from the westward, it should not be approached nearer than ten or twelve miles, until it bears to the northward of N. E. by E.
With the light between N. E. and W, the coast is free from danger, and may be safely approached within three miles.
Any vessel getting sight of the light from the northward had betterhaul off immediately, as the reefs extend all round from the S. W. to the north, and N. E., from fifteen to sixteen miles. • The light will show a bright flash, continuing for six or eight seconds, and repeated . every minute. Between the flashes, the light will be seen about ten miles
THE BRITISH MARINE SOCIETY.
It is not perhaps generally known in this country that there is in England a national institution for the equipment, maintenance, and instruction of distressed boys for the Royal Navy, the Indian Navy, and the merchant service, and the fisheries. By the English papers, we notice that this society held their annual meeting on the 6th of May, 1846. This society, it appears, since its formation in June, 1756, to December 1845, had fitted out and provided for 47,263 boys; from 1756 to 1814 had given a bounty of sea-clothing to 39,360 landsmen. In 1845 they had sent to sea in the Royal navy 163 boys, in the Indian navy 40, in the merchant service 652, and they had remaining on board the Iphigenia, on the 31st of December, 1845, 74.
POINTE-A-PETRE, GUADALOUPE. The following copy of a letter dated Pointe-a-Petre, Guadaloupe, April 25th, 1846, is copied from the Portland, (Me.) Argus:–
“Dear Sir—The object of this is to acquaint you with a new decision of our government—by which, on the 12th of June next, duties shall be put on building materials, and of course port charges on vessels as formerly.”
BUOYAGE OF THE GULL STREAM. The Trinity House Board have published a notice to the effect, that on or about the 1st June, 1845, the Elbow Buoy in the Gull Stream, now colored white, will be replaced by
a black and white chequered buoy, surmounted by a staff and ball.
PORT OF WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. The Commissioners of Navigation have rescinded the order requiring all vessels from Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York to be visited by the Port Physician before coming to town, and they may now pass up unrestricted.
RAILROAD AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
ACCIDENTS ON RAILWAYS IN ENGLAND. The usual annual report from the Railway Department of the Board of Trade has just been presented to Parliament for the years 1844 and 1845; from which it appears that in 1844 ten persons were killed, four of whom were passengers, and one hundred and one, eighty-two of whom were passengers, injured in a greater or less degree, the causes of the accident being beyond the control of passengers; that nine passengers were killed, and ten injured, owing to their own neglect or ill conduct; that thirty-six servants of the companies were killed, and twenty-four injured, under circumstances not attended with danger to other portions of the public; and that forty-five persons other than servants of the companies were killed, and nine injured, under circumstances not involving danger to passengers. The report says that the actual number of accidents in the years 1844 and 1845 are greater than they were in previous years; but the real danger arising from rail. way travelling can only be appreciated when the number of accidents shall be considered in connection with the additional amount of miles of new railway which have been opened, and the enormous augmentation of railway travellers. For this purpose, the following table has been made. It includes the years 1841, '42, '43, '44, and the first half of '45. The last half of '45 is not included, in consequence of the statistical returns for that period not having yet been received from the railway companies by the Board of Trade. The table is entitled “Statement of the number of accidents attended with personal injury or danger to the public, arising from causes beyond the control of passengers,' distinguishing the number of persons killed and injured in the last five months of the year 1840 ; in each year, from 1841 to 1844, and in the first six months of the year 1845; showing also the number of miles of railway open, the number of passengers conveyed, and the proportion of those injured to the total number carried in each of the above periods."
RECEIPTS OF ENGLISH RAILWAYS. The London Economist furnishes the following table, showing by the amounts received the increase which lag taken place in railway travelling, and in the transport of goods by railway, during the three years preceding June 30th, 1845:Yr. ending June 30, Miles
Rec. from pass. Rec. fm. goods, etc. Total.
1,798) £3,110,257 £1,424,932 £4,535,189 1844,
1,9123 3,439,294 1,635,380 5,074,674 1845,... 2,1187 3,976,341 2,333,373 6,209,714 The increase of traffic thug shown, is still progressing; a fact in favor of the system of low fares, which is becoming quite popular in England. VOL. XV.NO. 1,
REDUCTION OF FARES ON ENGLISH RAILWAYS.
It appears from the last annual report from the Railway Department of the BritishBoard of Trade, that on the Grand Junction Line, 98 miles long, the fares have been reduced, since the 1st of January, 1844, on the first-class, from 24s. 6d. to 17s.; and on the second, from 18s, to 14s. On the Great North of England, 45 miles long, first-class, from 13s. to 9s. ; and on the second, from 9s, to 8s. On the Great Western, 1184 miles long, first-class, from 30s, to 27s.6d. ; second, from 21s, to 18s. 6d. On the Leeds and Selby, 6 miles long, first-class, from 2s. to 1s. 4d.; second, from 1s. 6d. to 1s. On the London and Birmingham, 1124 miles long, first-class, from 30s, to 23s.; second, from 20s. to 17s. On the London and Brighton, 50 miles long, first-class, from 12s, to 10s. ; second, from 8s, to 7s.6d. On the London and Croydon, 104 miles long, first-class, from 2s. 3d. to 1s. 3d.; second, from 1s. 9d. to 1s. On the Southwestern, 94 miles long, firstclass, from 23s.6d. to 19s. 6d., and added a second-class at 15s. On the Manchester and Birmingham, 85 miles long, first-class, from 23s. to 15s.; second, from 17s, to 11s. 6d. On the Manchester and Leeds, 51 miles long, first-class, from 15s. to 11s.; second, from 9s. 6d. to 8s. 6d. On the Newcastle and Carlisle, 60 miles long, first-class, from 16s. to 12s.; second, 12s. to 9s. On the North Union, 22 miles long, first-class, from 8s. 6d. to 4s. 6d.; second, from 4s, to 3s. On the Southeastern, 88 miles long, first-class, from 18s. 6d. to 15s.; second, from 12s. to 10s. On the York and North Midland, 24 miles long, first-class, from 7s. to 6s.; second, from 5s. to 4s. 6d. In addition to these reductions, great facilities and reductions have been afforded by third-class carriages and return tickets, of which no note is taken. Since the close of the year, further reductions have taken place on some of the lines, which, of course, are not included in this report. On the following lines, no reductions have been made:–Birmingham and Gloucester, Hull and Selby, Lancaster and Preston, Midland, and Preston and Wyre. The total length of new railways opened in 1844 was 195 miles 453 chains; and in 1845,293 miles 77 chains.
TROY AND GREENBUSH RAILROAD.
This road, which was partially opened for travel on the 13th of June, 1845, extends from the city of Troy to Greenbush, opposite Albany, and is six miles long. It appears, by the last annual report of the directors, made to the Assembly of New York, that the cost of construction to January 1st, 1846, was $233,371 39. The receipts of the company from June 13th, 1845, when, it will be remembered, the road was only partially opened, to the first of January, 1846, was from 98,711 passengers, $12,200 86, and from freight, $3,647 32; making a total of $15,846 18. The expenses for the same period were $5,981 21 ; and the dividends made to stockholders, $7,843 62. The number of miles run by passenger trains was 13,636; for freight do., 500 miles. The company have three locomotives, and two Troy-built cars, handsomely furnished, and as commodious and convenient as any we have ever seen. The company have judiciously adopted the lowest rate of fare, (124 cents) two cents per mile. There are no roads in the United States more efficiently managed, or better conducted than the Troy. The “Rensselaer and Saratoga,” the “Schenectady and Troy,” and the “Troy and Greenbush” railroads, all pass through the main street of the city, and take up passengers at the door of each of the principal hotels, the “Mansion House,” the “Troy House,” etc.; and although owned by different companies, they are all under the management of Mr. L. R. SARGENT, a most experienced, intelligent, and efficient superintendent; a circumstance which secures the utmost regularity as well as safety. The travel over the Troy and Greenbush road since the last report has been constantly increasing, and we have no hesitation in saying that the stock must soon take rank with the best in the country. The first semi-annual dividend was 4 per cent on the capital invested. The cars leave Troy and Greenbush every hour during the day and evening.
RATES OF FREIGHT AND TOLL ON COAL,
ADOPTED BY THE PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAILROAD COMPANY. The Board of Managers of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, have adopted the following as the rates of freight and toll on coal transported by that Company. The new rates went into operation on the 15th of June, 1846.
From Mt. Carbon. S. llaven. Pt. Clinton. To Philadelphia..........
$1 70 $1 60 $1 45 Inclined plane........
1 30 Richmond
1 30 Nicetown..
1 30 Germantown Railroad...
1 30 Falls of Schuylkill...
1 20 Manayunk ....
1 15 Conshehocken ....
1 10 Turnout, 1 mile below Norristown
1 10 Plymouth Railroad..........
1 10 Bridgeport or Norristown....
1 10 Valley Forge...
1 05 Royer's Ford...
EXPENSES OF THE BRITISH PACKET-SERVICE. A Parliamentary return shows the expense of the packet-service during the year. The amount paid out of the exchequer, from grants of parliament for naval service, was £655,418 3s.; paid to the East India Company towards the expense of steam-commu. nication with India, by way of the Red Sea, and voted in the miscellaneous services, £50,000. The expense of the packet-service between Liverpool and Dublin in the year, was £26,831 8s.; Holyhead and Kingstown, £17,769 7s.; Milford and Waterford, £18,157 5s. 10d. ; Portpatrick and Donaghadee, £4,252 23. 9d. ; Weymouth, to the 31st of May, 1845, when the establishment was broken up, £2,895 29.; communication with foreign parts from Dover, £29,614 199.; from Falmouth, £2,995. The receipts for
passage money, etc., £22,021 188. 9d.; making the nett expense of this packet-geja vice for the year, £80,593 3s., including £15,170 paid on account of the new vessels Garland, Onyx, and Violet. The nett expense of her majesty's steam vessels employed as packets in the Mediterranean for the year-namely, the Acheron, Polyphemus, Syden. ham, and Volcano, was £41,522 ; of her majesty's sailing vessels, Crane, Express, Linnet, Penguin, Petrel, Swift, Seagull, Cockatrice, and Viper, employed as packets to South America, and as branch-packets on that line, £20,235.
SPEED OF THE HUDSON RIVER STEAMERS. There are no boats in the world that surpass, or even equal, in splendor and speed, the passage boats that ply on the Hudson river, between New York, Albany, and Troy. A short time since, a trial of speed took place between those magnificent boats, the Hendrick Hudson” and “ Empire.” The “ Hendrick” reached Albany a few minutes after 24 o'clock, and the “ Empire” about an hour after. The “ Hendrick” made Caldwell's in two hours and three minutes, which is forty-five miles from New York ; Poughkeepsie, (eighty miles,) in three hours and thirty-nine minutes. We place this on record us one of the quickest passages yet made.